Search results for 'Courage' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    Mark L. Howe, Mary L. Courage & Carole Peterson (1994). How Can I Remember When "I" Wasn′T There: Long-Term Retention of Traumatic Experiences and Emergence of the Cognitive Self. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (3-4):327-355.
    In this article, we focus on two issues, namely, the nature and onset of very early personal memories, especially for traumatic events, and the role of stress in long-term retention. We begin by outlining a theory of early autobiographical memory, one whose unfolding is coincident with emergence of the cognitive self. It is argued that it is not until this self emerges that personal memories will remain viable over extended periods of time. We illustrate this with 25 cases of young (...)
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  2.  1
    Richard A. Courage (2012). Re-Presenting Racial Reality:Chicago’s New Negro Artists of the Depression Era. Technoetic Arts 10 (2):309-318.
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  3. On Manly Courage (forthcoming). A Study of Plato's Laches. Philosophical Explorations. Carbondale, Il: Southern Illinois University Press.
     
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  4.  49
    Leslie E. Sekerka, Richard P. Bagozzi & Richard Charnigo (2009). Facing Ethical Challenges in the Workplace: Conceptualizing and Measuring Professional Moral Courage. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):565-579.
    Scholars have shown renewed interest in the construct of courage. Recent studies have explored its theoretical underpinnings and measurement. Yet courage is generally discussed in its broad form to include physical, psychological, and moral features. To understand a more practical form of moral courage, research is needed to uncover how ethical challenges are effectively managed in organizational settings. We argue that professional moral courage is a managerial competency. To describe it and derive items for scale development, (...)
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  5.  15
    Douglas R. May, Matthew T. Luth & Catherine E. Schwoerer (2013). The Influence of Business Ethics Education on Moral Efficacy, Moral Meaningfulness, and Moral Courage: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Journal of Business Ethics 124 (1):1-14.
    The research described here contributes to the extant empirical research on business ethics education by examining outcomes drawn from the literature on positive organizational scholarship (POS). The general research question explored is whether a course on ethical decision-making in business could positively influence students’ confidence in their abilities to handle ethical problems at work (i.e., moral efficacy), boost the relative importance of ethics in their work lives (i.e., moral meaningfulness), and encourage them to be (...)
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  6.  74
    Howard Harris (2001). Content Analysis of Secondary Data: A Study of Courage in Managerial Decision Making. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):191 - 208.
    Empirical studies in business ethics often rely on self-reported data, but this reliance is open to criticism. Responses to questionnaires and interviews may be influenced by the subject's view of what the researcher might want to hear, by a reluctance to talk about sensitive ethical issues, and by imperfect recall. This paper reviews the extent to which published research in business ethics relies on interviews and questionnaires, and then explores the possibilities of using secondary data, such as company documents (...)
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  7.  28
    Peter Olsthoorn (2007). Courage in the Military: Physical and Moral. Journal of Military Ethics 6 (4):270-279.
    The first section of this article argues that the best-known definition of physical courage, stemming from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, is less than fit for today's military. Having done so, a short outline is given of more scientific approaches to physical courage, drawing mainly on insights offered by psychologists, and of the problems that are inherent to these approaches. Subsequently, the article turns to a topic that is often paid lip service to in the military, yet remains somewhat hard (...)
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  8.  35
    Angela Hobbs (2000/2006). Plato and the Hero: Courage, Manliness, and the Impersonal Good. Cambridge University Press.
    Plato's thinking on courage, manliness and heroism is both profound and central to his work, but these areas of his thought remain underexplored. This book examines his developing critique of the notions and embodiments of manliness prevalent in his culture (particularly those in Homer), and his attempt to redefine such notions in accordance with his ethical, psychological and metaphysical principles. It further seeks to locate the discussion within the framework of Plato's general approach to ethics.
