Search results for 'Convergence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  17
    Dima Jamali & Ben Neville (2011). Convergence Versus Divergence of CSR in Developing Countries: An Embedded Multi-Layered Institutional Lens. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (4):599-621.
    This paper capitalizes on an institutional perspective to analyze corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientations in the Lebanese context. Specifically, the paper compiles a new theoretical framework drawing on a multi-level model of institutional flows by Scott (Institutions and organizations: ideas and interests, 2008 ) and the explicit/implicit CSR model by Matten and Moon (Acad Manag Rev 33(2):404–424, 2008 ). This new theoretical framework is then used to explore the CSR convergence versus divergence question in a developing country context. The (...)
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  2.  64
    Eric Hochstein (2015). Giving Up on Convergence and Autonomy: Why the Theories of Psychology and Neuroscience Are Codependent as Well as Irreconcilable. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A:1-19.
    There is a long-standing debate in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of science regarding how best to interpret the relationship between neuroscience and psychology. It has traditionally been argued that either the two domains will evolve and change over time until they converge on a single unified account of human behaviour, or else that they will continue to work in isolation given that they identify properties and states that exist autonomously from one another (due to the multiple-realizability of psychological (...)
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  3.  24
    Marion Godman & Sven Ove Hansson (2009). European Public Advice on Nanobiotechnology—Four Convergence Seminars. NanoEthics 3 (1):43-59.
    In order to explore public views on nanobiotechnology (NBT), convergence seminars were held in four places in Europe; namely in Visby (Sweden), Sheffield (UK), Lublin (Poland), and Porto (Portugal). A convergence seminar is a new form of public participatory activity that can be used to deal systematically with the uncertainty associated for instance with the development of an emerging technology like nanobiotechnology. In its first phase, the participants are divided into three “scenario groups” that discuss different future scenarios. (...)
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  4. Toby Svoboda (2012). The Ethics of Geoengineering: Moral Considerability and the Convergence Hypothesis. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):243-256.
    Although it could avoid some harmful effects of climate change, sulphate aerosol geoengineering (SAG), or injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere in order to reflect incoming solar radiation, threatens substantial harm to humans and non-humans. I argue that SAG is prima facie ethically problematic from anthropocentric, animal liberationist, and biocentric perspectives. This might be taken to suggest that ethical evaluations of SAG can rely on Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that anthropocentrists and non-anthropocentrists will agree to implement the (...)
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  5.  17
    Michael A. Long & Douglas L. Murray (2013). Ethical Consumption, Values Convergence/Divergence and Community Development. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (2):351-375.
    Ethical consumption is on the rise, however little is known about the degree and the implications of the sometime conflicting sets of values held by the broad category of consumers who report consuming ethically. This paper explores convergence and divergence of ethical consumption values through a study of organic, fair trade, and local food consumers in Colorado. Using survey and focus group results, we first examine demographic and attitudinal correlates of ethical consumption. We then report evidence that while many (...)
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  6.  2
    Eyvind Martol Briseid (2009). Logical Aspects of Rates of Convergence in Metric Spaces. Journal of Symbolic Logic 74 (4):1401 - 1428.
    In this paper we develop a method for finding, under general conditions, explicit and highly uniform rates of convergence for the Picard iteration sequences for selfmaps on bounded metric spaces from ineffective proofs of convergence to a unique fixed point. We are able to extract full rates of convergence by extending the use of a logical metatheorem recently proved by Kohlenbach. In recent case studies we were able to find such explicit rates of convergence in two (...)
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  7.  4
    Luminita Simona Vîta (2003). Proximal and Uniform Convergence on Apartness Spaces. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (3):255.
    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate constructively the relationship between proximal convergence, uniform sequential convergence and uniform convergence for sequences of mappings between apartness spaces. It is also shown that if the second space satisfies the Efremovic axiom, then proximal convergence preserves strong continuity.
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  8.  23
    Daniel R. Patten (2013). Mereology on Topological and Convergence Spaces. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 54 (1):21-31.
