Search results for 'Continuum vs. Discrete' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Amit Hagar (2014). Discrete or Continuous? The Quest for Fundamental Length in Modern Physics. Cambridge University Press.score: 225.0
    A book on the notion of fundamental length, covering issues in the philosophy of math, metaphysics, and the history and the philosophy of modern physics, from classical electrodynamics to current theories of quantum gravity. Published (2014) in Cambridge University Press.
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  2. Storrs McCall, Andrew Whitaker & Glyn George, Continuous Vs Discrete Processes: The Probabilistic Evolution of Single Trapped Ions.score: 142.0
    The evolution of a single trapped ion exhibiting intermittent fluorescence and dark periods may be described either as a continuous process, using differential rate equations, or discretely, as a Markov process. The latter models the atom as making instantaneous transitions from one energy eigenstate to another, and is open to the objection that superpositions of energy states will form which are not covered by the Markov process. The superposition objection is replied to, and two new mathematical elements, Markov vectors and (...)
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  3. Michel Le Moal & Pier Vincenzo Piazza (1999). Reconciling Discrete Psychological Typology with a Psychobiological Continuum. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):529-530.score: 126.0
    Structure entails arrangements and interrelations of parts that organize the whole (i.e., personality). It involves stability of traits over time. Extraversion varies along a continuum towards introversion. Multiple behavioral and biological variables in several systems vary and are regulated homeostatically within the normal range. If there is a fixed point for an individual, what inhibits variation in the biological parameter?
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  4. W. W. Breen, M. J. De Haemer & G. K. Poock (1969). Comparison of the Effect of Auditory Versus Visual Stimulation on Information Capacity of Discrete Motor Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):395.score: 78.0
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  5. W. Raney Ellis & John W. Donahoe (1973). Effects of Pre- and Postresponse Shock on Discrimination Performance Using a Discrete-Trials Procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (2):267.score: 78.0
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  6. Harold L. Hawkins, Gerald B. Thomas & Kenneth B. Drury (1970). Perceptual Versus Response Bias in Discrete Choice Reaction Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (3):514.score: 78.0
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  7. Anne-Lise Jouen, Willem B. Verwey, Jurjen Van Der Helden, Christian Scheiber, Remi Neveu, Peter Ford Dominey & Jocelyne Ventre-Dominey (2013). Discrete Sequence Production With and Without a Pause: The Role of Cortex, Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 66.0
    Our sensorimotor experience unfolds in sequences over time. We hypothesize that the processing of movement sequences with and without a temporal pause will recruit distinct but cooperating neural processes, including cortico-striatal and cortico-cerebellar networks. We thus compare neural activity during sequence learning in the presence and absence of this pause. Young volunteer participants learned sensorimotor sequences using the discrete sequence production (DSP) task, with Pause, No-Pause and Control sequences of four elements in an event related fMRI protocol. The No-Pause (...)
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  8. Amit Hagar, Thou Shalt Not Commute!score: 54.0
    For many among the scientifically informed public, and even among physicists, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle epitomizes quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, more than 86 years after its inception, there is no consensus over the interpretation, scope, and validity of this principle. The aim of this chapter is to offer one such interpretation, the traces of which may be found already in Heisenberg's letters to Pauli from 1926, and in Dirac's anticipation of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations from 1927, that stems form the hypothesis of finite (...)
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  9. David Shale (1982). Discrete Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 12 (7):661-687.score: 54.0
    This paper is concerned with tracing the implications of two ideas as they affect quantum theory. One, which descends from Leibniz and Mach, is that there is no space-time continuum, but that which are involved are spacial and temporal relations involving the distant matter of the universe. The other is that our universe is finite. The picture of the world to which we are led is that of an enormous space-time Feynman diagram whose vertices are events. A consequence of (...)
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  10. Jean-Philippe Dalbera & Marie-José Dalbera-Stefanaggi (2004). Grands corpus dialectaux ou la phonologie indiscrète. Corpus 3.score: 48.0
    L’article se propose, à partir de l’expérience de la construction et de l’exploitation des bases de données dialectales de la BDLC (corse) et du THESOC (occitan), de cerner ce qu’un grand corpus est susceptible d’apporter à la phonologie. La réponse, appuyée sur quelques cas d’espèces, fait intervenir trois niveaux : celui de l’établissement des faits à soumettre à l’analyse, celui de la validation des hypothèses émises, celui de la valeur heuristique des données prises en compte. Les faits aléatoirement rassemblés dans (...)
