Search results for 'Controls' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Samuel A. W. Evans & Walter D. Valdivia (2012). Export Controls and the Tensions Between Academic Freedom and National Security. Minerva 50 (2):169-190.score: 24.0
    In the U.S.A., advocates of academic freedom—the ability to pursue research unencumbered by government controls—have long found sparring partners in government officials who regulate technology trade. From concern over classified research in the 1950s, to the expansion of export controls to cover trade in information in the 1970s, to current debates over emerging technologies and global innovation, the academic community and the government have each sought opportunities to demarcate the sphere of their respective authority and autonomy and assert (...)
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  2. J. Peterson & L. W. Allison (1931). Controls of the Eye-Wink Mechanism. Journal of Experimental Psychology 14 (2):144.score: 21.0
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  3. Alex London, Placebos That Harm: Sham Surgery Controls in Clinical Trials.score: 18.0
    Recent debates over the use of sham surgery as a control for studies of fetal tissue transplantation for Parkinson’s disease have focused primarily on rival interpretations of the US federal regulations governing human-subjects research. Using the core ethical and methodological considerations that underwrite the equipoise requirement, we nd strong prima facie reasons against using sham surgery as a control in studies of cellular-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease and more broadly in clinical research. Additionally, we believe that these reasons can be (...)
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  4. David Miller (2010). Why Immigration Controls Are Not Coercive: A Reply to Arash Abizadeh. Political Theory 38 (1):111 - 120.score: 18.0
    Abizadeh has argued that because border controls coerce would-be immigrants and invade their autonomy, they are entitled to participate in the democratic institutions that impose those controls. In reply, the author distinguishes between coercion and prevention, shows that prevention need not undermine autonomy, and concludes that although border controls may restrict freedom, they do not give rise to democratic entitlements.
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  5. Doug Roberts-Wolfe, Matthew Sacchet, Elizabeth Hastings, Harold Roth & Willoughby Britton (2012). Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:15.score: 18.0
    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Methods: Fifty-eight (...)
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  6. Iseult Honohan (2014). Domination and Migration: An Alternative Approach to the Legitimacy of Migration Controls. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 17 (1):31-48.score: 18.0
    Freedom as non-domination provides a distinctive criterion for assessing the justifiability of migration controls, different from both freedom of movement and autonomy. Migration controls are dominating insofar as they threaten to coerce potential migrants. Both the general right of states to control migration, and the wide range of discretionary procedures prevalent in migration controls, render outsiders vulnerable to arbitrary power. While the extent and intensity of domination varies, it is sufficient under contemporary conditions of globalization to warrant (...)
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  7. A. Carlo Altamura Elisabetta Caletti, Riccardo A. Paoli, Alessio Fiorentini, Michela Cigliobianco, Elisa Zugno, Marta Serati, Giulia Orsenigo, Paolo Grillo, Stefano Zago, Alice Caldiroli, Cecilia Prunas, Francesca Giusti, Dario Consonni (2013). Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic patients (SKZ) and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in (...)
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  8. P. J. Surkan, G. Steineck & U. Kreicbergs (2008). Perceptions of a Mental Health Questionnaire: The Ethics of Using Population-Based Controls. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (7):545-547.score: 18.0
    Mental health surveys are used extensively in epidemiological research worldwide. The ethical questions that arise regarding their risk of causing psychological distress or other potential harm have not been studied in the general population. We have investigated how study participants serving as controls in a population-based study perceived an anonymous postal questionnaire focusing on mental health and wellbeing. Parents were contacted from the Swedish Census Bureau as part of a larger follow-up study on palliative care conducted in 2001. Eligible (...)
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  9. Elyn R. Saks, Dilip V. Jeste, Eric Granholm, Barton W. Palmer & Lawrence Schneiderman (2002). Ethical Issues in Psychosocial Interventions Research Involving Controls. Ethics and Behavior 12 (1):87 – 101.score: 16.0
    Psychiatric research is of critical importance in improving the care of persons with mental illness. Yet it may also raise difficult ethical issues. This article explores those issues in the context of a particular kind of research: psychosocial intervention research with control groups. We discuss 4 broad categories of ethical issues: consent, confidentiality, boundary violations, and risk-benefit issues. We believe that, despite the potential difficulties, psychosocial intervention research is vital and can be accomplished in an ethical manner. Further discussion and (...)