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  9.  42
    Linda R. Rabieh (2006). Plato and the Virtue of Courage. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Plato and the Virtue of Courage canvasses contemporary discussions of courage and offers a new and controversial account of Plato's treatment of the concept. Linda R. Rabieh examines Plato's two main thematic discussions of courage, in the Laches and the Republic, and discovers that the two dialogues together yield a coherent, unified treatment of courage that explores a variety of vexing questions: Can courage be separated from justice, so that one can act courageously while advancing (...)
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  10.  18
    Josh Wilburn (2015). Courage and the Spirited Part of the Soul in Plato’s Republic. Philosophers' Imprint 15 (26).
    In this paper I examine the account of courage offered in Books 3 and 4 of the Republic and consider its relation to the account of courage and cowardice found in the final argument of the Protagoras. I defend two main lines of thought. The first is that in the Republic Plato does not abandon the Protagoras’ view that all cases of cowardice involve mistaken judgment or ignorance about what is fearful. Rather, he continues to treat cowardly behavior (...)
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  11. Per Bauhn (2003). The Value of Courage. Nordic Academic Press.
    Combining in-depth analysis with strikingly apt examples of the role that courage plays in the life of human beings, this major contribution to moral philosophy argues that courage is necessary to personal achievement as well as to the common good of a civic community. Bauhn insists that courage is necessary for reinforcing people's understanding of themselves as autonomous agents, which is in turn necessary for countering widespread feelings of alienation and depression. He defines courage as the (...)
     
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  12.  6
    Rachel Fredericks (2014). Courage as an Environmental Virtue. Environmental Ethics 36 (3):339-355.
    We should give courage a more significant place in our understanding of how familiar virtues can and should be reshaped to capture what it is to be virtuous relative to the environment. Matthew Pianalto’s account of moral courage helps explain what a specifically environmental form of moral courage would look like. There are three benefits to be gained by recognizing courage as an environmental virtue: it helps us to recognize the high stakes nature of much environmental (...)
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  13.  7
    Verna M. Ehret (2014). Globalization, Redemption, and the Dialectics of Courage. Sophia 53 (1):67-80.
    This essay explores forms of religious narrative that shape self-understanding and engagement with the world through the idea of redemption. An analysis of the landscape of religious perspectives within the context of globalization shows a bifurcation between competing notions of redemption in fundamentalist and postmodern narratives. Where fundamentalism uses meta-narrative that is hyper-theistic, postmodernism uses contextual narratives that deconstruct narrative and can lose a sense of the transcendent. The purpose of the essay is to show how these two competing notions (...)
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  14. Richard Avramenko (2011). Courage: The Politics of Life and Limb. University of Notre Dame Press.
    Preface -- (Re)introducing courage -- Martial courage and honor -- Political courage and justice -- Moral courage and autonomy -- Economic courage and wealth -- The aftermath.
     
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  15.  4
    Paul Tillich (2000/1977). The Courage to Be. Yale University Press.
    This edition includes a new introduction by Peter J. Gomes that reflects on the impact of this book in the years since it was written.
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  16.  4
    Lee H. Yearley (1994). Mencius and Aquinas: Theories of Virtue and Conceptions of Courage. Philosophy East and West 44 (1):169-175.
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  17.  6
    Michelle Harbour & Veronika Kisfalvi (2014). In the Eye of the Beholder: An Exploration of Managerial Courage. Journal of Business Ethics 119 (4):493-515.
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  18. Paul Henry Carr (2001). Science and Religion: Original Unity and the Courage to Create. Zygon 36 (2):255-259.
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  19.  4
    Walter T. Schmid (1992). On Manly Courage: A Study of Plato's Laches. Southern Illinois University Press.
    Schmid divides the book into five main discussions: the historical background of the dialogue; the relation of form and content in a Platonic dialogue and specific structural and aesthetic features of the Laches; the first half of the ...
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  20.  9
    L. U. Qiaoying (2013). Aquinas's Transformation of the Virtue of Courage. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 8 (3):471-484.
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  21.  4
    Elizabeth Pybus (1991). Human Goodness: Generosity and Courage. Harvester Wheatsheaf.
