Search results for 'Convergence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Toby Svoboda (2012). The Ethics of Geoengineering: Moral Considerability and the Convergence Hypothesis. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):243-256.score: 18.0
    Although it could avoid some harmful effects of climate change, sulphate aerosol geoengineering (SAG), or injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere in order to reflect incoming solar radiation, threatens substantial harm to humans and non-humans. I argue that SAG is prima facie ethically problematic from anthropocentric, animal liberationist, and biocentric perspectives. This might be taken to suggest that ethical evaluations of SAG can rely on Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that anthropocentrists and non-anthropocentrists will agree to implement the (...)
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  2. Dima Jamali & Ben Neville (2011). Convergence Versus Divergence of CSR in Developing Countries: An Embedded Multi-Layered Institutional Lens. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (4):599-621.score: 18.0
    This paper capitalizes on an institutional perspective to analyze corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientations in the Lebanese context. Specifically, the paper compiles a new theoretical framework drawing on a multi-level model of institutional flows by Scott (Institutions and organizations: ideas and interests, 2008 ) and the explicit/implicit CSR model by Matten and Moon (Acad Manag Rev 33(2):404–424, 2008 ). This new theoretical framework is then used to explore the CSR convergence versus divergence question in a developing country context. The (...)
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  3. Marion Godman & Sven Ove Hansson (2009). European Public Advice on Nanobiotechnology—Four Convergence Seminars. Nanoethics 3 (1):43-59.score: 18.0
    In order to explore public views on nanobiotechnology (NBT), convergence seminars were held in four places in Europe; namely in Visby (Sweden), Sheffield (UK), Lublin (Poland), and Porto (Portugal). A convergence seminar is a new form of public participatory activity that can be used to deal systematically with the uncertainty associated for instance with the development of an emerging technology like nanobiotechnology. In its first phase, the participants are divided into three “scenario groups” that discuss different future scenarios. (...)
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  4. Daniel R. Patten (2013). Mereology on Topological and Convergence Spaces. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 54 (1):21-31.score: 18.0
    We show that a standard axiomatization of mereology is equivalent to the condition that a topological space is discrete, and consequently, any model of general extensional mereology is indistinguishable from a model of set theory. We generalize these results to the Cartesian closed category of convergence spaces.
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  5. Michael A. Long & Douglas L. Murray (2013). Ethical Consumption, Values Convergence/Divergence and Community Development. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (2):351-375.score: 18.0
    Ethical consumption is on the rise, however little is known about the degree and the implications of the sometime conflicting sets of values held by the broad category of consumers who report consuming ethically. This paper explores convergence and divergence of ethical consumption values through a study of organic, fair trade, and local food consumers in Colorado. Using survey and focus group results, we first examine demographic and attitudinal correlates of ethical consumption. We then report evidence that while many (...)
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  6. David H. Koehler (2001). Instability and Convergence Under Simple-Majority Rule: Results From Simulation of Committee Choice in Two-Dimensional Space. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 50 (4):305-332.score: 18.0
    Nondeterministic models of collective choice posit convergence among the outcomes of simple-majority decisions. The object of this research is to estimate the extent of convergence of majority choice under different procedural conditions. The paper reports results from a computer simulation of simple-majority decision making by committees. Simulation experiments generate distributions of majority-adopted proposals in two-dimensional space. These represent nondeterministic outcomes of majority choice by committees. The proposal distributions provide data for a quantitative evaluation of committee-choice procedures in respect (...)
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  7. Gerhard Schurz (2011). Structural Correspondence Between Theories and Convergence to Truth. Synthese 179 (2):307 - 320.score: 18.0
    This paper utilizes a logical correspondence theorem (which has been proved elsewhere) for the justification of weak conceptions of scientific realism and convergence to truth which do not presuppose Putnam's no-miracles-argument (NMA). After presenting arguments against the reliability of the unrestricted NMA in Sect. 1, the correspondence theorem is explained in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3, historical illustrations of the correspondence theorem are given, and its ontological consequences are worked out. Based on the transitivity of the concept of correspondence, (...)
