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  1. Fabio Paglieri & Cristiano Castelfranchi (forthcoming). Trust, Relevance, and Arguments. Argument and Computation.
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  2. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2014). Intentions in the Light of Goals. Topoi 33 (1):103-116.
    This paper presents a systematic analysis of the various steps of goal-processing and intention creation, as the final outcome of goal-driven action generation. Intention theory has to be founded on goal theory: intentions require means-end reasoning and planning, conflict resolution, coherence. The process of intention formation and intentional action execution is strictly based on specific sets of beliefs (predictions, evaluations, calculation of costs, responsibility beliefs, competence, etc.). The origin of an intention is not necessarily a “desire” (which is just a (...)
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  3. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2014). Minds as Social Institutions. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):121-143.
    I will first discuss how social interactions organize, coordinate, and specialize as “artifacts,” tools; how these tools are not only for coordination but for achieving something, for some outcome (goal/function), for a collective work. In particular, I will argue that these artifacts specify (predict and prescribe) the mental contents of the participants, both in terms of beliefs and acceptances and in terms of motives and plans. We have to revise the behavioristic view of “scripts” and “roles”; when we play a (...)
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  4. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2013). Alan Turing's “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”. Topoi 32 (2):293-299.
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  5. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte (2013). Luca Tummolini, Giulia Andrighetto. Synthese 190:585-618.
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  6. Luca Tummolini, Giulia Andrighetto, Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte (2013). A Convention or (Tacit) Agreement Betwixt Us: On Reliance and its Normative Consequences. Synthese 190 (4):585-618.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify what kind of normativity characterizes a convention. First, we argue that conventions have normative consequences because they always involve a form of trust and reliance. We contend that it is by reference to a moral principle impinging on these aspects (i.e. the principle of Reliability) that interpersonal obligations and rights originate from conventional regularities. Second, we argue that the system of mutual expectations presupposed by conventions is a source of agreements. Agreements stemming (...)
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  7. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Fabio Paglieri (2011). Why Argue? Towards a Cost-Benefit Analysis of Argumentation. Argument and Computation 1 (1):71-91.
    This article proposes a cost-benefit analysis of argumentation, with the aim of highlighting the strategic considerations that govern the agent's decision to argue or not. In spite of its paramount importance, the topic of argumentative decision-making has not received substantial attention in argumentation theories so far. We offer an explanation for this lack of consideration and propose a tripartite taxonomy and detailed description of the strategic reasons considered by arguers in their decision-making: benefits, costs, and dangers. We insist that the (...)
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  8. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2011). Forgiveness: A Cognitive-Motivational Anatomy. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (3):260-290.
    This work aims to identify the constituents of forgiveness in terms of the forgiver's beliefs and motivating goals. After addressing the antecedents of forgiveness—a perceived wrong—and distinguishing the notion of mere harm from that of offense, we describe the victim's typical retributive reactions—revenge and resentment—and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Then we focus on the forgiver's mind-set, pointing to the relationship between forgiveness and acceptance of the wrong, addressing the forgiver's motivating goals, and discussing both their self-interested and altruistic implications. (...)
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  9. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2010). Consciousness or Consciousnesses? Modeling for Disentangling. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (01):27-30.
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  10. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2010). Hope: The Power of Wish and Possibility. Theory and Psychology 20 (2):251-276.
    This work proposes an analysis of the cognitive and motivational components of hope, its basic properties, and the affective dispositions and behaviors it is likely to induce. In our view current treatments of hope do not fully account for its specificity, by making hope overlap with positive expectation or some specification of positive expectation. In contrast, we attempt to highlight the distinctive features of hope, pointing to its differences from positive expectation, as well as from a sense of successful agency, (...)
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  11. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Maria Miceli (2009). The Cognitive-Motivational Compound of Emotional Experience. Emotion Review 1 (3):223-231.