    We show that a standard axiomatization of mereology is equivalent to the condition that a topological space is discrete, and consequently, any model of general extensional mereology is indistinguishable from a model of set theory. We generalize these results to the Cartesian closed category of convergence spaces.
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  9.  1
    Xiaokang Yu (1994). Lebesgue Convergence Theorems and Reverse Mathematics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (1):1-13.
    Concepts of L1 space, integrable functions and integrals are formalized in weak subsystems of second order arithmetic. They are discussed especially in relation with the combinatorial principle WWKL (weak-weak König's lemma and arithmetical comprehension. Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem is proved to be equivalent to arithmetical comprehension. A weak version of Lebesgue monotone convergence theorem is proved to be equivalent to weak-weak König's lemma.
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  10.  22
    David H. Koehler (2001). Instability and Convergence Under Simple-Majority Rule: Results From Simulation of Committee Choice in Two-Dimensional Space. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 50 (4):305-332.
    Nondeterministic models of collective choice posit convergence among the outcomes of simple-majority decisions. The object of this research is to estimate the extent of convergence of majority choice under different procedural conditions. The paper reports results from a computer simulation of simple-majority decision making by committees. Simulation experiments generate distributions of majority-adopted proposals in two-dimensional space. These represent nondeterministic outcomes of majority choice by committees. The proposal distributions provide data for a quantitative evaluation of committee-choice procedures in respect (...)
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  11.  10
    Gerhard Schurz (2011). Structural Correspondence Between Theories and Convergence to Truth. Synthese 179 (2):307 - 320.
    This paper utilizes a logical correspondence theorem (which has been proved elsewhere) for the justification of weak conceptions of scientific realism and convergence to truth which do not presuppose Putnam's no-miracles-argument (NMA). After presenting arguments against the reliability of the unrestricted NMA in Sect. 1, the correspondence theorem is explained in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3, historical illustrations of the correspondence theorem are given, and its ontological consequences are worked out. Based on the transitivity of the (...)
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  12.  3
    Takakazu Mori, Mariko Yasugi & Yoshiki Tsujii (2008). Effective Fine‐Convergence of Walsh‐Fourier Series. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (5):519-534.
    We define the effective integrability of Fine-computable functions and effectivize some fundamental limit theorems in the theory of Lebesgue integrals such as the Bounded Convergence Theorem, the Dominated Convergence Theorem, and the Second Mean Value Theorem. It is also proved that the Walsh-Fourier coefficients of an effectively integrable Fine-computable function form a Euclidian computable sequence of reals which converges effectively to zero. This property of convergence is the effectivization of the Walsh-Riemann-Lebesgue Theorem. The article is closed with (...)
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  13.  2
    Risto Kaila (2002). Convergence Laws for Very Sparse Random Structures with Generalized Quantifiers. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (2):301-320.
    We prove convergence laws for logics of the form equation image, where equation image is a properly chosen collection of generalized quantifiers, on very sparse finite random structures. We also study probabilistic collapsing of the logics equation image, where equation image is a collection of generalized quantifiers and k ∈ ℕ+, under arbitrary probability measures of finite structures.
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  14.  1
    Luminita Simona Vîta (2003). On Proximal Convergence in Uniform Spaces. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (6):550.
    The paper deals with proximal convergence and Leader's theorem, in the constructive theory of uniform apartness spaces.
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  15.  15
    David Smith (2003). Convergence, the University of the Future and the Future of the University. AI and Society 17 (1):1-11.
    The paper questions the ability of current university systems to respond appropriately to the complex demands of an Information Economy. It argues that new relationships between creative subjects and technology require new thinking about the nature and purpose of universities per se. In particular, attention is drawn to the growing involvement of the private sector in higher education. It is argued that it may not be appropriate to think of the `university of the future' in terms of current public sector (...)
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  16.  1
    Y. Tsujii, T. Mori & M. Yasugi (2002). Metrization of the Uniform Space and Effective Convergence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (S1):123-130.
