Search results for 'Crime' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jesper Ryberg (2007). Privacy Rights, Crime Prevention, CCTV, and the Life of Mrs Aremac. Res Publica 13 (2):127-143.score: 24.0
    Over the past decade the use of closed circuit television (CCTV) as a means of crime prevention has reached unprecedented levels. Though critics of this development do not speak with one voice and have pointed to a number of different problems in the use of CCTV, one argument has played a dominant role in the debate, namely, that CCTV constitutes an unacceptable violation of people’s right to privacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine this argument critically. It (...)
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  2. Shachar Eldar (2012). Holding Organized Crime Leaders Accountable for the Crimes of Their Subordinates. Criminal Law and Philosophy 6 (2):207-225.score: 24.0
    Criminal law doctrine fails to provide an adequate solution for imputing responsibility to organized crime leaders for the offenses committed by their subordinates. This undesirable state of affairs is made possible because criminal organizations adopt complex organizational structures that leave their superiors beyond the reach of the law. These structures are characterized by features such as the isolation of the leadership from junior ranks, decentralized management, and mechanisms encouraging initiative from below. They are found in criminal organizations such as (...)
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  3. Sergio Tonkonoff (2014). Crime as the Limit of Culture. Human Studies 37 (4):529-544.score: 24.0
    In this article culture is understood as the ensemble of systems of classification, assessment, and interaction that establishes a basic community of values in a given social field. We will argue that this is made possible through the institution of fundamental prohibitions understood as mythical points of closure that set the last frontiers of that community by designating what crime is. Exploring these theses, we will see that criminal transgression may be thought of as the actualization of a rigorous (...)
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  4. Marilynn P. Fleckenstein & John C. Bowes (2000). When Trust is Betrayed: Religious Institutions and White Collar Crime. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 23 (1):111 - 115.score: 24.0
    In 1990, the comptroller of the Catholic Diocese of Buffalo was charged with the embezzlement of eight million dollars of money belonging to the Diocese, He was subsequently convicted and served several years in state prison. Using this case as a starting point, this paper looks at several examples of white-collar crime and religious institutions. Should justice or mercy be the operative virtue in dealing with such criminals?
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  5. Shachar Eldar (2010). Punishing Organized Crime Leaders for the Crimes of Their Subordinates. Criminal Law and Philosophy 4 (2):183-196.score: 24.0
    The intuition holding that an organized crime leader should be punished more severely than a subordinate who directly commits an offence is commonly reflected in legal literature. However, positing a direct relationship between the severity of punishment and the level of seniority within an organizational hierarchy represents a departure from a more general idea found in much of the substantive criminal law writings: that the severity of punishment increases the closer the proximity to the physical commission of the offence. (...)
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  6. Chris Baber (2010). Distributed Cognition at the Crime Scene. AI and Society 25 (4):423-432.score: 24.0
    The examination of a scene of crime provides both an interesting case study and analogy for consideration of Distributed Cognition. In this paper, Distribution is defined by the number of agents involved in the criminal justice process, and in terms of the relationship between a Crime Scene Examiner and the environment being searched.
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  7. Michael Riesen & Gursel Serpen (2008). Validation of a Bayesian Belief Network Representation for Posterior Probability Calculations on National Crime Victimization Survey. Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (3):245-276.score: 24.0
    This paper presents an effort to induce a Bayesian belief network (BBN) from crime data, namely the national crime victimization survey (NCVS). This BBN defines a joint probability distribution over a set of variables that were employed to record a set of crime incidents, with particular focus on characteristics of the victim. The goals are to generate a BBN to capture how characteristics of crime incidents are related to one another, and to make this information available (...)
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  8. Aurelijus Gutauskas (2011). Economic Crisis and Organized Crime in Lithuania. Jurisprudence 18 (1):303-326.score: 24.0
    Tendencies of organized crime in the context of economical crisis are dealt in the article. The author shows his own position about the economical crisis and how it influenced organized crime in Lithuania. The reasons of economical crisis, characteristics and peculiarities of crimes of organized groups, which operate in Lithuania, are discussed in the article. The author reveals specific features, which enable to evaluate the real influence of organized groups to the economical state of Lithuania.