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  11. Louis M. Herman & David R. Bailey (1970). Comparative Effects of Retroactive and Proactive Interference in Motor Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):407.score: 48.0
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  12. Ian Begg (1974). Estimation of Word Frequency in Continuous and Discrete Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1046.score: 42.0
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  13. John Bell, Infinitesimals and the Continuum.score: 36.0
    The opposed concepts of continuity and discreteness have figured prominently in the development of mathematics, and have also commanded the attention of philosophers. Continuous entities may be characterized by the fact that they can be divided indefinitely without altering their essential nature. So, for instance, the water in a bucket may be indefinitely halved and yet remain water. (For the purposes of illustration I ignore the atomic nature of matter which has been established by modern physics.) Discrete entities, on (...)
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  14. C. J. Nix & J. B. Paris (2006). A Continuum of Inductive Methods Arising From a Generalized Principle of Instantial Relevance. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):83 - 115.score: 36.0
    In this paper we consider a natural generalization of the Principle of Instantial Relevance and give a complete characterization of the probabilistic belief functions satisfying this principle as a family of discrete probability functions parameterized by a single real δ ∊ [0, 1).
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  15. Brian Rotman (1996). Counting Information: A Note on Physicalized Numbers. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 6 (2):229-238.score: 36.0
    Existing work on the ultimate limits of computation has urged that the apparatus of real numbers should be eschewed as an investigative tool and replaced by discrete mathematics. The present paper argues for a radical extension of this viewpoint: not only the continuum but all infinitary constructs including the rationals and the potential infinite sequence of whole numbers need to be eliminated if a self-consistent investigative framework is to be achieved.
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  16. R. Arshansky, L. P. Horwitz & Y. Lavie (1983). Particles Vs. Events: The Concatenated Structure of World Lines in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 13 (12):1167-1194.score: 36.0
    The dynamical equations of relativistic quantum mechanics prescribe the motion of wave packets for sets of events which trace out the world lines of the interacting particles. Electromagnetic theory suggests thatparticle world line densities be constructed from concatenation of event wave packets. These sequences are realized in terms of conserved probability currents. We show that these conserved currents provide a consistent particle and antiparticle interpretation for the asymptotic states in scattering processes. The relation between current conservation and unitarity is used (...)
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  17. Constantin Antonopoulos (2010). Static Vs. Dynamic Paradoxes. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (2):241-263.score: 36.0
    There are two antithetical classes of Paradoxes, The Runner and the Stadium, impregnated with infinite divisibility, which show that motion conflicts with the world, and which I call Static. And the Arrow, impregnated with nothing, which shows that motion conflicts with itself, and which I call Dynamic. The Arrow is stationary, because it cannot move at a point; or move, and be at more points than one at the same time, so being where it is not. Despite their contrast, however, (...)
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  18. Aldo Frigerio, Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2013). On Representing Information: A Characterization of the Analog/Digital Distinction. Dialectica 67 (4):455-483.score: 28.0
    The common account of the analog vs digital distinction is based on features of physical systems, being related to the usage of continuous vs discrete supports respectively. It is proposed here to alternatively characterize the concepts of analog and digital as related to coding systems, of which a formal definition is given, by suggesting that the distinction refers to the strategy adopted to define the coding function: extensional in digital systems, isomorphic intensional in analog systems. This thesis is supported (...)
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  19. Louis N. Sandowsky (2005). From Space and Time to the Spacing of Temporal Articulation: A Phenomenological Re-Run of Achilles and the Tortoise. Existentia (1-2).score: 28.0
    In view of the primacy assigned to the 'present' in traditional metaphysics, in terms of the ways in which questions about existence are expressed, the following discussion takes the question of the temporalizing of the present as its theme. This involves unravelling the historical traces of the thought of the present as a finite, closed, objective point of a successive continuum of discrete moments (a real oscillation between the now and the not-now) by returning to the phenomenological sense (...)