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  10. Mark D. Sullivan (1993). Placebo Controls and Epistemic Control in Orthodox Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (2):213-231.score: 16.0
    American orthodox medicine consolidated its professional authority in the early 20th Century on the basis of its unbiased scientific method. The centerpiece of such a method is a strategy for identifying truly effective new therapies, i.e., the randomized clinical trial (RCT). A crucial component of the RCT in illnesses without established treatment is the placebo control. Placebo effects must be identified and distinguished from pharmacological effects because placebos produce actual but unexplained therapeutic successes. The blinding necessary for a proper placebo-controlled (...)
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  11. David Demers (2001). Who Controls the Editorial Content at Corporate News Organizations? An Empirical Test of the Managerial Revolution Hypothesis. World Futures 57 (5):395-415.score: 16.0
    Corporate news organizations are often accused of placing more emphasis on profits than on information diversity and other non?profit goals considered crucial for creating or maintaining a political democracy. These charges contradict the managerial revolution hypothesis, which expects that as power shifts from the owners to the professional managers and technocrats, a corporate organization should place less emphasis on profits and more emphasis on non?profit goals. This study reviews the literature on the managerial revolution hypothesis and empirically tests hypotheses related (...)
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  12. Isabela Sallum, Fernanda Mata Mata, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz & Debora Marques Miranda (2013). Staying and Shifting Patterns Across IGT Trials Distinguish Children with Externalizing Disorders From Controls. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 16.0
    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is the most widely instrument used in the assessment of affective decision-making in several populations with frontal impairment. The standard performance measure on the IGT is obtained by calculating the difference between the advantageous and the disadvantageous choices. This standard score does not allows the assessment of the use of different strategies to deal with contingencies of gain and losses across the task. This study aims to compare the standard score method used in IGT with (...)
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  13. Jessica de Villiers, Brooke Myers & Robert J. Stainton (2013). Revisiting Pragmatic Abilities in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-Up Study with Controls. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):253-269.score: 12.0
    In a 2007 paper, we argued that speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) exhibit pragmatic abilities which are surprising given the usual understanding of communication in that group. That is, it is commonly reported that people diagnosed with an ASD have trouble with metaphor, irony, conversational implicature and other non-literal language. This is not a matter of trouble with knowledge and application of rules of grammar. The difficulties lie, rather, in successful communicative interaction. Though we did find pragmatic errors within (...)
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  14. Patricia S. Greenspan (1978). Behavior Control and Freedom of Action. Philosophical Review 87 (April):225-40.score: 11.0
  15. Geoffrey Underwood (1973). Control of Selective Attention and Interference of Processing in Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (1):28-34.score: 11.0
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  16. Maurizio G. Paoletti & David Pimentel (2000). Environmental Risks of Pesticides Versus Genetic Engineering for Agricultural Pest Control. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (3):279-303.score: 10.0
    Despite the application of 2.5 million tons ofpesticides worldwide, more than 40% of all potentialfood production is lost to insect, weed, and plantpathogen pests prior to harvest. After harvest, anadditional 20% of food is lost to another group ofpests. The use of pesticides for pest control resultsin an estimated 26 million human poisonings, with220,000 fatalities, annually worldwide. In the UnitedStates, the environmental and public health costs forthe recommended use of pesticides total approximately$9 billion/yr. Thus, there is a need for alternativenon-chemical (...)
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  17. Eddy J. Davelaar (2011). Processes Versus Representations: Cognitive Control as Emergent, Yet Componential. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):247-252.score: 10.0
    In this commentary, I focus on the difference between processes and representations and how this distinction relates to the question of what is controlled. Despite some views that task switching is a prototypical control process, the analysis concludes that task switching depends on the task goal representation and that control processes are there to prevent goal representations from disintegrating. Over time, these processes become obsolete, leaving behind a representation that automatically controls task performance. The distinction between processes and representations (...)
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  18. Anthony P. Zanesco, Brandon G. King, Katherine A. MacLean & Clifford D. Saron (2013). Executive Control and Felt Concentrative Engagement Following Intensive Meditation Training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (566).score: 10.0
    Various forms of mental training have been shown to improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks. Individuals trained in meditative practices, for example, show generalized improvements on a variety of tasks assessing attentional performance. A central claim of this training, derived from contemplative traditions, posits that improved attentional performance is accompanied by subjective increases in the stability and clarity of concentrative engagement with one’s object of focus, as well as reductions in felt cognitive effort as expertise develops. However, despite frequent claims (...)
