Search results for 'Criteria' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Anders J. Persson & Sven Ove Hansson (2003). Privacy at Work – Ethical Criteria. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (1):59 - 70.score: 24.0
    New technologies and practices, such as drug testing, genetic testing, and electronic surveillance infringe upon the privacy of workers on workplaces. We argue that employees have a prima facie right to privacy, but this right can be overridden by competing moral principles that follow, explicitly or implicitly, from the contract of employment. We propose a set of criteria for when intrusions into an employee''s privacy are justified. Three types of justification are specified, namely those that refer to the employer''s (...)
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  2. Graeme Ritchie (2007). Some Empirical Criteria for Attributing Creativity to a Computer Program. Minds and Machines 17 (1):67-99.score: 24.0
    Over recent decades there has been a growing interest in the question of whether computer programs are capable of genuinely creative activity. Although this notion can be explored as a purely philosophical debate, an alternative perspective is to consider what aspects of the behaviour of a program might be noted or measured in order to arrive at an empirically supported judgement that creativity has occurred. We sketch out, in general abstract terms, what goes on when a potentially creative program is (...)
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  3. Solomon Feferman (2010). Set-Theoretical Invariance Criteria for Logicality. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (1):3-20.score: 24.0
    This is a survey of work on set-theoretical invariance criteria for logicality. It begins with a review of the Tarski-Sher thesis in terms, first, of permutation invariance over a given domain and then of isomorphism invariance across domains, both characterized by McGee in terms of definability in the language L∞,∞. It continues with a review of critiques of the Tarski-Sher thesis, and a proposal in response to one of those critiques via homomorphism invariance. That has quite divergent characterization results (...)
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  4. Clément Vidal (2012). Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison. Metaphilosophy 43 (3):306-347.score: 24.0
    Philosophy lacks criteria to evaluate its philosophical theories. To fill this gap, this essay introduces nine criteria to compare worldviews, classified in three broad categories: objective criteria (objective consistency, scientificity, scope), subjective criteria (subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality), and intersubjective criteria (intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity). The essay first defines what a worldview is and exposes the heuristic used in the quest for criteria. After describing each criterion individually, it shows what happens when each (...)
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  5. Krüger J. Viviers S. (2012). The Relative Importance of Ethics, Environmental, Social and Governance Criteria. African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):120.score: 24.0
    Responsible investing (RI) is a growing phenomenon in the international investment arena. This article investigates the level of knowledge of members of South African pension/provident funds with regard to RI and the importance with which they view various ethical, environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria. Respondents ( n = 281) indicated a relatively low level of understanding of the concept of RI. Significant differences were noted in the perceptions of respondents about the relative importance of ethical and ESG (...) based on their gender and level of education. The findings could assist asset owners in reformulating their investment mandates, which in turn, will enable fund managers to invest in a more responsible manner. (shrink)
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  6. Michael A. Slote (1969). Free Will, Determinism, and the Theory of Important Criteria. Inquiry 12 (1-4):317-38.score: 24.0
    The Theory of Important Criteria is used to argue that the age?old problem of the compatibility of free will and determinism turns on the question of the importance of causal indeterminacy of choice as a criterion of being able to do otherwise. One's answer to this question depends in turn on one's evaluation of certain moral issues and of the force and significance of certain similes, analogies and diagrams in terms of which one can ?depict? a deterministic universe. It (...)
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  7. Peter Gilroy & Brian Wilcox (1997). Ofsted, Criteria and the Nature of Social Understanding: A Wittgensteinian Critique of the Practice of Educational Judgement. British Journal of Educational Studies 45 (1):22 - 38.score: 24.0
    Since their inception in 1993 OFSTED inspections have generated considerable controversy amongst teachers and educationists generally, Much of the criticism to date has centred on the effects which such inspections have had on schools and their staffs. In contrast little sustained concern has been shown about the underlying assumptions of the OFSTED inspection process. This article identifies as the central feature of that process a particular but tacit conception of judgement. This conception is examined from an essentially Wittgensteinian perspective and (...)