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  20. Don Locke (1979). Cognitive Stages or Developmental Phases? A Critique of Kohlberg's Stage‐Structural Theory of Moral Reasoning. Journal of Moral Education 8 (3):168-181.score: 28.0
    Abstract After some preliminary doubts about Kohlberg's method of assessing moral reasoning, his ?stage?structural? theory is criticized under six heads. (1) The claim that the stages constitute structural wholes, representing unified and differentiated patterns of thought: it is argued that the available evidence, and Kohlberg's own methodology, unambiguously implies a developmental continuum, not discrete stage structures. (2) Invariance, which, after counter?evidence led to a revision in the theory, has yet to be demonstrated. (3) Cultural Universality: it is argued (...)
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  21. Ira J. Roseman (2013). Appraisal in the Emotion System: Coherence in Strategies for Coping. Emotion Review 5 (2):141-149.score: 28.0
    Emotions can be understood as a coherent, integrated system of general-purpose coping strategies, guided by appraisal, for responding to situations of crisis and opportunity (when specific-purpose motivational systems may be less effective). This perspective offers functional explanations for the presence of particular emotions in the emotion repertoire, and their elicitation by particular appraisal combinations. Implications of the Emotion System model for debated issues, such as the dimensional vs. discrete nature of appraisals and emotions, are also discussed.
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  22. Robert W. Batterman (2006). Hydrodynamics Versus Molecular Dynamics: Intertheory Relations in Condensed Matter Physics. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):888-904.score: 24.0
    This paper considers the relationship between continuum hydrodynamics and discrete molecular dynamics in the context of explaining the behavior of breaking droplets. It is argued that the idealization of a fluid as a continuum is actually essential for a full explanation of the drop breaking phenomenon and that, therefore, the less "fundamental," emergent hydrodynamical theory plays an ineliminable role in our understanding.
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  23. Graciela De Pierris (2012). Hume on Space, Geometry, and Diagrammatic Reasoning. Synthese 186 (1):169-189.score: 24.0
    Hume’s discussion of space, time, and mathematics at T 1.2 appeared to many earlier commentators as one of the weakest parts of his philosophy. From the point of view of pure mathematics, for example, Hume’s assumptions about the infinite may appear as crude misunderstandings of the continuum and infinite divisibility. I shall argue, on the contrary, that Hume’s views on this topic are deeply connected with his radically empiricist reliance on phenomenologically given sensory images. He insightfully shows that, working (...)
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  24. Michael K. Cundall (2006). Rethinking the Divide: Modules and Central Systems. Philosophia 34 (4):379-393.score: 24.0
    In this paper I argue that the cognitive system is best viewed as a continuum of cognitive processing from modules to central systems rather than having these as discrete and wholly different modes of cognitive processing. I rely on recent evidence on the development of theory of mind (ToM) abilities and the developmental disorder of autism. I then turn to the phenomenology of modular processes. I show that modular outputs have a stronger force than non-modular or central system (...)
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  25. R. N. Sen (2008). Physics and the Measurement of Continuous Variables. Foundations of Physics 38 (4):301-316.score: 24.0
    This paper addresses the doubts voiced by Wigner about the physical relevance of the concept of geometrical points by exploiting some facts known to all but honored by none: Almost all real numbers are transcendental; the explicit representation of any one will require an infinite amount of physical resources. An instrument devised to measure a continuous real variable will need a continuum of internal states to achieve perfect resolution. Consequently, a laboratory instrument for measuring a continuous variable in a (...)
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  26. Stan A. Kuczaj & Lauren E. Highfill (2005). Dolphin Play: Evidence for Cooperation and Culture? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):705-706.score: 24.0
    We agree that human culture is unique. However, we also believe that an understanding of the evolution of culture requires a comparative approach. We offer examples of collaborative behaviors from dolphin play, and argue that consideration should be given to whether various forms of culture are best viewed as falling along a continuum or as discrete categories.
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  27. Richard L. Liboff (1975). Bohr Correspondence Principle for Large Quantum Numbers. Foundations of Physics 5 (2):271-293.score: 24.0
    Periodic systems are considered whose increments in quantum energy grow with quantum number. In the limit of large quantum number, systems are found to give correspondence in form between classical and quantum frequency-energy dependences. Solely passing to large quantum numbers, however, does not guarantee the classical spectrum. For the examples cited, successive quantum frequencies remain separated by the incrementhI −1, whereI is independent of quantum number. Frequency correspondence follows in Planck's limit,h → 0. The first example is that of a (...)