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  22.  30
    Sean T. Hannah, Bruce J. Avolio & Fred O. Walumbwa (2011). Relationships Between Authentic Leadership, Moral Courage, and Ethical and Pro-Social Behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):555-578.
    Organizations constitute morally-complex environments, requiring organization members to possess levels of moral courage sufficient to promote their ethical action, while refraining from unethical actions when faced with temptations or pressures. Using a sample drawn from a military context, we explored the antecedents and consequences of moral courage. Results from this four-month field study demonstrated that authentic leadership was positively related to followers’ displays of moral courage. Further, followers’ moral courage fully mediated the effects of authentic leadership (...)
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  23.  4
    Jesse Kirkpatrick (2015). Drones and the Martial Virtue Courage. Journal of Military Ethics 14 (3-4):202-219.
    ABSTRACTThis article explores the relationship between the operation of combat drones and the martial virtue courage. The article proceeds in three parts. Part one develops a brief account of virtue generally, and the martial virtue courage in particular. Part two discusses why critics suggest that drone operation does not fit the orthodox conceptualization of courage and, in some instances, even erodes the virtue. Part three explores how these criticisms are flawed. This section of the paper goes on (...)
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  24.  5
    Robert Sparrow (2015). Martial and Moral Courage in Teleoperated Warfare: A Commentary on Kirkpatrick. Journal of Military Ethics 14 (3-4):220-227.
    ABSTRACTJesse Kirkpatrick's ‘Drones and the Martial Virtue Courage’ constitutes the most thorough attempt to date to show that the operators of remotely piloted aircraft can display martial courage and therefore that it may sometimes be appropriate to award them military honours. I argue that while Kirkpatrick's account usefully draws our attention to the risks faced by drone operators and to the possibility that courage may be required to face these risks, he is much less successful in establishing (...)
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  25.  4
    Sheldene Simola (2015). Understanding Moral Courage Through a Feminist and Developmental Ethic of Care. Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1):29-44.
    During the last decade, scholars of business ethics have become increasingly interested in the construct of moral courage. However, despite the importance of understanding both moral courage and the factors that might facilitate its expression, this topic has still received relatively limited study and several areas have been identified as being in need of further exploration. These include the need to investigate courage from within a full range of theoretical frameworks, including feminist ones, from within which, little (...)
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  26.  3
    Geoffrey Scarre (2010). On Courage. Routledge.
    What is courage and why is it one of the oldest and most universally admired virtues? How is it relevant in the world today, and what contemporary forms does it take? In this insightful and crisply written book, Geoffrey Scarre examines these questions and many more. He begins by defining courage, asking how it differs from fearlessness, recklessness and fortitude, and why people are often more willing to ascribe it to others than to avow it for themselves. He (...)
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  27.  8
    Andrei G. Zavaliy & Michael Aristidou (2014). Courage: A Modern Look at an Ancient Virtue. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (2):174-189.
    The purpose of this article is twofold: to demystify the ancient concept of courage, making it more palpable for the modern reader, and to suggest the reasonably specific constraints that would restrict the contemporary tendency of indiscriminate attribution of this virtue. The discussion of courage will incorporate both the classical interpretations of this trait of character, and the empirical studies into the complex relation between the emotion of fear and behavior. The Aristotelian thesis that courage consists in (...)
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  28.  4
    Jack Mahoney (1998). Editorial Adieu: Cultivating Moral Courage in Business. Business Ethics 7 (4):187–192.
    Leaving an editorial chair provides an opportunity for the departing incumbent to deliver a final message to his readers. Seven years after founding Business Ethics. A European Review the editor can offer no better valedictory than to explore the role of moral courage in the ethical conduct of business. Not only does this provide an excellent illustration of the recent recovery of the subject of “virtue” ethics in moral philosophy in general, as well as in the application of morality (...)
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  29.  31
    Mavis Biss (2013). Radical Moral Imagination: Courage, Hope, and Articulation. Hypatia 28 (4):937-954.