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  9. Stuart Henry & Dena Plemmons (2012). Neuroscience, Neuropolitics and Neuroethics: The Complex Case of Crime, Deception and fMRI. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):573-591.score: 24.0
    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the (...)
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  10. Justinas Žilinskas (2012). Introduction of 'Crime of Denial'in the Lithuanian Criminal Law and First Instances of its Application. Jurisprudence 19 (1):315-329.score: 24.0
    The present article analyses the so-called ‘crime of denial’ recently established in Article 1702 of the Lithuanian Criminal Code. It describes how this crime was introduced in the Lithuanian Law, and the reasons for its present form and challenges. The crime has been applied in two instances (Stankeras case and Paleckis case). The author discusses these two instances of application, critically reviews the arguments of the Prosecutor’s Office and of the court of first instance and shows that (...)
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  11. Vernon L. Quinsey, Martin L. Lalumière, Matthew Querée & Jennifer K. McNaughton (1999). Perceived Crime Severity and Biological Kinship. Human Nature 10 (4):399-414.score: 24.0
    Two predictions concerning the perceived severity of crimes can be derived from evolutionary theory. The first, arising from the theory of inclusive fitness, is that crimes in general should be viewed as more serious to the degree that the victim is genetically related to the perpetrator. The second, arising from the deleterious effects of inbreeding depression, is that heterosexual sexual coercion should be perceived as more serious the closer the genetic relationship of victim and perpetrator, particularly when the victim is (...)
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  12. Edin Sued Abumanssur (2014). Fé e crime na “quebrada”: pentecostais e PCC na construção da sociabilidade nas periferias de São Paulo (Faith and crime in the "quebrada": Pentecostalism and PCC in the construction of sociability in the outskirts of São Paulo). Horizonte 12 (33):99-120.score: 24.0
    Fé e crime na “quebrada”: pentecostais e PCC na construção da sociabilidade nas periferias de São Paulo (Faith and crime in the "quebrada": Pentecostalism and PCC in the construction of sociability in the outskirts of São Paulo). DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2014v12n33p99 Tratamos, neste texto, da convivência em um mesmo ambiente urbano de fenômenos aparentemente díspares como é o caso do pentecostalismo de um lado e, de outro, o crime organizado e a violência como seu modus operandi , ambos representando (...)
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  13. Richard Machalek & Lawrence E. Cohen (1991). The Nature of Crime. Human Nature 2 (3):215-233.score: 24.0
    The classical social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the counterintuitive thesis that crime is beneficial for society because it provokes punishment, which enhances social solidarity. His logic, however, is blemished by a reified view of society that leads to group-selectionist thinking and a teleological account of the causes of crime. Reconceptualization of the relationship between crime and punishment in terms of evolutionary game theory, however, suggests that crime (cheating) may confer benefits on cooperating individuals by promoting stability (...)
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  14. E. Whyte (2009). Aluta Continua: The Struggle Continues in South Africa - Against Violent Crime. Dialogue 7 (1):1-30.score: 24.0
    Concerns for safety and security as South Africa’s hosting of 2010 FIFA World Cup draws nearer highlight the degree to which South Africa’s reputation for a relatively peaceful transition from Apartheid has been replaced by its reputation for violent crime. Its transition, and the peacebuilding efforts that followed it, are not completely unrelated to its current high levels of violent crime. In fact, this article argues that there were a number of issues South Africa’s peacebuilding process failed to (...)
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  15. Alfredas Kiškis & Aušra Kuodytė (2012). Investigation of the Preparation of Crime Prevention Programmes in Lithuania. Jurisprudence 19 (2):771-801.score: 24.0
    The article focuses on the analysis of preparation of crime prevention programmes in Lithuania and assesses their level of compliance with the methodological requirements for programme preparation. Many crime prevention programmes are approved and implemented at national level in Lithuania. If such programmes were prepared in accordance with the principles and methods recommended in the scientific literature, the efficiency of crime prevention programmes would undoubtedly increase. In Lithuania, a number of studies on the efficiency of the existing (...)