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  28. Judith A. Easton, Lucas D. Schipper & Todd K. Shackelford (2006). Why the Adaptationist Perspective Must Be Considered: The Example of Morbid Jealousy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):411-412.score: 24.0
    We describe delusional disorder–jealous type (“morbid jealousy”) with the adaptationist perspective used by Darwinian psychiatrists and evolutionary psychologists to explain the relatively common existence and continued prevalence of mental disorders. We then apply the “harmful dysfunction” analysis to morbid jealousy, including a discussion of this disorder as (1) an end on a continuum of normal jealousy or (2) a discrete entity. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  29. D. F. M. Strauss (2014). What is a Line? Axiomathes 24 (2):181-205.score: 24.0
    Since the discovery of incommensurability in ancient Greece, arithmeticism and geometricism constantly switched roles. After ninetieth century arithmeticism Frege eventually returned to the view that mathematics is really entirely geometry. Yet Poincaré, Brouwer, Weyl and Bernays are mathematicians opposed to the explication of the continuum purely in terms of the discrete. At the beginning of the twenty-first century ‘continuum theorists’ in France (Longo, Thom and others) believe that the continuum precedes the discrete. In addition the (...)
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  30. John Bell, Chapter.score: 24.0
    Despite the great success of Weierstrass, Dedekind and Cantor in constructing the continuum from arithmetical materials, a number of thinkers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries remained opposed, in varying degrees, to the idea of explicating the continuum concept entirely in discrete terms. These include the mathematicians du Bois-Reymond, Veronese, Poincaré, Brouwer and Weyl, and the philosophers Brentano..
     
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  31. Bruce J. MacLennan, Continuous Formal Systems: A Unifying Model in Language and Cognition.score: 24.0
    The idea of a calculus or discrete formal system is central to traditional models of language, knowledge, logic, cognition and computation, and it has provided a unifying framework for these and other disciplines. Nevertheless, research in psychology, neuroscience, philosophy and computer science has shown the limited ability of this model to account for the flexible, adaptive and creative behavior exhibited by much of the animal kingdom. Promising alternate models replace discrete structures by structured continua and discrete rule-following (...)
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  32. V. G. Thomas & P. G. Kevan (1993). Basic Principles of Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6 (1):1-19.score: 24.0
    In the final analysis, sustainable agriculture must derive from applied ecology, especially the principle of the regulation of the abundance and distribution of species (and, secondarily, their activities) in space and time. Interspecific competition in natural ecosystems has its counterparts in agriculture, designed to divert greater amounts of energy, nutrients, and water into crops. Whereas natural ecosystems select for a diversity of species in communities, recent agriculture has minimized diversity in favour of vulnerable monocultures. Such systems show intrinsically less stability (...)
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  33. E. Di Grezia & S. Esposito (2008). Majorana and the Quasi-Stationary States in Nuclear Physics. Foundations of Physics 38 (3):228-240.score: 24.0
    A complete theoretical model describing artificial disintegration of nuclei by bombardment with α-particles, developed by Majorana as early as 1930, is discussed in detail jointly with the basic experimental evidences that motivated it. By following the quantum dynamics of a state resulting from the superposition of a discrete state with a continuum one, whose interaction is described by a given potential term, Majorana obtained (among the other predictions) the explicit expression for the integrated cross section of the nuclear (...)
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  34. G. F. Chew & H. P. Stapp (1988). Three-Space From Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 18 (8):809-831.score: 24.0
    We formulate a discrete quantum-mechanical precursor to spacetime geometry. The objective is to provide the foundation for a quantum mechanics that is rooted exclusively in quantum-mechanical concepts, with all classical features, including the three-dimensional spatial continuum, emerging dynamically.
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  35. Luis M. Gómez-Laplaza & Robert Gerlai (2012). Activity Counts: The Effect of Swimming Activity on Quantity Discrimination in Fish. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Human infants and nonhuman animals can discriminate the larger of two sets of discrete items. This quantity discrimination may be based upon the number of items, or upon non-numerical variables of the sets that co-vary with number. We have demonstrated that angelfish select the larger of two shoals of conspecifics without using inter-fish distance or space occupied by the stimuli as cues. However, density appeared to influence the choice between large shoals. Here, we examine the role of another non-numerical (...)