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  19. George Ainslie (1997). If Belief is a Behavior, What Controls It? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):103-104.score: 10.0
    “Self-deception” usually occurs when a false belief would be more rewarding than an objective belief in the short run, but less rewarding in the long run. Given hyperbolic discounting of delayed events, people will be motivated in their long-range interest to create self-enforcing rules for testing reality, and in their long-range interest to evade these rules. Self-deception, then, resembles interpersonal deception in being an evasion of rules, but differs in being a product of intertemporal conflict.
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  20. Paquita De Zulueta (2001). Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials and HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Developing Countries. Ethical Imperialism or Unethical Exploitation. Bioethics 15 (4):289–311.score: 10.0
    In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the context, outline the arguments for and against the controversial use of placebo controls, and focus on particular areas that I believe merit further discussion or clarification. On balance, I argue that the researchers failed in their duties to protect the best interests of their research subjects, and to promote distributive justice. I discuss the difficulties of obtaining valid consent in this research context, and argue that it is unethical to (...)
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  21. James R. Anderson (1995). Self-Recognition in Dolphins: Credible Cetaceans; Compromised Criteria, Controls, and Conclusions. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (2):239-243.score: 10.0
  22. Charles T. Snowdon (1998). The Nurture of Nature: Social, Developmental, and Environmental Controls of Aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):384-385.score: 10.0
    Evidence from many species suggests that social, developmental, and cognitive variables are important influences on aggression. Few direct activational or organizational effects of hormones on aggression and dominance are found in nonhuman primates. Female aggression and dominance are relatively frequent and occur with low testosterone levels. Social, cultural, and developmental mechanisms have more important influences on dominance and aggression than hormones.
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  23. Michael Lockwood & G. E. M. Anscombe (1983). Sins of Omission? The Non-Treatment of Controls in Clinical Trials. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 57:207 - 227.score: 10.0
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  24. Jacques G. Richardson (2004). The Bane of “Inhumane” Weapons and Overkill: An Overview of Increasingly Lethal Arms and the Inadequacy of Regulatory Controls. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):667-692.score: 10.0
    Weapons of both defense and offense have grown steadily in their effectiveness—especially since the industrial revolution. The mass destruction of humanity, by parts or in whole, became reality with the advent of toxic agents founded on chemistry and biology or nuclear weapons derived from physics. The military’s new non-combat roles, combined with a quest for non-lethal weapons, may change the picture in regard to conventional defense establishments but are unlikely to deter bellicose tyrants or the new terrorists from using the (...)
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  25. Jean-Pierre Changeux & Stanislas Dehaene (2005). Ongoing Spontaneous Activity Controls Access to Consciousness: A Neuronal Model for Inattentional Blindness. PLoS Biology 3 (5):e141.score: 10.0
    1 INSERM-CEA Unit 562, Cognitive Neuroimaging, Service Hospitalier Fre´de´ric Joliot, Orsay, France, 2 CNRS URA2182 Re´cepteurs and Cognition, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
     
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  26. Terrence F. Ackerman (2002). Therapeutic Beneficence and Placebo Controls. American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):21 – 22.score: 10.0
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  27. Jennifer S. Hawkins (2006). Justice and Placebo Controls. Social Theory and Practice 32 (3):467-496.score: 10.0
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  28. Hans Christoph Micko (2004). On the Impossibility of Empirical Controls of Scientific Theories – From the Point of View of a Psychologist. Foundations of Science 9 (4):405-413.score: 10.0
    . Standard considerations of philosophy of science are reformulated in psychological terms and arguments, suggesting a fundamental change in life perspective: subjective experiences or introspective data are subject to motivational biases and therefore not admitted as objective empirical facts in science, However, we never experience objects or events of the external world, i.e., so called objective facts, but exclusively subjective percepts or mental events. They are merely assumed to, but may or may not be accurate or distorted mental representations of (...)