    We present an analysis of emotional experience in terms of beliefs and desires viewed as its minimal cognitive constituents. We argue that families of emotions can be identified because their members share some of these constituents. To document this claim, we analyze one family of emotions—which includes the feeling of inferiority, admiration, envy, and jealousy—trying to show that the distinctiveness of each emotion is due to the specific compound of beliefs and desires it implies, whereas the kinship among related emotions (...)
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  12. Giovanni Pezzulo & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2009). Thinking as the Control of Imagination: A Conceptual Framework for Goal-Directed Systems. Psychological Research 73 (4):559-577.
    This paper offers a conceptual framework which (re)integrates goal-directed control, motivational processes, and executive functions, and suggests a developmentalpathway from situated action to higher level cognition. We first illustrate a basic computational (control-theoretic) model of goal-directed action that makes use of internalmodeling. We then show that by adding the problem of selection among multiple actionalternatives motivation enters the scene, and that the basic mechanisms of executivefunctions such as inhibition, the monitoring of progresses, and working memory, arerequired for this system to (...)
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  13. Fabio Paglieri & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2008). More Than Control Freaks: Evaluative and Motivational Functions of Goals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):35-36.
    True to its sensorimotor inspiration, Hurley's shared circuits model (SCM) describes goal-states only within a homeostatic mechanism for action control, neglecting to consider other functions of goals control freaks.”.
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  14. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Marco Guerini (2007). Is It a Promise or a Threat? Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):277-311.
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  15. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Fabio Paglieri (2007). The Role of Beliefs in Goal Dynamics: Prolegomena to a Constructive Theory of Intentions. Synthese 155 (2):237 - 263.
    In this article we strive to provide a detailed and principled analysis of the role of beliefs in goal processing—that is, the cognitive transition that leads from a mere desire to a proper intention. The resulting model of belief-based goal processing has also relevant consequences for the analysis of intentions, and constitutes the necessary core of a constructive theory of intentions, i.e. a framework that not only analyzes what an intention is, but also explains how it becomes what it is. (...)
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  16. Emiliano Lorini & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2007). The Cognitive Structure of Surprise: Looking for Basic Principles. Topoi 26 (1):133-149.
    We develop a conceptual and formal clarification of notion of surprise as a belief-based phenomenon by exploring a rich typology. Each kind of surprise is associated with a particular phase of cognitive processing and involves particular kinds of epistemic representations (representations and expectations under scrutiny, implicit beliefs, presuppositions). We define two main kinds of surprise: mismatch-based surprise and astonishment. In the central part of the paper we suggest how a formal model of surprise can be integrated with a formal model (...)
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  17. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2007). The Envious Mind. Cognition and Emotion 21 (3):449-479.
  18. Cristiano Castelfranchi, Francesca Giardini & Francesca Marzo (2006). Symposium on ''Cognition and Rationality: Part I'' Relationships Between Rational Decisions, Human Motives, and Emotions. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 5 (2):173-197.
    In the decision-making and rationality research field, rational decision theory (RDT) has always been the main framework, thanks to the elegance and complexity of its mathematical tools. Unfortunately, the formal refinement of the theory is not accompanied by a satisfying predictive accuracy, thus there is a big gap between what is predicted by the theory and the behaviour of real subjects. Here we propose a new foundation of the RDT, which has to be based on a cognitive architecture for reason-based (...)
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  19. Rosaria Conte & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2006). The Mental Path of Norms. Ratio Juris 19 (4):501-517.
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  20. Luca Tummolini & Cristiano Castelfranchi, Cognition, Joint Action and Collective Intentionality.
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  21. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2003). The Plausibility of Defensive Projection: A Cognitive Analysis. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33 (3):279–301.
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  22. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (2001). Acceptance as a Positive Attitude. Philosophical Explorations 4 (2):112 – 134.