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  36. Dfm Strauss (2011). Bernays, Dooyeweerd and Gödel – the Remarkable Convergence in Their Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics. South African Journal of Philosophy 30 (1).score: 24.0
    In spite of differences the thought of Bernays, Dooyeweerd and Gödel evinces a remarkable convergence. This is particularly the case in respect of the acknowledgement of the difference between the discrete and the continuous, the foundational position of number and the fact that the idea of continuity is derived from space (geometry – Bernays). What is furthermore similar is the recognition of what is primitive (and indefinable) as well as the account of the coherence of what is unique, such (...)
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  37. A. D. Alhaidari (2014). Renormalization of the Strongly Attractive Inverse Square Potential: Taming the Singularity. Foundations of Physics 44 (10):1049-1058.score: 24.0
    Quantum anomalies in the inverse square potential are well known and widely investigated. Most prominent is the unbounded increase in oscillations of the particle’s state as it approaches the origin when the attractive coupling parameter is greater than the critical value of 1/4. Due to this unphysical divergence in oscillations, we are proposing that the interaction gets screened at short distances making the coupling parameter acquire an effective (renormalized) value that falls within the weak range 0–1/4. This prevents the oscillations (...)
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  38. Allison M. Barnard, Kelly D. Hughes, Regina R. Gerhardt, Louis DiVincenti Jr, Jenna M. Bovee & Jessica Francine Cantlon (2013). Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio Anubis). Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities 4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span (...)
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  39. John O. Browder (1995). Redemptive Communities: Indigenous Knowledge, Colonist Farming Systems, and Conservation of Tropical Forests. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (1):17-30.score: 24.0
    This essay critically examines the emerging view among some ethnologists that replicable models of sustainable management of tropical forests may be found within the knowledge systems of contemporary indigenous peoples. As idealized epistemological types, several characteristics distinguishing “indigenous” from “modern” knowledge systems are described. Two culturally distinctive land use systems in Latin America are compared, one developed by an indigenous group, the Huastec Maya, and the other characteristic of colonist farms in Rondonia, Brazil. While each of these systems reflects a (...)
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  40. Franson D. Manjali (2000). Meaning, Culture and Cognition. Bahri Publications.score: 24.0
    Machine generated contents note: Preface v -- CRITIQUE -- 1. Culture and Semantics 1 -- 2. What is 'Cartesian' in Linguistics? 8 -- 3. Computer, Brain and Grammatical Theory 22 -- DYNAMICAL SEMANTICS -- 4. From Discrete Signs to Dynamic Semantic Continuum 37 -- 5. Catastrophe Theoretic Semantics: -- Towards a Physics of Meaning 50 -- 6. Ontological and Cognitive Bases of kiraka Theory 60 -- 7. 'Force Dynamics' as a Dynamical Sem-antics Model 72 -- METAPHOR -- 8. (...)
     
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  41. David J. Chalmers, Analog Vs. Digital Computation.score: 18.0
    It is fairly well-known that certain hard computational problems (that is, 'difficult' problems for a digital processor to solve) can in fact be solved much more easily with an analog machine. This raises questions about the true nature of the distinction between analog and digital computation (if such a distinction exists). I try to analyze the source of the observed difference in terms of (1) expanding parallelism and (2) more generally, infinite-state Turing machines. The issue of discreteness vs continuity will (...)
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  42. Luciano Floridi (2009). Against Digital Ontology. Synthese 168 (1):151 - 178.score: 18.0
    The paper argues that digital ontology (the ultimate nature of reality is digital, and the universe is a computational system equivalent to a Turing Machine) should be carefully distinguished from informational ontology (the ultimate nature of reality is structural), in order to abandon the former and retain only the latter as a promising line of research. Digital vs. analogue is a Boolean dichotomy typical of our computational paradigm, but digital and analogue are only “modes of presentation” of Being (to paraphrase (...)
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  43. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2006). Timing in Cognition and EEG Brain Dynamics: Discreteness Versus Continuity. Cognitive Processing 7 (3):135-162.score: 18.0
    This article provides an overview of recent developments in solving the timing problem (discreteness vs. continuity) in cognitive neuroscience. Both theoretical and empirical studies have been considered, with an emphasis on the framework of Operational Architectonics (OA) of brain functioning (Fingelkurts and Fingelkurts, 2001, 2005). This framework explores the temporal structure of information flow and interarea interactions within the network of functional neuronal populations by examining topographic sharp transition processes in the scalp EEG, on the millisecond scale. We conclude, based (...)