    The subject of the present article is the following fact. Consider an effective uniform space. A generally constructed metric from the uniformity has the property that a sequence from the space effectively converges with respect to the uniform topology if and only if it does with respect to the induced metric. This can be shown without assuming the computability of the metric.
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  17.  8
    Qingfu Zhang (2004). On the Convergence of a Factorized Distribution Algorithm with Truncation Selection. Complexity 9 (4):17-23.
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  18.  3
    V. W. Grant (1942). Accommodation and Convergence in Visual Space Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (2):89.
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  19.  4
    Claudio Sacerdoti Coen & Enrico Zoli (2012). Lebesgue's Dominated Convergence Theorem in Bishop's Style. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (2):140 - 150.
  20.  2
    Thomas G. Hermans (1954). The Relationship of Convergence and Elevation Changes to Judgments of Size. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (3):204.
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  21.  2
    T. G. Hermans (1937). Visual Size Constancy as a Function of Convergence. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (2):145.
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  22.  3
    Hiroshi Ono, Lance Mitson & Karen Seabrook (1971). Change in Convergence and Retinal Disparities as an Explanation for the Wallpaper Phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (1):1-10.
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  23.  1
    H. E. Israel (1923). Accommodation and Convergence Under Low Illumination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 6 (3):223.
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  24.  1
    Mikko Ahonen and Mikko Ruohonen Mari Ainasoja, Vivek Kumar (2011). Social Media, Convergence and IT – A Case of Finnish Advertising Sector. Iris 34.
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  25.  1
    Roland C. Travis (1948). Measurement of Accomodation and Convergence Time as Part of Complex Visual Adjustment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):395.
  26.  26
    Paul Billingham (forthcoming). Review Essay: Consensus, Convergence, Restraint, and Religion. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    This essay critically assesses the central claim of Kevin Vallier’s Liberal Politics and Public Faith: that public religious faith and public reason liberalism can be reconciled, because the values underlying public reason liberalism should lead us to endorse the ‘convergence view’, rather than the mainstream consensus view. The convergence view is friendlier to religious faith, because it jettisons the consensus view’s much-criticised ‘duty of restraint’. I present several challenges to Vallier’s claim. Firstly, if Vallier is right to reject (...)
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  27.  71
    Paul Billingham (forthcoming). Convergence Justifications Within Political Liberalism: A Defence. Res Publica:1-19.
    According to political liberalism, laws must be justified to all citizens in order to be legitimate. Most political liberals have taken this to mean that laws must be justified by appeal to a specific class of ‘public reasons’, which all citizens can accept. In this paper I defend an alternative, convergence, model of public justification, according to which laws can be justified to different citizens by different reasons, including reasons grounded in their comprehensive doctrines. I consider three objections (...)
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  28.  62
    Laura Schroeter (2013). Normative Realism: Co-Reference Without Convergence? Philosophers' Imprint 13 (13).
    This paper examines whether realists can explain co-reference without appealing to subjects’ ideal convergence in judgment. This question is particularly pressing in the normative domain, since deep disagreement about the applicability of normative predicates suggests that different speakers may not pick out the same property when they use normative terms. Normative realists, we believe, have not been sufficiently aware of the difficulties involved in providing a theory of reference-determination. Our aim in this paper is to clarify the nature of (...)
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  29.  3
    Simon M. Huttegger (2015). Bayesian Convergence to the Truth and the Metaphysics of Possible Worlds. Philosophy of Science 82 (4):587-601.
    In a recent paper, Belot argues that Bayesians are epistemologically flawed because they believe with probability 1 that they will learn the truth about observational propositions in the limit. While Belot’s considerations suggest that this result should be interpreted with some care, the concerns he raises can largely be defused by putting convergence to the truth in the context of learning from an arbitrarily large but finite number of observations.
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  30.  31
    Trevor Pearce (2012). Convergence and Parallelism in Evolution: A Neo-Gouldian Account. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (2):429-448.
