The problem of human language is studied in the context of the definition “civilization” on the basis of Darwin’s theory. The author defines civilization as “survival of the unfit”. The author supposes that language was invented by the men to describe their heroic deeds for the women in order to be selected by them for reproduction. In other words, language became a selection criterion together with beauty and presents.
This paper concerns Jacques Derrida's reading of S0ren Kierkegaard's interpretation of the biblical story of Abraham's sacrifice. Abraham's decision to listen to God's command and sacrifice to Him his beloved son is based on his personal faith which conflicts with general morality. On the basis of this story, Derrida argues that we often witness similar conflicts between religion and morality, demonstrating that responsibility is ultimately based on something irresponsible, i.e. something secret. The paper finally discusses Derrida's logic of ultimates.
The article reports the findings of a study conducted among 387 consumers regarding their perceptions of the unethicality of business practices of firms and how these affect their response behavior, in terms of trust, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study confirmed that high levels of perceived corporate unethicality decrease consumer trust. This in turn reduces consumer satisfaction, which ultimately has negative effects on customer loyalty. It was also revealed that, although both consumer gender and urbanity have a moderating effect on the (...) link between perceived unethicality and trust, the age group and level of education of the consumer did not exhibit such an effect. With regard to consumer cultural characteristics, both high uncertainty avoidance and low individualism were found to increase the negative impact of business unethicality on trust, as opposed to power distance and masculinity that did not have any moderating effect on this relationship. Implications for managers are extracted from the study findings, as well as directions for future research. (shrink)
Le fragment 129 d'Empédocle fait état du savoir prodigieux et du pouvoir des prapides d'un Super-Sage du passé en qui les sources citatrices et les interprètes modernes reconnaissent trop facilement Pythagore de Samos. Le but de la présente étude est de reprendre à nouveaux frais l'examen de ces six vers afin d'ouvrir le débat autour de la sagesse et des pouvoirs attribués à la figure anonyme du Super-Sage. Interprétant « Empédocle à partir d'Empédocle », mais aussi à l'aide des références (...) culturelles majeures de son temps, on essaie d'examiner quel type de sagesse était attribué à cette figure par le poète philosophe, de quelles conditions, physiologiques ou autres, relève l'acquisition de cette dernière et en quoi consiste son caractère exceptionnel. Empedocle's fragment 129 praises the exceptional knowledge and the power of the prapides of a Super-Sage of the past. In this sage both ancient testimonies and modern interpreters all too easily recognize Pythagoras of Samos. The aim of the present paper is to re-examine these six verses in order to open up the discussion on the wisdom and powers attributed to this unnamed figure. Interpreting « Empedocles by Empedocles », and also taking into account the major cultural references of his time, we try to define what kind of wisdom was attributed to this distinguished sage, under which conditions, physiological or otherwise, he was able to acquire it, and what constitutes the exceptional character of his knowledge. (shrink)
Under Preston & de Waal's proposed model, empathy might be regarded as everything that determines the quality of a social relationship. Although the authors provide a useful heuristic for understanding relationships, clinical research efforts with a somewhat narrower focus have provided some additional insights into this topic, which might lead to testable hypotheses regarding the neurobiology of empathy.
Studies of testosterone's effect on dominance are confounded by the effects of dominance experiences on testosterone. Furthermore, antisocial behavior tends to originate prepubertally, when testosterone levels are the same for aggressive males, nonaggressive males, and females. It seems more parsimonious to view variation in testosterone as an effect of dominance-related mood states than to invoke a reciprocal model.
El artículo presenta las bases históricas del donatismo. Examina el principio del cristianismo donatista, especialmente durante la Gran Persecución de los años 303-305 y más específicamente en 311/12 con la elección del Ceciliano. Señala la interacción entre los donatistas y Constantino y sus sucesores, ilustrando los acontecimientos en torno al emperador Juliano y las innovaciones de los donatistas en las últimas décadas del siglo cuarto, dando una particular importancia al movimiento de los circunceiones y al régimen militar de Gildo. Finalmente, (...) se examina el desarrollo en las p rimeras décadas del siglo quinto, que involucró a Agustín de Hipona y a las autoridades religiosas e imperiales romanas para suprimir la Iglesia donatista. (shrink)
El presente texto analiza la reflexión ontológica de Gilles Deleuze a partir de la noción de “univocidad del Ser”, con el objetivo de exponer su importancia para el pensamiento de la Diferencia que el filósofo francés propone. En su primer movimiento el trabajo expone, resumidamente y de modo cartográfico, la configuración general de la ontología deleuziana y sus principales ejes de reflexión. Enseguida acompaña el itinerario que Deleuze elabora para la determinación de la historia conceptual del pensamiento de la univocidad. (...) Finalmente, el texto aborda el concepto de univocidad según lo piensa y expone el propio Deleuze, verificando, por esta vía, su centralidad para la ontología de nuestra contemporaneidad que el pensador Francés moviliza. Palabras clave : deleuze; ontología; univocidad; diferencia; equivocidad. Centrality of the Notion of ‘Univocity’ in Gilles Deleuze’s OntologyThis paper analyzes Gilles Deleuze’s ontological reflection from the notion of “univocity of Being”, in order to expose its importance for the philosophy of Difference proposed by the French thinker. In its first movement the work briefly exposes the configuration of Deleuze’s ontology and its main axes of reflection. There immediately follows the itinerary set up by Deleuze to determine the conceptual history of the philosophy of univocity. Finally, the paper addresses the concept of univocity as Deleuze thinks of and exposes it, thus verifying its centrality to the ontology of our contemporary times which the French thinker has set in motion. Keywords : Deleuze;Ontology; Univocity; Difference; Equivocity. (shrink)
A assim chamada “Doação de Constantino”, pela qual o papa ter-se-ia tornado senhor temporal, foi julgada, geralmente, de forma negativa pelos pensadores do século XIV (como João Quidort e Ockham), ou como uma ação de duplo efeito (Dante). Marsílio de Pádua a encara sob outro aspecto: a doação mostra que o imperador era superior ao papa e aos demais hierarcas da Igreja. Daí ele deduz que, dentro da sociedade, também da sociedade cristã, o imperador é a autoridade coativa suprema, da (...) qual promana o poder coativo eventualmente exercido pelo papa e os bispos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Doação de Constantino. Poder coativo. Imperador. Papa. ABSTRACT The so called “Constantine Donation”, by which the pope would have become the temporal Lord, was usually regarded negatively by XIV century thinkers (such as John Quidort and William of Ockham), or as a double effect action (Dante). Marsilius of Padua faces such problem in a different approach: the donation shows that the emperor was superior to the pope and to the others in Church hierarchy. Hence he deduces that inside society, also Christian society, the emperor is the supreme coactive authority, from whom all coactive power eventually enforced by the pope and the bishops arise. KEY WORDS – Constantine donation. Coactive power. Emperor. Pope. (shrink)
Under the lig ht of Being and Nothingnesss the o re t ical body Sartres master piece , it is intended to discuss the essential source of human reality as n i h i l a t i o n and ontological lack, as well as manifestations and cons e q u e nces from this primordial human passion to be transformed to coagulated transcendence, to be transformed in Being In-itself-For-itself: to be consciousness and, at the same t i (...) me, to be a complete and finished Being, with infinite de nsity and witho u t fissures. (shrink)
Starting from the antagonism represented by the concurrent projects of JeanPaul Sartre and Michel Foucault in the context of the “sixties”, this article aims to discern the impasses and dilemmas of the theory and the political action in the scope of the contemporary French thought, highlighting the role of intellectuals in the contemporary philosophical time.