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  8. Alain Desrosières (2009). How to Be Real and Conventional: A Discussion of the Quality Criteria of Official Statistics. Minerva 47 (3):307-322.score: 24.0
    Are the categories used to study the social world and acting on it real or conventional ? An empirical answer to that question is given by an analysis of the debates about the quality of statistics produced by the European National Institues of statistics in the 1990s. Six criteria of quality were then specified: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, accessibility, comparability and coherence. How do statisticians and users of statistics deal with the tension produced by their objects being both real (they (...)
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  9. Aloysius P. Martinich (2014). Political Theory and Linguistic Criteria in Han Feizi's Philosophy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (3):379-393.score: 24.0
    Han Feizi’s 韓非子 thought, I argue, contains a political theory that justifies principled, law-governed government. A key element of his theory is a solution to the problem of rectifying names. He recognized that the same word can have varying criteria of application depending on the purpose of the practice that requires a criterion. Some criteria for a practice are good and some bad. A wise ruler knows which criteria are good and appropriate to ruling. His view is (...)
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  10. Ashok K. Vijh (1996). Reflections on Peer Review Practices in Committees Selecting Laureates for Prestigious Awards and Prizes: Some Relevant and Irrelevant Criteria. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):389-394.score: 24.0
    An important function in all scholarly and academic activities is the participation in the peer review system. One aspect of this peer review evaluation is service on committees judging candidates for important awards, prizes and fellowships. Some reflective observations on this process are made in which a number of factors determining the final choice are identified. It is pointed out that the decisions of such committees are based not only on relevant and objective criteria but are also influenced by (...)
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  11. Udo Ebert (2010). Dominance Criteria for Welfare Comparisons: Using Equivalent Income to Describe Differences in Needs. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 69 (1):55-67.score: 24.0
    The article demonstrates that the dominance approach—often used for the measurement of welfare in a population in which there are different household types (see e.g., Atkinson and Bourguignon, Arrow and the foundations of the theory of economic policy, 350–370, 1987)—can be based on explicit value judgments on the households’ living standard. We define living standard by equivalent income (functions) and consider classes of inequality averse social welfare functions: Welfare increases if the inequality of living standard is decreased. In this framework, (...)
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  12. S. Viviers, J. Krüger & D. J. Venter (2012). The Relative Importance of Ethics, Environmental, Social and Governance Criteria. African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):120.score: 24.0
    Responsible investing (RI) is a growing phenomenon in the international investment arena. This article investigates the level of knowledge of members of South African pension/provident funds with regard to RI and the importance with which they view various ethical, environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria. Respondents (_n_ = 281) indicated a relatively low level of understanding of the concept of RI. Significant differences were noted in the perceptions of respondents about the relative importance of ethical and ESG criteria (...)
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  13. Andrew Ward (2009). Causal Criteria and the Problem of Complex Causation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):333-343.score: 24.0
    Nancy Cartwright begins her recent book, Hunting Causes and Using Them, by noting that while a few years ago real causal claims were in dispute, nowadays “causality is back, and with a vengeance.” In the case of the social sciences, Keith Morrison writes that “Social science asks ‘why?’. Detecting causality or its corollary—prediction—is the jewel in the crown of social science research.” With respect to the health sciences, Judea Pearl writes that the “research questions that motivate most studies in the (...)
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  14. Theodore Sider (2001). Criteria of Personal Identity and the Limits of Conceptual Analysis. Philosophical Perspectives 15 (s15):189-209.score: 21.0
    It is easy to become battle-weary in metaphysics. In the face of seemingly unresolvable disputes and unanswerable questions, it is tempting to cast aside one’s sword, proclaiming: “there is no fact of the matter who is right!” Sometimes that is the right thing to do. As a case study, consider the search for the criterion of personal identity over time. I say there is no fact of the matter whether the correct criterion is bodily or psychological continuity.1 There exist two (...)
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  15. Hector-Neri Castaneda (1962). Criteria, Analogy, and Knowledge of Other Minds. Journal of Philosophy 59 (September):533-546.score: 21.0
  16. Alec Hyslop (1973). Criteria and Other Minds. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 51 (August):105-14.score: 21.0
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  17. Charles Sayward (2004). Malcolm on Criteria. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):349-358.score: 21.0
    Consider the general proposition that normally when people pain-behave they are in pain. Where a traditional philosopher like Mill tries to give an empirical proof of this proposition (the argument from analogy), Malcolm tries to give a transcendental proof. Malcolm’s argument is transcendental in that he tries to show that the very conditions under which we can have a concept provide for the application of the concept and the knowledge that the concept is truly as well as properly applied. The (...)