    Determining whether a homoplastic trait is the result of convergence or parallelism is central to many of the most important contemporary discussions in biology and philosophy: the relation between evolution and development, the importance of constraints on variation, and the role of contingency in evolution. In this article, I show that two recent attempts to draw a black-or-white distinction between convergence and parallelism fail, albeit for different reasons. Nevertheless, I argue that we should not be afraid of gray (...)
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  31.  10
    Daniel Tschopp & Michael Nastanski (2013). The Harmonization and Convergence of Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting Standards. Journal of Business Ethics 125 (1):1-16.
    The goal of this article is to evaluate the future of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting in terms of the harmonization of reporting standards. The evolution and convergence of financial reporting standards are compared to that of CSR reporting standards. In addition, four globally recognized CSR reporting standards are evaluated. The content of each standard is reviewed, a representative from each standard organization is interviewed, and the standards are evaluated for decision usefulness. This research suggests that the Global Reporting (...)
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  32.  16
    Karim Jebari & Sven-Ove Hansson (2013). European Public Deliberation on Brain Machine Interface Technology: Five Convergence Seminars. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1071-1086.
    We present a novel procedure to engage the public in ethical deliberations on the potential impacts of brain machine interface technology. We call this procedure a convergence seminar, a form of scenario-based group discussion that is founded on the idea of hypothetical retrospection. The theoretical background of this procedure and the results of five seminars are presented.
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  33.  31
    Mark B. Couch (2005). Functional Properties and Convergence in Biology. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1041-1051.
    Evolutionary convergence is often appealed to in support of claims about multiple realization. The idea is that convergence shows that the same function can be realized by different kinds of structures. I argue here that the nature of convergence is more complicated than it might appear at first look. Broad claims about convergence are made by biologists during general discussions of the mechanisms of evolution. In their specialized work, though, biologists are often more limited in the (...)
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  34.  22
    James W. Boettcher (2015). Against the Asymmetric Convergence Model of Public Justification. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (1):191-208.
    Compared to standard liberal approaches to public reason and justification, the asymmetric convergence model of public justification allows for the public justification of laws and policies based on a convergence of quite different and even publicly inaccessible reasons. The model is asymmetrical in the sense of identifying a broader range of reasons that may function as decisive defeaters of proposed laws and policies. This paper raises several critical questions about the asymmetric convergence model and its central but (...)
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  35.  1
    Jamie Fletcher & Jane Marriott (2014). Beyond the Market: The Role of Constitutions in Health Care System Convergence in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 42 (4):455-474.
    Health care reform in the United States and United Kingdom has resulted in the cross-fertilization of policy. The “new” health care models adopted by the two jurisdictions utilize free market principles for reasons of quality, efficiency, and cost, but also feature characteristics of a state-run model, through the provision of a safety net for citizens and a buffer against the commodification of health. In this sense, the health care systems of the US and UK are more congruent than they were. (...)
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  36.  27
    Malcolm Parker (2007). Two Into One Won't Go: Conceptual, Clinical, Ethical and Legal Impedimenta to the Convergence of Cam and Orthodox Medicine. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):7-19.
    The convergence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a prominent feature of healthcare in western countries, but it is currently undertheorised, and its implications have been insufficiently considered. Two models of convergence are described – the totally integrated evidence-based model (TI) and the multicultural-pluralistic model (MP). Both models are being incorporated into general medical practice. Against the background of the reasons for the increasing utilisation of CAM by the public and by general practitioners, (...)
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  37.  29
    Russell Powell (2007). Is Convergence More Than an Analogy? Homoplasy and its Implications for Macroevolutionary Predictability. Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):565-578.
    A number of authors have pointed to “convergent evolution” as evidence for the central role of natural selection in shaping predictable trajectories of macroevolution. However, there are numerous conceptual and empirical difficulties that arise in broadly appealing to the frequency of homoplasy as evidence for a non-contingently constrained adaptational design space. Most important is the need to distinguish between convergent (externally constrained) and parallel (internally constrained) evolution, and to consider how the respective frequencies of these significantly different sources of homoplasy (...)