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  16. Sonu Bedi (2011). Why a Criminal Prohibition on Sex Selective Abortions Amounts to a Thought Crime. Criminal Law and Philosophy 5 (3):349-360.score: 21.0
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  17. M. Hamilton, F. Salim, E. Cheng & S. L. Choy (2011). Transafe: A Crowdsourced Mobile Platform for Crime and Safety Perception Management. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 41 (2):32-37.score: 21.0
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  18. Keith Guzik (2013). Security a la Mexicana: On the Particularities of Security Governance in México's War on Crime. [REVIEW] Theory and Society 42 (2):161-187.score: 21.0
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  19. [deleted]Kevin K. Park, Hye Won Suk, Heungsun Hwang & Jang-Han Lee (2013). A Functional Analysis of Deception Detection of a Mock Crime Using Infrared Thermal Imaging and the Concealed Information Test. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  20. [deleted]Noémie Bouhana (2013). The Reasoning Criminal Vs. Homer Simpson: Conceptual Challenges for Crime Science. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  21. Stanley J. [from old catalog] Rowland (1963). Ethics, Crime and Redemption. Philadelphia, Westminster Press.score: 21.0
     
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  22. Matti Tolvanen (2009). Trust, Business Ethics and Crime Prevention – Corporate Criminal Liability in Finland. Jurisprudence 115 (1):335-358.score: 21.0
    According to the Finnish Penal Code a corporation may be sentenced to a corporate fine if a person who is part of its statutory organ or other management or who exercises actual decision-making authority therein 1) has been an accomplice in an offence or allowed the commission of the offence, or 2) if the care and diligence necessary for the prevention of the offence has not been observed in the operations of the corporation. Criminal liability of legal persons is based (...)
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  23. Mohamad Al-Hakim (2010). Making Room for Hate Crime Legislation in Liberal Societies. Criminal Law and Philosophy 4 (3):341-358.score: 20.0
    There is a divide within political and legal theory concerning the justification of hate-crime legislation in liberal states. Opponents of Hate-Crime Legislation have recently argued that enhanced punishment for hate-motivated crimes cannot be justified within political liberal states. More specifically, Heidi Hurd argues that criminal sanction which target character dispositions unfairly target individuals for characteristics not readily under their control. She further argues that a ‘character’ based approach in criminal law is necessarily illiberal and violates the state’s commitment (...)
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  24. Sarah K. Paul (2014). Embarking on a Crime. In Enrique Villanueva V. (ed.), Law and the Philosophy of Action. Rodopi. 101-24.score: 18.0
    When we define something as a crime, we generally thereby criminalize the attempt to commit that crime. However, it is a vexing puzzle to specify what must be the case in order for a criminal attempt to have occurred, given that the results element of the crime fails to come about. I argue that the philosophy of action can assist the criminal law in clarifying what kinds of events are properly categorized as criminal attempts. A natural thought (...)
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  25. Gerald Dworkin (1985). The Serpent Beguiled Me and I Did Eat: Entrapment and the Creation of Crime. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 4 (1):17 - 39.score: 18.0
    This paper examines the legitimacy of pro-active law enforcement techniques, i.e. the use of deception to produce the performance of a criminal act in circumstances where it can be observed by law enforcement officials. It argues that law enforcement officials should only be allowed to create the intent to commit a crime in individuals who they have probable cause to suppose are already engaged or intending to engage in criminal activity of a similar nature.
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  26. Keith Burgess-Jackson (ed.) (1999). A Most Detestable Crime: New Philosophical Essays on Rape. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    This collection of original essays by leading philosophers probes the philosophical aspects of rape in all of its manifestations: act, crime, practice, and institution. Among the issues examined are the nature of rape; the wrongfulness and harmfulness of rape; the relation of rape to racism, sexism, classism, and other forms of oppression; and the legitimacy of various rape-law doctrines. Each contributor advances a novel argument and seeks to disentangle the conceptual, evaluative, and empirical issues that arise in connection with (...)