    We argue in favor of the adaptive value of acceptance and that it deserves a definite status within the 'positive paradigm'. Acceptance currently suffers from ambiguous connotations because of its lack of optimistic biases and its similarity to resignation. We endeavor to show that acceptance and resignation are distinct attitudes by exploring their relationships with various phenomena-frustration, disappointment, expectation, positive thinking, replanning, and accuracy. The resulting distinguishing features of acceptance-thriving versus returning to baseline; realistic optimism versus hopelessness; persistence and flexible (...)
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  23. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2000). Artificial Liars: Why Computers Will (Necessarily) Deceive Us and Each Other. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 2 (2):113-119.
    In H-C interaction, computer supported cooperation andorganisation, computer mediated commerce, intelligentdata bases, teams of robots. etc. there will bepurposively deceiving computers. In particular, withinthe Agent-based paradigm we will have ``deceivingagents''''. Several kinds of deception will be present ininteraction with the user, or among people viacomputer, or among artificial agents not only formalicious reasons (war, commerce, fraud, etc.) butalso for goodwill and in our interest. Social control,trust, and moral aspects in artificial societies willbe the focus of theoretical worm as well as (...)
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  24. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2000). Through the Agents' Minds: Cognitive Mediators of Social Action. Mind and Society 1 (1):109-140.
    Thesis: Macro-level social phenomena are implemented through the (social) actions and minds of the individuals. Without an explicit theory of the agents' minds that founds, agents' behavior we cannot understand macro-level social phenomena, and in particular how they work. AntiThesis: Mind is not enough: the theory of individual (social) mind and action is not enough to explain several macro-level social phenomena. First, there are pre-cognitive, objective social structures that constrain the actions of the agents; second, there are emergent, unaware or (...)
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  25. Cristiano Castelfranchi (1999). Prescribed Mental Attitudes in Goal-Adoption and Norm-Adoption. Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (1):37-50.
    The general aim of this work is to show the importance of the adressee's mind as planned by the author of a speech act or of a norm; in particular, how important are the expected motivations for goal adoption. We show that speech acts differ from one another for the different motivations the speaker is attempting to obtain from the hearer. The description of the participants' social positions is not sufficient. Important conflicts can arise which are not relative to what (...)
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  26. Rosaria Conte & Cristiano Castelfranchi (1999). From Conventions to Prescriptions. Towards an Integrated View of Norms. Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (4):323-340.
    In this paper, a model of norms as cognitive objects is applied to establish connections between social conventions and prescriptions. Relevant literature on this issue, especially found in AI and the social sciences, will be shown to suffer from a dychotomic view: a conventionalistic view proposed by rationality and AI scientists; and a prescriptive view proposed by some philosophers of law (Kelsen 1934/1979, Hart 1961, Ross, 1958).In the present work, the attempt is made to fill the gap between these views (...)
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  27. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (1998). How to Silence One's Conscience: Cognitive Defenses Against the Feeling of Guilt. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28 (3):287–318.
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  28. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte (1996). Distributed Artificial Intelligence and Social Science: Critical Issues. In N. Jennings & G. O'Hare (eds.), Foundations of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Wiley.
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  29. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Maria Miceli (1996). Commentary on Towards a Design-Based Analysis of Emotional Episodes. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (2):129-133.
  30. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (1996). Commentary on "Towards a Design-Based Analysis of Emotional Episodes&Quot. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (2):129-133.
  31. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte (1992). Emergent Functionality Among Intelligent Systems: Cooperation Within and Without Minds. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (1):78-87.
    In this paper, the current AI view that emergent functionalities apply only to the study of subcognitive agents is questioned; a hypercognitive view of autonomous agents as proposed in some AI subareas is also rejected. As an alternative view, a unified theory of social interaction is proposed which allows for the consideration of both cognitive and extracognitive social relations. A notion of functional effect is proposed, and the application of a formal model of cooperation is illustrated. Functional cooperation shows the (...)
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  32. Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi (1989). A Cognitive Approach to Values. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 19 (2):169–193.
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