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  44. Emilio Santos (forthcoming). Towards a Realistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Providing a Model of the Physical World. Foundations of Science:1-30.score: 18.0
    It is argued that a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is possible and useful. Current interpretations, from “Copenhagen” to “many worlds” are critically revisited. The difficulties for intuitive models of quantum physics are pointed out and possible solutions proposed. In particular the existence of discrete states, the quantum jumps, the alleged lack of objective properties, measurement theory, the probabilistic character of quantum physics, the wave–particle duality and the Bell inequalities are analyzed. The sketch of a realistic picture of the (...)
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  45. Paul B. de Laat (2010). How Can Contributors to Open-Source Communities Be Trusted? On the Assumption, Inference, and Substitution of Trust. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):327-341.score: 12.0
    Open-source communities that focus on content rely squarely on the contributions of invisible strangers in cyberspace. How do such communities handle the problem of trusting that strangers have good intentions and adequate competence? This question is explored in relation to communities in which such trust is a vital issue: peer production of software (FreeBSD and Mozilla in particular) and encyclopaedia entries (Wikipedia in particular). In the context of open-source software, it is argued that trust was inferred from an underlying ‘hacker (...)
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  46. David McNeill, Susan Duncan, Jonathan Cole, Shaun Gallagher & Bennett Bertenthal (2010). Growth Points From the Very Beginning. In M. Arbib D. Bickerton (ed.), The Emergence of Protolanguage: Holophrasis Vs Compositionality. John Benjamins. 117-132.score: 12.0
    Did protolanguage users use discrete words that referred to objects, actions, locations, etc., and then, at some point, combine them; or on the contrary did they have words that globally indexed whole semantic complexes, and then come to divide them? Our answer is: early humans were forming language units consisting of global and discrete dimensions of semiosis in dynamic opposition. These units of thinking-for-speaking, or ‘growth points’ (GPs) were, jointly, analog imagery (visuo-spatio-motoric) and categorically-contrastive (-emic) linguistic encodings. This (...)
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  47. Roy B. Helfgott (1992). Labor Process Theory Vs. Reform in the Workplace. Critical Review 6 (1):11-27.score: 12.0
    Critics of the organization of industrial work under capitalism have ranged from the ?human relations? school to socio?technical systems theorists and, most vociferously, to advocates of labor process theory (LPT). Their practical influence on management was small as long as production was rolling on and profits rolling in. When competition intensified, however, employers started to question old ideas and, abetted by the needs of new computerized technology, began to broaden jobs, allow workers greater discretion in their performance and involve them (...)
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  48. Paul B. Laat (2010). How Can Contributors to Open-Source Communities Be Trusted? On the Assumption, Inference, and Substitution of Trust. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):327-341.score: 12.0
    Open-source communities that focus on content rely squarely on the contributions of invisible strangers in cyberspace. How do such communities handle the problem of trusting that strangers have good intentions and adequate competence? This question is explored in relation to communities in which such trust is a vital issue: peer production of software (FreeBSD and Mozilla in particular) and encyclopaedia entries (Wikipedia in particular). In the context of open-source software, it is argued that trust was inferred from an underlying ‘hacker (...)
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  49. Stojan Obradović & Slobodan Ninković (2009). The Heuristic Function of Mathematics in Physics and Astronomy. Foundations of Science 14 (4):351-360.score: 9.3
    This paper considers the role of mathematics in the process of acquiring new knowledge in physics and astronomy. The defining of the notions of continuum and discreteness in mathematics and the natural sciences is examined. The basic forms of representing the heuristic function of mathematics at theoretical and empirical levels of knowledge are studied: deducing consequences from the axiomatic system of theory, the method of generating mathematical hypotheses, “pure” proofs for the existence of objects and processes, mathematical modelling, the (...)
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  50. Lois Isenman (2009). Digestive Enzyme Secretion, Intuition, and the History of Science: Part II. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 14 (4):331-349.score: 8.0
    A companion paper explored the role of intuition in the genesis of an alternative theory for the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes, looking through the lens of three philosophers/historians of science. Gerald Holton, the last scholar, proposed that scientific imagination is shaped by a number of thematic presuppositions, which function largely below awareness. They come in pairs of opposites that alternately gain cultural preeminence. The current paper examines three thematic presuppositions inherent to both the generally accepted model for digestive enzyme (...)
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