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  18. J. Temkin (1990). Wittgenstein on Criteria and Other Minds. Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):561-93.score: 21.0
  19. Richard Rorty (1973). Criteria and Necessity. Noûs 7 (November):313-327.score: 21.0
  20. Sahotra Sarkar (2013). Multiple Criteria and Trade-Offs in Environmental Ethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):533-537.score: 21.0
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  21. Herb Yarvin (1978). Criteria of the Physical. Metaphilosophy 9 (April):122-132.score: 21.0
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  22. Sander P. K. Welie (2001). Criteria for Patient Decision Making (in)Competence: A Review of and Commentary on Some Empirical Approaches. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):139-151.score: 21.0
    The principle of autonomy presupposes Patient Decision Making Competence (PDMC). For a few decades a considerable amount of empirical research has been done into PDMC. In this contribution that research is explored. After a short exposition on four qualities involved in PDMC, different approaches to assess PDMC are distinguished, namely a negative and a positive one. In the negative approach the focus is on identifying psychopathologic conditions that impair sound decision making; the positive one attempts to assess whether a patient (...)
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  23. C. Wellman (1961). Our Criteria for Third-Person Psychological Sentences. Journal of Philosophy 58 (May):281-93.score: 21.0
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  24. Harrison B. Hall (1976). Criteria, Perception and Other Minds. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (June):257-274.score: 21.0
    The paper uses thompson clark's theory of the relation of perceptual parts and wholes to illuminate certain aspects of our knowledge of other minds. The thesis is that the traditional problem can be usefully broken down into two parts--One of which calls for a better understanding of the logic of perceptual concepts; the other, For a closer look at what happens when we try to take the epistemological skeptic seriously.
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  25. William Hasker (1971). Theories, Analogies, and Criteria. American Philosophical Quarterly 8 (July):242-256.score: 21.0
  26. Marcel Mertz, Julia Inthorn, Günter Renz, Lillian G. Rothenberger, Sabine Salloch, Jan Schildmann, Sabine Wöhlke & Silke Schicktanz (2014). Research Across the Disciplines: A Road Map for Quality Criteria in Empirical Ethics Research. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):17.score: 21.0
    Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE (...)
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  27. Andrew F. Long & Paul Dixon (1996). Monitoring Outcomes in Routine Practice: Defining Appropriate Measurement Criteria. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (1):71-78.score: 21.0
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  28. Ana Maestre, Vicente Gil, Javier Gallego, José Aznar, Antonia Mora & Alberto Martín‐Hidalgo (2009). Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Criteria for Identifying Systolic and Diastolic Heart Failure: Cross‐Sectional Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (1):55-61.score: 21.0
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  29. Cynthia Szymanski Sunal, Theresa McCormick, Dennis W. Sunal & Craig Shwery (2005). Elementary Teacher Candidates' Construction of Criteria for Selecting Social Studies Lesson Plans for Electronic Portfolios. Journal of Social Studies Research 29 (1):7-17.score: 21.0
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  30. Hongli Xiao, Haiyu Qi, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Li, Suxia Ma, Zongli Diao, Yan Wang, Fangfang Sun & Chenghong Yin (2012). The Identification of Risk Factors for Critically Ill Patients with Acute Fever and Formulation of Activation Criteria to Alert Outpatient Clinic Doctors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):721-726.score: 21.0
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  31. Dr George D. Catalano (2006). Promoting Peace in Engineering Education: Modifying the ABET Criteria. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (2):399-406.score: 21.0
    Modifications to the ABET Criterion 3 are suggested in support of the effort to promote the pursuit of peace in engineering education. The proposed modifications are the result of integrating the United Nations’ sponsored “Integral Model of Education for Peace, Democracy and Sustainable Development” into the modern engineering curriculum. The key elements of the model are being at peace with oneself, being at peace with others, and being at peace with the planet. In addition to proposing modifications, specific classroom activities (...)