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  8. Eyvind Martol Briseid (2009). Logical Aspects of Rates of Convergence in Metric Spaces. Journal of Symbolic Logic 74 (4):1401 - 1428.score: 18.0
    In this paper we develop a method for finding, under general conditions, explicit and highly uniform rates of convergence for the Picard iteration sequences for selfmaps on bounded metric spaces from ineffective proofs of convergence to a unique fixed point. We are able to extract full rates of convergence by extending the use of a logical metatheorem recently proved by Kohlenbach. In recent case studies we were able to find such explicit rates of convergence in two (...)
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  9. Marc Sato Maëva Garnier, Laurent Lamalle (2013). Neural Correlates of Phonetic Convergence and Speech Imitation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Speakers unconsciously tend to mimic their interlocutor's speech during communicative interaction. This study aims at examining the neural correlates of phonetic convergence and deliberate imitation, in order to explore whether imitation of phonetic features, deliberate, or unconscious, might reflect a sensory-motor recalibration process. Sixteen participants listened to vowels with pitch varying around the average pitch of their own voice, and then produced the identified vowels, while their speech was recorded and their brain activity was imaged using fMRI. Three degrees (...)
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  10. Jennifer S. Pardo (2013). Measuring Phonetic Convergence in Speech Production. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Phonetic convergence is defined as an increase in the similarity of acoustic-phonetic form between talkers. Previous research has demonstrated phonetic convergence both when a talker listens passively to speech and while talkers engage in social interaction. Much of this research has focused on a diverse array of acoustic-phonetic attributes, with fewer studies incorporating perceptual measures of phonetic convergence. The current paper reviews research on phonetic convergence in both non-interactive and conversational settings, and attempts to consolidate the (...)
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  11. David Smith (2003). Convergence, the University of the Future and the Future of the University. AI and Society 17 (1):1-11.score: 15.0
    The paper questions the ability of current university systems to respond appropriately to the complex demands of an Information Economy. It argues that new relationships between creative subjects and technology require new thinking about the nature and purpose of universities per se. In particular, attention is drawn to the growing involvement of the private sector in higher education. It is argued that it may not be appropriate to think of the `university of the future' in terms of current public sector (...)
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  12. Xiaokang Yu (1994). Lebesgue Convergence Theorems and Reverse Mathematics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (1):1-13.score: 15.0
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  13. Claudio Sacerdoti Coen & Enrico Zoli (2012). Lebesgue's Dominated Convergence Theorem in Bishop's Style. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (2):140 - 150.score: 15.0
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  14. V. W. Grant (1942). Accommodation and Convergence in Visual Space Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (2):89.score: 15.0
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  15. Mathilde Guardiola & Roxane Bertrand (2013). Interactional Convergence in Conversational Storytelling: When Reported Speech is a Cue of Alignment and/or Affiliation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 15.0
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  16. Thomas G. Hermans (1954). The Relationship of Convergence and Elevation Changes to Judgments of Size. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (3):204.score: 15.0
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  17. T. G. Hermans (1937). Visual Size Constancy as a Function of Convergence. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (2):145.score: 15.0
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  18. H. E. Israel (1923). Accommodation and Convergence Under Low Illumination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 6 (3):223.score: 15.0
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  19. Risto Kaila (2002). Convergence Laws for Very Sparse Random Structures with Generalized Quantifiers. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (2):301-320.score: 15.0
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  20. Mikko Ahonen and Mikko Ruohonen Mari Ainasoja, Vivek Kumar (2011). Social Media, Convergence and IT – A Case of Finnish Advertising Sector. Iris 34.score: 15.0
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  21. Takakazu Mori, Mariko Yasugi & Yoshiki Tsujii (2008). Effective Fine‐Convergence of Walsh‐Fourier Series. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (5):519-534.score: 15.0
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  22. Hiroshi Ono, Lance Mitson & Karen Seabrook (1971). Change in Convergence and Retinal Disparities as an Explanation for the Wallpaper Phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (1):1-10.score: 15.0
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  23. Roland C. Travis (1948). Measurement of Accomodation and Convergence Time as Part of Complex Visual Adjustment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):395.score: 15.0
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  24. Y. Tsujii, T. Mori & M. Yasugi (2002). Metrization of the Uniform Space and Effective Convergence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (S1):123-130.score: 15.0
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  25. Luminita Simona Vîta (2003). On Proximal Convergence in Uniform Spaces. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (6):550.score: 15.0
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  26. Luminita Simona Vîta (2003). Proximal and Uniform Convergence on Apartness Spaces. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (3):255.score: 15.0
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  27. Qingfu Zhang (2004). On the Convergence of a Factorized Distribution Algorithm with Truncation Selection. Complexity 9 (4):17-23.score: 15.0
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  28. Sonia Desmoulin-Canselier (2012). What Exactly Is It All About? Puzzled Comments From a French Legal Scholar on the NBIC Convergence. Nanoethics 6 (3):243-255.score: 14.0
    The techno-scientific development has no frontier, but the legal systems still take roots in local and cultural references. French Law is built on a continental model and conveys values and preferences of the French population, including an essential role given to the State and to textual requirements. Until now, French law has been modified to cope with new and emerging technologies issues with the idea that they can be taken one after the other, on the fringes of the classic legal (...)