    This paper develops the basis for a new account of radical moral imagination, understood as the transformation of moral understandings through creative response to the sensed inadequacy of one's moral concepts or morally significant appraisals of lived experience. Against Miranda Fricker, I argue that this kind of transition from moral perplexity to increased moral insight is not primarily a matter of the “top-down” use of concepts. Against Susan Babbitt, I argue that it is not primarily a matter of “bottom-up” intuitive (...)
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  30.  3
    Michael J. Naughton & Jeffrey R. Cornwall (2006). The Virtue of Courage in Entrepreneurship: Engaging the Catholic Social Tradition and the Life-Cycle of the Business. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):69-93.
    The paper examines the problematic understanding of “risk” in entrepreneurial literature that locates courage in either the loss orgain of having or in the difficulty and hardship of the doing. We argue in this paper that what is lost in this vernacular view of courage is a deeper notion of the subjective dimension of work and the social need of society. Grounded within the Catholic social and moral tradition, we find a richer notion of courage, which in (...)
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  31.  31
    Holloway Sparks (1997). Dissident Citizenship: Democratic Theory, Political Courage, and Activist Women. Hypatia 12 (4):74-110.
    In this essay, I argue that contemporary democratic theory gives insufficient attention to the important contributions dissenting citizens make to democratic life. Guided by the dissident practices of activist women, I develop a more expansive conception of citizenship that recognizes dissent and an ethic of political courage as vital elements of democratic participation. I illustrate how this perspective on citizenship recasts and reclaims women's courageous dissidence by reconsidering the well-known story of Rosa Parks.
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  32.  36
    Shigeru Yonezawa (2012). Socratic Courage in Plato's Socratic Dialogues. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (4):645-665.
    This article considers Socrates's conception of courage in Plato's Socratic dialogues. Although the Laches, which is the only dialogue devoted in toto to a pursuit of the definition of courage, does not explicitly provide Socrates's definition of courage, I shall point out clues therein which contribute to an understanding of Socrates's conception of courage. The Protagoras is a peculiar dialogue in which Socrates himself offers a definition of courage. Attending to the dramatic structure and personalities (...)
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  33.  10
    Jerzy Brzeziński, Andrzej Klawiter, Theo A. F. Kuipers, Krzysztof Łastowski, Katarzyna Paprzycka & Piotr Przybysz (eds.) (2007). The Courage of Doing Philosophy: Essays Dedicated to Leszek Nowak. Rodopi.
    Table of ContentsAndrzej KLAWITER, Krzystof #ASTOWSKI: Introduction: Originality, Courage and Responsibility List of Books by Leszek NowakSelected Bibliography of Leszek Nowak's WritingsScience and Idealization Theo A.F. KUIPERS: On Two ...
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  34. Christopher Norris (2001). 'Courage Not Under Fire': Realism, Anti-Realism, and the Epistemological Virtues. Inquiry 44 (3):269 – 290.
    This article offers a critical perspective on two lines of thought in recent epistemology and philosophy of science, namely Michael Dummett?s anti-realist approach to issues of truth, meaning, and knowledge and Bas van Fraassen?s influential programme of?constructive empiricism?. While not denying the salient differences between them it shows how they converge on a sceptical outlook concerning the realist claim that truth might always transcend the restrictions of some given state of knowledge. The author puts the case that such sceptical arguments, (...)
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  35.  24
    Matthew Pianalto (2012). Moral Courage and Facing Others. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 20 (2):165-184.
    Moral courage involves acting in the service of one?s convictions, in spite of the risk of retaliation or punishment. I suggest that moral courage also involves a capacity to face others as moral agents, and thus in a manner that does not objectify them. A moral stand can only be taken toward another moral agent. Often, we find ourselves unable to face others in this way, because to do so is frightening, or because we are consumed by blinding (...)
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  36.  49
    Jonathan J. Sanford (2010). Are You Man Enough? Aristotle and Courage. International Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4):431-445.