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  27. Nenad Dimitrijevic (2010). Moral Knowledge and Mass Crime: A Critical Reading of Moral Relativism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (2):131-156.score: 18.0
    In this article I ask how moral relativism applies to the analysis of responsibility for mass crime. The focus is on the critical reading of two influential relativist attempts to offer a theoretically consistent response to the challenges imposed by extreme criminal practices. First, I explore Gilbert Harman’s analytical effort to conceptualize the reach of moral discourse. According to Harman, mass crime creates a contextually specific relationship to which moral judgments do not apply any more. Second, I analyze (...)
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  28. Ian Howard Dennis (2009). On Necessity as a Defence to Crime: Possibilities, Problems and the Limits of Justification and Excuse. Criminal Law and Philosophy 3 (1):29-49.score: 18.0
    The article reviews recent developments in England in the law of necessity as a defence to crime and calls for its further extension. It argues that the defence of necessity presents the criminal law with difficult questions of competing values and the ordering of harms. English law has taken a nuanced position on the respective roles of the courts and the legislature in the ordering of harms, although the development of the law has been pragmatic rather than coherently theorised. (...)
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  29. Nicholas Dixon (1999). Handguns, Violent Crime, and Self-Defense. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 13 (2):239-260.score: 18.0
    By far the most plausible explanation of data on violent crime in the United States is that its high handgun ownership rate is a major causal factor. The only realistic way to significantly reduce violent crime in this country is an outright ban on private ownership of handguns. While such a ban would undeniably restrict one particular freedom, it would violate no rights. In particular, the unquestioned right to self-defense does not entail a right to own handguns, because (...)
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  30. Christopher Bennett (2006). State Denunciation of Crime. Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (3):288-304.score: 18.0
    In this paper I am concerned with a problem for communicative theories of punishment. On such theories, punishment is justified at least in part as the authoritative censure or condemnation of crime. But is this compatible with a broadly liberal political outlook? For while liberalism is generally thought to take only a very limited interest in its citizens’ attitudes (seeing moral opinion as a matter of legitimate debate), the idea of state denunciation of crime seems precisely to be (...)
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  31. Candice Delmas (2014). The Civic Duty to Report Crime and Corruption. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 9 (1):50-64.score: 18.0
    Is the civic duty to report crime and corruption a genuine moral duty? After clarifying the nature of the duty, I consider a couple of negative answers to the question, and turn to an attractive and commonly held view, according to which this civic duty is a genuine moral duty. On this view, crime and corruption threaten political stability, and citizens have a moral duty to report crime and corruption to the government in order to help the (...)
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  32. Ekow N. Yankah (2012). Crime, Freedom and Civic Bonds: Arthur Ripstein's Force and Freedom: Kant's Legal and Political Philosophy. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 6 (2):255-272.score: 18.0
    There is no question Arthur Ripstein’s Force and Freedom is an engaging and powerful book which will inform legal philosophy, particularly Kantian theories, for years to come. The text explores with care Kant’s legal and political philosophy, distinguishing it from his better known moral theory. Nor is Ripstein’s book simply a recounting of Kant’s legal and political theory. Ripstein develops Kant’s views in his own unique vision illustrating fresh ways of viewing the entire Kantian project. But the same strength and (...)
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  33. Thaddeus Metz (2004). The Justice of Crime Prevention. Theoria 51 (105):104-128.score: 18.0
    In this essay, I critically evaluate the new South African state's approach to crime prevention in light of the Kantian principle of respect of persons. I show that the five most common explanations of why the state must fight crime are unconvincing; provide a novel, respect-based account of why justice requires the state to prevent crime; and specify which crime fighting techniques the state must adopt in order to meet this requirement. Reviewing the South African state's (...)
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  34. Hyman Gross (2012). Crime and Punishment: A Concise Moral Critique. OUP Oxford.score: 18.0
    It is generally assumed that we are justified in punishing criminals because they have committed a morally wrongful act. Determining when criminal liability should be imposed calls for a moral assessment of the conduct in question, with criminal liability tracking as closely as possible the contours of morality. Versions of this view are frequently argued for in philosophical accounts of crime and punishment, and seem to be presumed by lawyers and policy makers working in the criminal justice system. -/- (...)