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  29. G. C. Goddu (2004). Against the "Ordinary Summing" Test for Convergence. Informal Logic 23 (3).score: 14.0
    One popular test for distinguishing linked and convergent argument structures is Robert Yanal's Ordinary Summing Test. Douglas Walton, in his comprehensive survey of possible candidates for the linked/convergent distinction, advocates a particular version of Yanal's test. In a recent article, Alexander Tyaglo proposes to generalize and verifY Yanal's algorithm for convergent arguments, the basis for Yanal's Ordinary Summing Test. In this paper I will argue that Yanal's ordinary summing equation does not demarcate convergence and so his Ordinary Summing Test (...)
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  30. Kevin T. Kelly & Clark Glymour (1989). Convergence to the Truth and Nothing but the Truth. Philosophy of Science 56 (2):185-220.score: 12.0
    One construal of convergent realism is that for each clear question, scientific inquiry eventually answers it. In this paper we adapt the techniques of formal learning theory to determine in a precise manner the circumstances under which this ideal is achievable. In particular, we define two criteria of convergence to the truth on the basis of evidence. The first, which we call EA convergence, demands that the theorist converge to the complete truth "all at once". The second, which (...)
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  31. James Hawthorne (1994). On the Nature of Bayesian Convergence. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:241 - 249.score: 12.0
    The objectivity of Bayesian induction relies on the ability of evidence to produce a convergence to agreement among agents who initially disagree about the plausibilities of hypotheses. I will describe three sorts of Bayesian convergence. The first reduces the objectivity of inductions about simple "occurrent events" to the objectivity of posterior probabilities for theoretical hypotheses. The second reveals that evidence will generally induce converge to agreement among agents on the posterior probabilities of theories only if the convergence (...)
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  32. Laura Schroeter (2013). Normative Realism: Co-Reference Without Convergence? Philosophers' Imprint 13 (13).score: 12.0
    This paper examines whether realists can explain co-reference without appealing to subjects’ ideal convergence in judgment. This question is particularly pressing in the normative domain, since deep disagreement about the applicability of normative predicates suggests that different speakers may not pick out the same property when they use normative terms. Normative realists, we believe, have not been sufficiently aware of the difficulties involved in providing a theory of reference-determination. Our aim in this paper is to clarify the nature of (...)
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  33. Russell Powell (2012). Convergent Evolution and the Limits of Natural Selection. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):355-373.score: 12.0
    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the “tape of life” would result in a radically different evolutionary outcome. Some biologists and philosophers, however, have pointed to convergent evolution as evidence for robust replicability in macroevolution. These authors interpret homoplasy, or the independent origination of similar biological forms, as evidence for the power of natural selection to guide form toward certain morphological attractors, notwithstanding the diversionary tendencies of drift and the constraints of phylogenetic inertia. In this paper, I consider the implications (...)
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  34. Dieter Freundlieb & Wayne Hudson (1998). Convergence and its Limits: Relations Between Analytic and Continental Philosophy. Philosophical Explorations 1 (1):28 – 42.score: 12.0
    In this article, it is argued that a convergence between the (post-)analytic and continental traditions in philosophy is unlikely. Both traditions have fundamentally different approaches to questions concerning consciousness and subjectivity. They also differ in their conception of the role of philosophy, if we are to become autonomous and reflective humans beings.To illustrate this, a comparison is made between the work of the continental philosopher Dieter Henrich and the 'post-analytic' philosopher Thomas Nagel, who is often seen as (...)