    There are four features to Aristotle’s account of courage that appear peculiar when compared to our own intuitions about this virtue: his account of courage seems not, on its surface, to fit a eudaimonist model, courage is restricted to a surprisingly small number of actions, this restriction, among other things, excludes women and non-combatant men from ever exercising this virtue, and courage is counted as virtuous because of its nobility and beauty. In this paper I explore (...)
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  37.  37
    Amélie Oksenberg Rorty (1986). The Two Faces of Courage. Philosophy 61 (236):151-171.
    Courage is dangerous. If it is defined in traditional ways, as a set of dispositions to overcome fear, to oppose obstacles, to perform difficult or dangerous actions, its claim to be a virtue is questionable. Unlike the virtue of justice, or a sense of proportion, traditional courage does not itself determine what is to be done, let alone assure that it is worth doing. If we retain the traditional conception of courage and its military connotations–overcoming and combat–we (...)
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  38.  10
    Paul Carelli (2015). The Courage of Conviction: Andreia as Precondition for Philosophic Examination in Plato's Protagoras and Republic. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):438-458.
    There are at least two apparently conflicting views of courage found in Plato's dialogues: the intellectualist view exemplified by Socrates’s identification of courage with wisdom as found in the Protagoras; and the dispositional view of courage as a natural temperament to overcome fear in situations of danger, the necessary qualification for the auxiliary class in the Republic. In this paper I argue that these views are complementary, dispositional courage being a necessary precondition for the pursuit of (...)
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  39.  7
    David Christensen, Jeff Barnes & David Rees (2007). Developing Resolve to Have Moral Courage. Journal of Business Ethics Education 4:79-96.
    Ethics research literature often uses Rest’s Four Component Model of ethical behavior as a framework to teach business and accounting ethics. Moral motivation, including resolve to have moral courage, is the third component of the model and is the least-tested component in ethics research. Using a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest measurements, we compare the effectiveness of several methods for developing resolve to have moral courage in 211 accounting students during one semester. Results show that traditional, reflection, (...)
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  40.  16
    Debra R. Comer & Gina Vega (2005). An Experiential Exercise That Introduces the Concept of the Personal Ethical Threshold to Develop Moral Courage. Journal of Business Ethics Education 2 (2):171-197.
    This paper presents an experiential exercise introducing the concept of the personal ethical threshold to help explain why moral behavior does not always follow moral intention. An individual’s PET represents the individual’s vulnerability to situational factors, i.e., how little or much it takes for members of organizations to cross their proverbial line to act in a way they deem unethical. The PET reflects the interplay among the situation, the particular ethical issue, and the individual. Exploring the PET can help account (...)
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  41.  12
    Michael J. Naughton & Jeffrey R. Cornwall (2006). The Virtue of Courage in Entrepreneurship. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):69-93.
    The paper examines the problematic understanding of “risk” in entrepreneurial literature that locates courage in either the loss orgain of having or in the difficulty and hardship of the doing. We argue in this paper that what is lost in this vernacular view of courage is a deeper notion of the subjective dimension of work and the social need of society. Grounded within the Catholic social and moral tradition, we find a richer notion of courage, which in (...)
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  42.  36
    Per Bauhn (2007). Two Concepts of Courage. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:65-68.
    In this paper I intend to present two concepts of courage, with the purpose of introducing two different ways in which the classical virtue of courage may serve goals of personal achievement and goals of collective flourishing respectively. The two forms of courage that I will distinguish are the courage of creativity and the courage of conviction, respectively. The courage of creativity is the ability to confront the fear of failure, this ability being directed (...)
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  43.  6
    Whalen Lai (1985). Yung and the Tradition of the Shih: The Confucian Restructuring of Heroic Courage. Religious Studies 21 (2):181-203.
    Courage is a basic virtue to any heroic society. It is the defining virtue of the aristocratic warrior in the Iliad. It came with a set of other related virtues, all functioning in a social setting unique to that heroic era. However, as society evolved beyond the heroics of war to the civility of settled city–states, courage would be reviewed and redefined. In fact the whole virtue complex would undergo fundamental changes. Still later, when from out of the (...)