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  35. Tom Brislin & Yasuhiro Inoue (2007). Kids and Crime: A Comparative Study of Youth Coverage in Japan and the United States. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22 (1):3 – 17.score: 18.0
    This pilot study examines how a number of American and Japanese journalists make the tough calls regarding an escalating social problem: whether to identify juveniles who have been charged with serious capital crimes. Divergent societal and journalistic values of the two countries are explored via a survey of journalists from Honolulu and Hiroshima. Newsroom policies and practices are described regarding general and specific cases of juvenile crime. In general, Japanese journalists are far more likely than U.S. journalists to withhold (...)
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  36. Douglas Husak (2014). Abetting a Crime. Law and Philosophy 33 (1):41-73.score: 18.0
    I focus on the set of problems that arise in identifying both the actus reus and (to an even greater extent) the mens rea needed by an abettor before she should be criminally liable for complicity in a crime. No consensus on these issues has emerged in positive law; commentators are enormously dissatisfied with the decisions courts have reached; and critics disagree radically about what reforms should be implemented to rectify this state of affairs. I explicitly deny that I (...)
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  37. Frank van Dun, On Crime and Punishment and The Contexts of Law.score: 18.0
    Societies and communities are understood as orders (or laws) of persons, i.e., types of arrangements of human relations that are in principle conflict-free or equipped to solve conflicts among their members. As not all human relations fall into member-member patterns, there is need for the concept of a natural order (law) of persons, regardless of their memberships. The main theme is the comparison of the three orders, with special focus on how they deal with crime, punishment and law enforcement.
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  38. David Brax & Christian Munthe (2013). Part I: Introduction to the Philosophy of Hate Crime. In The Philosophy of Hate Crime Anthology. University of Gothenburg.score: 18.0
  39. Grant Lamond (2007). What is a Crime? Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 27 (4):609-632.score: 18.0
    This article presents a philosophical account of the nature of crime. It argues that the criminal law contains both fault-based crimes and strict liability offences, and that these two represent different paradigms of liability. It goes on to argue that the gist of fault-based crimes lies in their being public wrongs, not (as is often thought) because they wrong the public, but because the public is responsible for punishing them, i.e. because they merit state punishment. What makes wrongs deserving (...)
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  40. Mathieu Deflem (1999). Ferdinand Tönnies on Crime and Society: An Unexplored Contribution to Criminological Sociology. History of the Human Sciences 12 (3):87-116.score: 18.0
    I offer a discussion of the criminological sociology of Ferdinand Tönnies (1855-1936). While Tönnies is generally well known for his theory of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, his elaborate contributions to the sociological study of crime have been almost entirely neglected in the history of sociology. Situated within Tönnies’ general theoretical perspective, I present the central themes of Tönnies’ study of crime and discuss its conceptual and methodological characteristics as a distinct approach in criminological sociology. I additionally center on the (...)
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  41. Michael Allen Gillespie & John Samuel Harpham (2011). Sherlock Holmes, Crime, and the Anxieties of Globalization. Critical Review 23 (4):449-474.score: 18.0
    Abstract Before the establishment in the early 1800s of France's Sûreté Nationale and England's Scotland Yard, the detection of crimes was generally regarded as supernatural work, but the rise of modern science allowed mere mortals to systematize and categorize events?and thus to solve crimes. Reducing the amount of crime, however, did not reduce the fear of crime, which actually grew in the late-nineteenth century as the result of globalization and media sensationalism. Literary detectives offered an imaginary cure for (...)
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  42. Sandra E. Marshall (2004). Victims of Crime: Their Station and its Duties. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7 (2):104-117.score: 18.0
    The shift from a welfarist to a retributivist perspective on crime, which is one of the themes of David Garland?s book, has brought with it a renewed emphasis on the victims of crime and their rights. This shift in emphasis, I suggest, raises questions about the way we think of the relationship between individual citizens and between citizens and the state. Different political theories will produce different accounts of this relationship and hence different ways of characterising the status (...)