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  35. Mark B. Couch (2005). Functional Properties and Convergence in Biology. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1041-1051.score: 12.0
    Evolutionary convergence is often appealed to in support of claims about multiple realization. The idea is that convergence shows that the same function can be realized by different kinds of structures. I argue here that the nature of convergence is more complicated than it might appear at first look. Broad claims about convergence are made by biologists during general discussions of the mechanisms of evolution. In their specialized work, though, biologists are often more limited in the (...)
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  36. Ben A. Minteer & Robert E. Manning (2000). Convergence in Environmental Values: An Empirical and Conceptual Defense. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (1):47 – 60.score: 12.0
    Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that nonanthropocentric and human-based philosophical positions will actually converge on long-sighted, multi-value environmental policy, has drawn a number of criticisms from within environmental philosophy. In particular, nonanthropocentric theorists like J. Baird Callicott and Laura Westra have rejected the accuracy of Norton's thesis, refusing to believe that his model's contextual appeals to a plurality of human and environmental values will be able adequately to provide for the protection of ecological integrity. These theoretical (...)
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  37. George Khushf (2007). Open Questions in the Ethics of Convergence. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (3):299 – 310.score: 12.0
    After historically situating NBIC Convergence in the context of earlier bioethical debate on genetics, ten questions are raised in areas related to the ethics of Convergence, indicating where future research is needed.
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  38. Russell Powell (2007). Is Convergence More Than an Analogy? Homoplasy and its Implications for Macroevolutionary Predictability. Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):565-578.score: 12.0
    A number of authors have pointed to “convergent evolution” as evidence for the central role of natural selection in shaping predictable trajectories of macroevolution. However, there are numerous conceptual and empirical difficulties that arise in broadly appealing to the frequency of homoplasy as evidence for a non-contingently constrained adaptational design space. Most important is the need to distinguish between convergent (externally constrained) and parallel (internally constrained) evolution, and to consider how the respective frequencies of these significantly different sources of homoplasy (...)
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  39. Michael J. Shaffer (2008). Bayesianism, Convergence and Social Epistemology. Episteme 5 (2):pp. 203-219.score: 12.0
    Following the standard practice in sociology, cultural anthropology and history, sociologists, historians of science and some philosophers of science define scientific communities as groups with shared beliefs, values and practices. In this paper it is argued that in real cases the beliefs of the members of such communities often vary significantly in important ways. This has rather dire implications for the convergence defense against the charge of the excessive subjectivity of subjective Bayesianism because that defense requires that communities of (...)
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  40. Karen Kastenhofer (2010). Do We Need a Specific Kind of Technoscience Assessment? Taking the Convergence of Science and Technology Seriously. Poiesis and Praxis 7 (1-2):37-54.score: 12.0
    The presented paper addresses the concept of technoscience and its possible implications for technology assessment. Drawing on the discourse about converging technologies, it formulates the assumption that a general shift within science from epistemic cultures to techno-epistemic cultures lies at the heart of the propagated convergence between nano-, bio-, info- and cogno-sciences and technologies. This shift is adequately captured—so the main thesis—by the technoscience label. The paper elaborates on the shared characteristics of the new technosciences, especially their hybrid character (...)
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  41. K. G. Denbigh & M. L. G. Redhead (1989). Gibbs' Paradox and Non-Uniform Convergence. Synthese 81 (3):283 - 312.score: 12.0
    It is only when mixing two or more pure substances along a reversible path that the entropy of the mixing can be made physically manifest. It is not, in this case, a mere mathematical artifact. This mixing requires a process of successive stages. In any finite number of stages, the external manifestation of the entropy change, as a definite and measurable quantity of heat, isa fully continuous function of the relevant variables. It is only at an infinite and unattainable limit (...)
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  42. Curtis Clements, John D. Neill & O. Scott Stovall (2009). The Impact of Cultural Differences on the Convergence of International Accounting Codes of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):383 - 391.score: 12.0
    The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) has issued a revised “Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants” (IFAC Code). The IFAC Code is intended to be a model code of ethics for national accounting organizations throughout the world. Prior research demonstrates that approximately 50% of IFAC member organizations have adopted the IFAC Code as their organizational code of conduct. There is therefore empirical evidence that international convergence of accounting ethical standards is occurring. We employ Hofstede’s ( 2008 , http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_dimensions.php ) (...)