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  38. Wafik Boulos Lotfallah (2002). Strong Convergence in Finite Model Theory. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (3):1083-1092.
    In [9] we introduced a new framework for asymptotic probabilities, in which a $\sigma-additive$ measure is defined on the sample space of all sequences $A = $ of finite models, where the universe of An is {1, 2, .., n}. In this framework we investigated the strong 0-1 law for sentences, which states that each sentence either holds in An eventually almost surely or fails in An eventually almost surely. In this paper we define the strong convergence law for (...)
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  39.  6
    Martin L. Jönsson (2013). Linguistic Convergence in Verbs for Belief-Forming Processes. Philosophical Psychology 28 (1):114-138.
    This paper has two goals. First, it aims to investigate the empirical assumptions of a recent proposal due to Olsson (forthcoming), according to which the generality problem for process-reliabilism can be approached by recruiting patterns and models from the basic-level research in cognitive psychology. Second, the paper attempts to generalize findings in the basic-level literature pertaining to concrete nouns to the abstract verbs that denote belief-forming processes. I will demonstrate that verbs for belief-forming processes exhibit the kind of linguistic (...) that is characteristic of basic-level words, although these words are not neatly taxonomically organized or associated with large feature sets. Next, I will evaluate and partially validate Olsson's proposal in light of these findings. I will provide some discussion of possible explanations of the results are discussed, as well as the impact these results have for structural models of basic-level advantage, and for the feasibility of the explanatory strategy that these models presuppose. Finally, I will conclude that even though no particular model is compromised by these results, they call into question the underlying explanatory strategy by highlighting its parochial nature. (shrink)
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  40.  85
    Kevin T. Kelly & Clark Glymour (1989). Convergence to the Truth and Nothing but the Truth. Philosophy of Science 56 (2):185-220.
    One construal of convergent realism is that for each clear question, scientific inquiry eventually answers it. In this paper we adapt the techniques of formal learning theory to determine in a precise manner the circumstances under which this ideal is achievable. In particular, we define two criteria of convergence to the truth on the basis of evidence. The first, which we call EA convergence, demands that the theorist converge to the complete truth "all at once". The second, which (...)
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  41.  82
    Alejandra Mancilla (2012). Noncivil Disobedience and the Right of Necessity. A Point of Convergence. Krisis 3:3-15.
    Given the conceptual gap in the global justice debate today (where most of the talk is about the duties of the rich, but little is said about what the poor may do for themselves), in this article I reintroduce the idea of a right of necessity. I first delineate a normative framework for such a right, inspired by these historical accounts. I then offer a contemporary case where the exercise of the right of necessity would be morally legitimate (...)
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  42.  34
    Sarah McGrath (2010). Moral Realism Without Convergence. Philosophical Topics 38 (2):59-90.
    It is sometimes claimed that if moral realism is true, then rational and informed individuals would not disagree about morality. According to this line of thought, the moral realist is committed to an extremely substantive convergence thesis, one that might very well turn out to be false. Although this idea has been accepted by prominent moral realists as well as by antirealists, I argue that we have no reason to think that it is true, and that the only (...) claims to which the realist is committed are trivial ones. (shrink)
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  43.  16
    Marianne Boenink (2009). Tensions and Opportunities in Convergence: Shifting Concepts of Disease in Emerging Molecular Medicine. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):243-255.
    The convergence of biomedical sciences with nanotechnology as well as ICT has created a new wave of biomedical technologies, resulting in visions of a ‘molecular medicine’. Since novel technologies tend to shift concepts of disease and health, this paper investigates how the emerging field of molecular medicine may shift the meaning of ‘disease’ as well as the boundary between health and disease. It gives a brief overview of the development towards and the often very speculative visions of molecular medicine. (...)
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  44.  29
    Michael J. Shaffer (2008). Bayesianism, Convergence and Social Epistemology. Episteme 5 (2):pp. 203-219.