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  43. Susan Gellman (1992). “Brother, You Can't Go to Jail for What You're Thinking”: Motives, Effects, and “Hate Crime” Laws. Criminal Justice Ethics 11 (2):24-29.score: 18.0
    (1992). “Brother, you can't go to jail for what you're thinking”: Motives, effects, and “hate crime” laws. Criminal Justice Ethics: Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 24-29. doi: 10.1080/0731129X.1992.9991919.
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  44. Ian Loader & Richard Sparks (2004). For an Historical Sociology of Crime Policy in England and Wales Since 1968. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7 (2):5-32.score: 18.0
    This essay proposes an approach to understanding changes in political responses to crime in England and Wales over the last third of the twentieth century and developments in criminological knowledge over the same period. To explore the association between these in some empirical detail, we argue, would provide a historical?sociological understanding that is currently lacking, notwithstanding Garland's significant intervention in The Culture of Control. We take issue with some aspects of Garland's account, on both methodological and substantive grounds, and (...)
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  45. Kelly Pyrek (2011). Healthcare Crime: Investigating Abuse, Fraud, and Homicide by Caregivers. Crc Press.score: 18.0
    Healthcare trends, stressors, and workplace violence -- Patient privacy and exploitation -- Abuse and assault -- Fraud and theft -- Suspicious death and homicide -- Investigations, sanctions, and discipline -- Prevention strategies and the future of healthcare crime.
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  46. Stephen A. Toth (1997). Desire and the Delinquent: Juvenile Crime and Deviance in Fin-de-Siècle French Criminology. History of the Human Sciences 10 (4):45-63.score: 18.0
    Historical outlines of fin-de-siècle European criminology have typically focused on the debate between supporters of Lombrosian anatomical determinism on the one hand, and the more environmentalist (i.e. French) explanations of crime on the other. What has gone largely unnoticed, however, is how the basic tenets of the 'French school' were shaped by an implicit moral concern with mass consumption and indi vidualism, particularly in regard to juvenile crime. This paper examines the psychosocial conception of the juvenile criminal - (...)
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  47. Travis Hirschi (1987). Review Essay/Confronting Liberals on Confronting Crime. Criminal Justice Ethics 6 (2):66-71.score: 18.0
    Elliott Currie, Confronting Crime: An American Challenge New York: Pantheon Books, 1985, viii + 326 pp.
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  48. Marta Bolognani (2007). Community Perceptions of Moral Education as a Response to Crime by Young Pakistani Males in Bradford. Journal of Moral Education 36 (3):357-369.score: 18.0
    While increasing attention from academics and the media focuses on the lives of Muslim communities in the west, little attention has so far been given to insiders' own perceptions of their social lives. This paper, borne out of broader research on their perceptions of crime, aims to analyse some internal discourses on moral education. The ethnographic data, collected between October 2004 and July 2005, is used to try to show the potentials and the pitfalls of formal (in mosques, madrasahs (...)
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  49. Marjorie Cohn (2002). Nato Bombing of Kosovo: Humanitarian Intervention or Crime Against Humanity? International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 15 (1):79-106.score: 18.0
    For 78 days in 1999, NATO forces led by theUnited States bombed Yugoslavia, killinghundreds of its civilians and devastating itsinfrastructure. NATO spokesmen justified thebombardment as ``humanitarian intervention''aimed at halting President Slobodan Milosevic's``ethnic cleansing'' of non-Serbs in Yugoslavia. This essay deconstructs NATO's rationalizationsand analyzes other more sinister motives forthe bombing. By containing Yugoslavia, andmaintaining a permanent presence in Kosovo, theUnited States seeks to ensure its access toCaspian Sea oil, and to maintain economichegemony over Europe. U.S. activities inother countries, such as Turkey, (...)
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  50. Nick Tilley (2003). Review Essay/Understanding Crime, Liberalism, and Science. Criminal Justice Ethics 22 (1):50-55.score: 18.0
    Robert Sullivan, Liberalism and Crime: The British Experience Lanham, Md: Lexington Books, 2000, vii + 227pp.
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