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  43. Kevin Kelly, Efficient Convergence Implies Ockham's Razor.score: 12.0
    A finite data set is consistent with infinitely many alternative theories. Scientific realists recommend that we prefer the simplest one. Anti-realists ask how a fixed simplicity bias could track the truth when the truth might be complex. It is no solution to impose a prior probability distribution biased toward simplicity, for such a distribution merely embodies the bias at issue without explaining its efficacy. In this note, I argue, on the basis of computational learning theory, that a fixed simplicity bias (...)
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  44. Trevor Pearce (2012). Convergence and Parallelism in Evolution: A Neo-Gouldian Account. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (2):429-448.score: 12.0
    Determining whether a homoplastic trait is the result of convergence or parallelism is central to many of the most important contemporary discussions in biology and philosophy: the relation between evolution and development, the importance of constraints on variation, and the role of contingency in evolution. In this article, I show that two recent attempts to draw a black-or-white distinction between convergence and parallelism fail, albeit for different reasons. Nevertheless, I argue that we should not be afraid of gray (...)
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  45. Elliott Sober (1988). Likelihood and Convergence. Philosophy of Science 55 (2):228-237.score: 12.0
    A common view among statisticians is that convergence (which statisticians call consistency) is a necessary property of an inference rule or estimator. In this paper, this view is challenged by appeal to an example in which a rule of inference has a likelihood rationale but is not convergent. The example helps clarify the significance of the likelihood concept in statistical inference.
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  46. Wafik Boulos Lotfallah (2002). Strong Convergence in Finite Model Theory. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (3):1083-1092.score: 12.0
    In [9] we introduced a new framework for asymptotic probabilities, in which a $\sigma-additive$ measure is defined on the sample space of all sequences $A = $ of finite models, where the universe of An is {1, 2, .., n}. In this framework we investigated the strong 0-1 law for sentences, which states that each sentence either holds in An eventually almost surely or fails in An eventually almost surely. In this paper we define the strong convergence law for (...)
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  47. Glenn Albrecht, Clive R. McMahon, David M. J. S. Bowman & Corey J. A. Bradshaw (2009). Convergence of Culture, Ecology, and Ethics: Management of Feral Swamp Buffalo in Northern Australia. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):361-378.score: 12.0
    This paper examines the identity of Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from different value orientations. Buffalo were introduced into Northern (Top End) Australia in the early nineteenth century. A team of transdisciplinary researchers, including an ethicist, has been engaged in field research on feral buffalo in Arnhem Land over the past three years. Using historical documents, literature review, field observations, interviews with key informants, and interaction with the Indigenous land owners, an understanding of the diverse views on the scientific, cultural, (...)
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  48. Marianne Boenink (2009). Tensions and Opportunities in Convergence: Shifting Concepts of Disease in Emerging Molecular Medicine. [REVIEW] Nanoethics 3 (3):243-255.score: 12.0
    The convergence of biomedical sciences with nanotechnology as well as ICT has created a new wave of biomedical technologies, resulting in visions of a ‘molecular medicine’. Since novel technologies tend to shift concepts of disease and health, this paper investigates how the emerging field of molecular medicine may shift the meaning of ‘disease’ as well as the boundary between health and disease. It gives a brief overview of the development towards and the often very speculative visions of molecular medicine. (...)
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  49. Sarah McGrath (2010). Moral Realism Without Convergence. Philosophical Topics 38 (2):59-90.score: 12.0
    It is sometimes claimed that if moral realism is true, then rational and informed individuals would not disagree about morality. According to this line of thought, the moral realist is committed to an extremely substantive convergence thesis, one that might very well turn out to be false. Although this idea has been accepted by prominent moral realists as well as by antirealists, I argue that we have no reason to think that it is true, and that the only (...) claims to which the realist is committed are trivial ones. (shrink)
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  50. Malcolm Parker (2007). Two Into One Won't Go: Conceptual, Clinical, Ethical and Legal Impedimenta to the Convergence of Cam and Orthodox Medicine. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):7-19.score: 12.0
    The convergence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a prominent feature of healthcare in western countries, but it is currently undertheorised, and its implications have been insufficiently considered. Two models of convergence are described – the totally integrated evidence-based model (TI) and the multicultural-pluralistic model (MP). Both models are being incorporated into general medical practice. Against the background of the reasons for the increasing utilisation of CAM by the public and by general practitioners, (...)
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