    Following the standard practice in sociology, cultural anthropology and history, sociologists, historians of science and some philosophers of science define scientific communities as groups with shared beliefs, values and practices. In this paper it is argued that in real cases the beliefs of the members of such communities often vary significantly in important ways. This has rather dire implications for the convergence defense against the charge of the excessive subjectivity of subjective Bayesianism because that defense requires that communities of (...)
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  45.  12
    Marie-Hélène Parizeau (2012). Towards an Ethic of Technology? Nanotechnology and the Convergence of Applied Ethics. Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):293-302.
    The hypothesis I develop involves that we have been witnessing, during the last ten years or so, an interpenetration in the area of applied ethics of certain concepts originally belonging to different areas of ethics, namely bioethics, environmental ethics, and also business ethics. Certain concepts such as “future generations,” “consent,” “precautionary principle,” “intrinsic value,” “global governance,” “sustainable development,” or “scientific uncertainty” are becoming “thick ethical concepts,” in the terminology of metaethics; or in the terminology of American pragmatism: “living beliefs.” They (...)
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  46.  12
    Marie-Hélène Parizeau (2012). Towards an Ethic of Technology? Nanotechnology and the Convergence of Applied Ethics. Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):293-302.
    The hypothesis I develop involves that we have been witnessing, during the last ten years or so, an interpenetration in the area of applied ethics of certain concepts originally belonging to different areas of ethics, namely bioethics, environmental ethics, and also business ethics. Certain concepts such as “future generations,” “consent,” “precautionary principle,” “intrinsic value,” “global governance,” “sustainable development,” or “scientific uncertainty” are becoming “thick ethical concepts,” in the terminology of metaethics; or in the terminology of American pragmatism: “living beliefs.” They (...)
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  47.  12
    Marie-Hélène Parizeau (2012). Towards an Ethic of Technology? Nanotechnology and the Convergence of Applied Ethics. Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):293-302.
    The hypothesis I develop involves that we have been witnessing, during the last ten years or so, an interpenetration in the area of applied ethics of certain concepts originally belonging to different areas of ethics, namely bioethics, environmental ethics, and also business ethics. Certain concepts such as “future generations,” “consent,” “precautionary principle,” “intrinsic value,” “global governance,” “sustainable development,” or “scientific uncertainty” are becoming “thick ethical concepts,” in the terminology of metaethics; or in the terminology of American pragmatism: “living beliefs.” They (...)
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  48.  21
    K. G. Denbigh & M. L. G. Redhead (1989). Gibbs' Paradox and Non-Uniform Convergence. Synthese 81 (3):283 - 312.
    It is only when mixing two or more pure substances along a reversible path that the entropy of the mixing can be made physically manifest. It is not, in this case, a mere mathematical artifact. This mixing requires a process of successive stages. In any finite number of stages, the external manifestation of the entropy change, as a definite and measurable quantity of heat, isa fully continuous function of the relevant variables. It is only at an infinite and unattainable limit (...)
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  49.  27
    Joachim Schummer, From Nano-Convergence to NBIC-Convergence: “The Best Way to Predict the Future is to Create It”.
    This chapter combines rhetorical with conceptual analysis to argue that the concept of convergence of technologies is a teleological concept that does not describe or predict any recent past, present, or future development. Instead it always expresses or attributes political goals of how future technology should be developed. The concept was already fully developed as a flexible rhetorical tool by US science administrators to create nanotechnology (as nano-convergence), before it was broadened to invent the convergence of nano-, (...)
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  50.  33
    Ben A. Minteer & Robert E. Manning (2000). Convergence in Environmental Values: An Empirical and Conceptual Defense. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (1):47 – 60.
    Bryan Norton 's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that nonanthropocentric and human-based philosophical positions will actually converge on long-sighted, multi-value environmental policy, has drawn a number of criticisms from within environmental philosophy. In particular, nonanthropocentric theorists like J. Baird Callicott and Laura Westra have rejected the accuracy of Norton 's thesis, refusing to believe that his model's contextual appeals to a plurality of human and environmental values will be able adequately to provide for the protection of ecological integrity. These theoretical (...)
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