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  44.  23
    Xinyan Jiang (2007). Courage and Self-Control. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:59-64.
    An important question about the nature of courage is whether it is a form of self-control. In this paper I argue that there are different kinds of courage and therefore the question whether courage is a form of self-control cannot be given a uniform answer. Courage exhibited in all cases may be classified as either spontaneous or deliberative courage. Spontaneous courage is not a form of self-control and usually is called for in emergency situations. (...)
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  45.  13
    Earl E. Shelp (1983). Courage and Tragedy in Clinical Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (4):417-429.
    The relationship between medical clinicians and patients is described as potentially tragic in nature and a context in which courage can be a relevant virtue. Danger, risk, uncertainty, and choice are presented as features of clinical relationships that also function as necessary conditions for courage. The clinician is seen as a ‘sustaining presence’ who has duties of ‘encouragement’ with respect to patients. The patient is seen to have a duty to learn the condition of human existence which can (...)
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  46.  12
    Jerry Calton, Steve Payne & Sandra Waddock (2006). Finding the Courage to Teach From the Heart. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 17:283-285.
    This interactive teaching workshop explored what it means to “teach from the heart.” It adopted the format of the wisdom circle to ask participants to share peak teaching experiences so that they could reflect on what their stories reveal about their inner selves as teachers. The hope was that, by learning how to speak with their “authentic” voices, participants could gain the insight and courage needed to better connect with their students as co-learners.
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  47.  15
    Stanley Raffel (2011). The Interplay of Courage and Reason in Moral Action. History of the Human Sciences 24 (5):89-102.
    This article argues that both courage and reason are necessary aspects of moral action. It begins by examining Plato’s changing conceptions of these two virtues, and, in particular, the settled view he arrives at in The Statesman. Sloterdijk’s recent attempt in his book advocating rage to appropriate this dialogue in order to criticize Habermas is then considered. I suggest, by interpreting various claims by these two authors, that neither understands that both reason and courage have essential roles in (...)
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  48.  41
    Manyul Im (2004). Moral Knowledge and Self Control in Mengzi: Rectitude, Courage, and Qi. Asian Philosophy 14 (1):59 – 77.
    In this paper, I reveal systematic aspects of the moral epistemology of the Warring States Confucian, Mengzi. Mengzi thinks moral knowledge is 'internally' available to humans because it is acquired through normative dictates built into the human heart-mind. Those dictates are capable of motivating and justifying an agent's normative categorizations. Such dictates are linked to Mengzi's conception of human nature as good. I then interpret Mengzi's difficult discussion of courage and qi in Mengzi 2A: 2 as illuminating the idea (...)
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  49.  34
    Lisheng Chen (2010). Courage in the Analects : A Genealogical Survey of the Confucian Virtue of Courage. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):1-30.
    The different meanings of “courage” in The Analects were expressed in Confucius’ remark on Zilu’s bravery. The typological analysis of courage in Mencius and Xunzi focused on the shaping of the personalities of brave persons. “Great courage” and “superior courage”, as the virtues of “great men” or “ shi junzi 士君子 (intellectuals with noble characters)”, exhibit not only the uprightness of the “internal sagacity”, but also the rich implications of the “external kingship”. The prototype of these (...)
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  50.  8
    Sean T. Hannah, Bruce J. Avolio & Fred O. Walumbwa (2014). Addendum to “Relationships Between Authentic Leadership, Moral Courage, and Ethical and Pro-Social Behaviors”. Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (2):277-279.
    The authors provide this addendum to the following article to provide corrections to the results reported and further explanation of the structural equation modeling techniques utilized: Sean T. Hannah, Bruce J. Avolio, and Fred O. Walumbwa, “The Relationships between Authentic Leadership, Moral Courage, and Ethical and Pro-Social Behaviors,” Business Ethics Quarterly 21:4 : 555–78.
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