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  29. Johan Kriel, Steven Haesendonckx, Marta Rubio‐Texeira, Griet Van Zeebroeck & Johan M. Thevelein (2011). From Transporter to Transceptor: Signaling From Transporters Provokes Re‐Evaluation of Complex Trafficking and Regulatory Controls. Bioessays 33 (11):870-879.score: 10.0
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  30. R. L. Albin (2005). Sham Surgery Controls Are Mitigated Trolleys. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (3):149-152.score: 10.0
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  31. Phillip Cole (2012). Taking Moral Equality Seriously: Egalitarianism and Immigration Controls. Journal of International Political Theory 8 (1-2):121-134.score: 10.0
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  32. Robert D. Bell, Ethan A. Winkler, Itender Singh, Abhay P. Sagare, Rashid Deane, Zhenhua Wu, David M. Holtzman, Christer Betsholtz, Annika Armulik & Jan Sallstrom (2012). Apolipoprotein E Controls Cerebrovascular Integrity Via Cyclophilin A. In Jeffrey Kastner (ed.), Nature. Mit Press. 512-516.score: 10.0
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  33. Joan C. Callahan (1994). Let's Get the Lead Out: Or Why Johnson Controls is Not an Unequivocal Victory for Women. Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (3):65-75.score: 10.0
  34. Robert G. Wyckham, Peter M. Banting & Anthony K. P. Wensley (1984). The Language of Advertising: Who Controls Quality? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 3 (1):47 - 53.score: 10.0
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  35. A. C. L. Davies (1997). Regulating Medical Work: Formal and Informal Controls. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (6):389-389.score: 10.0
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  36. Charles J. Kowalski (2002). Placebo Controls: Scientific and Ethical Issues. American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):33 – 34.score: 10.0
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  37. Timothy F. Murphy (1990). Reproductive Controls and Sexual Destiny. Bioethics 4 (2):121–142.score: 10.0
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  38. Yuval Ramot & Ralf Paus (forthcoming). Harnessing Neuroendocrine Controls of Keratin Expression: A New Therapeutic Strategy for Skin Diseases? Bioessays:n/a-n/a.score: 10.0
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  39. Robert Burt & Dax Cowart (1998). Confronting Death Who Chooses, Who Controls? Hastings Center Report 28 (1):14-24.score: 10.0
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  40. Sun Chi-Kuang, Chou Yu-Ying & Harmon-Jones Eddie (2013). Following Erotic Stimuli, Cognitive Inhibitory Responses Are Diminished in Sex Offenders but Enhanced in Healthy Controls. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 10.0
  41. Stephen Cooper & Peter Fantes (1987). On G0 and Cell Cycle Controls. Bioessays 7 (5):220-223.score: 10.0
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  42. Reutens D. (2009). Amygdala Volume and Sociability in Williams Syndrome and Normal Controls. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 10.0
  43. Valery E. Forbes & Peter Calow (2002). Extrapolation in Ecological Risk Assessment: Balancing Pragmatism and Precaution in Chemical Controls Legislation. BioScience 52 (3):249.score: 10.0
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  44. Jackie K. Gollan, Catherine J. Norris, Denada Hoxha, John Stockton Irick, Louise C. Hawkley & John T. Cacioppo (2014). Spatial Affect Learning Restricted in Major Depression Relative to Anxiety Disorders and Healthy Controls. Cognition and Emotion 28 (1):36-45.score: 10.0
  45. Thomas G. Hofmann, Carolina Glas & Nadja Bitomsky (2013). HIPK2: A Tumour Suppressor That Controls DNA Damage‐Induced Cell Fate and Cytokinesis. Bioessays 35 (1):55-64.score: 10.0
  46. Srikantan S. Nagarajan John F. Houde (2011). Speech Production as State Feedback Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 10.0
    Spoken language exists because of a remarkable neural process. Inside a speaker’s brain, an intended message gives rise to neural signals activating the muscles of the vocal tract. The process is remarkable because these muscles are activated in just the right way that the vocal tract produces sounds a listener understands as the intended message. What is the best approach to understanding the neural substrate of this crucial motor control process? One of the key recent modeling developments in neuroscience has (...)
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  47. Salvatore Mannuzza, Bonnie J. Spring, Michael D. Gottlieb & Mitchell L. Kietzman (1980). Visual Detection Threshold Differences Between Psychiatric Patients and Normal Controls. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 15 (2):69-72.score: 10.0
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  48. Tessa Morris-Suzuki (2006). The Wilder Shores of Power: Migration, Border Controls and Democracy in Postwar Japan. Thesis Eleven 86 (1):6-22.score: 10.0
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  49. Stefan Sahm, R. Will & G. Hommel (2005). Would They Follow What has Been Laid Down? Cancer Patients' and Healthy Controls' Views on Adherence to Advance Directives Compared to Medical Staff. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):297-305.score: 10.0
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  50. Charles Weijer, Placebo Controls Are Not Good Science.score: 10.0
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