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  32. Hongli Xiao, Haiyu Qi, Xingwang Li, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Li, Suxia Ma, Zongli Diao, Yan Wang, Fangfang Sun & Chenghong Yin (2010). The Identification of Risk Factors for Infectious Patients with Acute Fever and Formulation of Activation Criteria to Alert Outpatient Clinic Doctors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1248-1253.score: 21.0
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  33. Sarah Barras, Karen Grimmer‐Somers & Esther May (2010). Consensus on 'Core/Essential' and 'Ideal World' Criteria of a Pre‐Discharge Occupational Therapy Home Assessment. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1295-1300.score: 21.0
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  34. Joseph Dumas & Elaine Gross (1973). Effects of Attribute Probability on Response Criteria Adjustments in a Memory Retrieval Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):307.score: 21.0
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  35. S. Eng (1999). Criteria That Are Used in the Setting Up of and Choice Between Descriptive Characterisations. Law and Philosophy 18 (5):475-495.score: 21.0
    This paper investigates the actual use of truth as a criterion in the setting up of and choice between descriptive characterisations. The consideration for truth is often weighed against other considerations. This weighing character is illuminated through examples from everyday life, politics, law, and science. In everyday life the weighing character shows itself inter alia through the categories of `white lies' and `great questions', and in politics, inter alia through the categories of `personal character' versus `the party'. In law there (...)
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  36. Debora Mantovani (2011). Italian or Foreigner? Concerning Student Classification Criteria in Social Research. Polis 25 (1):65-98.score: 21.0
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  37. Robert L. Arrington (1979). Criteria and Entailment. Ratio 21 (June):62-72.score: 21.0
     
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  38. Yvonne Christley, Tim Duffy & Colin R. Martin (2012). A Review of the Definitional Criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):25-31.score: 21.0
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  39. Chris James, Guy Carrin, William Savedoff & Piya Hanvoravongchai (2005). Clarifying Efficiency-Equity Tradeoffs Through Explicit Criteria, with a Focus on Developing Countries. Health Care Analysis 13 (1):33-51.score: 21.0
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  40. Hannes Leitgeb & James Ladyman (2008). Criteria of Identity and Structuralist Ontology. Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):388-396.score: 18.0
    In discussions about whether the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles is compatible with structuralist ontologies of mathematics, it is usually assumed that individual objects are subject to criteria of identity which somehow account for the identity of the individuals. Much of this debate concerns structures that admit of non-trivial automorphisms. We consider cases from graph theory that violate even weak formulations of PII. We argue that (i) the identity or difference of places in a structure is not to (...)
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  41. Timothy Chappell (2011). On the Very Idea of Criteria for Personhood. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (1):1-27.score: 18.0
    I examine the familiar criterial view of personhood, according to which the possession of personal properties such as self-consciousness, emotionality, sentience, and so forth is necessary and sufficient for the status of a person. I argue that this view confuses criteria for personhood with parts of an ideal of personhood. In normal cases, we have already identified a creature as a person before we start looking for it to manifest the personal properties, indeed this pre-identification is part of what (...)
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  42. Mario Bunge (1961). Kinds and Criteria of Scientific Laws. Philosophy of Science 28 (3):260-281.score: 18.0
    Factual statements that might qualify for the status of law statements are classed from various philosophically relevant standpoints (referents, precision, structure of predicates, extension, systemicity, inferential power, inception, ostensiveness, testability, levels, and determination categories). More than seven dozen of not mutually exclusive kinds of lawlike statements emerge. Strictly universal and counterfactually powerful statements are seen to constitute just one kind of lawlike statements; classificatory and some statistical laws, e.g., are shown not to comply with the requirements of universality and counterfactual (...)
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  43. Timothy Rosenkoetter (2009). Truth Criteria and the Very Project of a Transcendental Logic. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91 (2):193-236.score: 18.0
    This paper argues that Kant's idea for a new kind of logic is bound up with a very specific strategy for obtaining truth criteria, where he takes Christian Wolff to have failed. While the First Critique 's argument against any universal criterion for empirical truth has almost always been treated as extraneous to the main concerns of the Transcendental Analytic, I argue that Kant inserted it at an important juncture in the text to illustrate a signal difference between traditional (...)
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  44. Kenneth Einar Himma (2009). Artificial Agency, Consciousness, and the Criteria for Moral Agency: What Properties Must an Artificial Agent Have to Be a Moral Agent? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):19-29.score: 18.0
    In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency, supporting the contention that this is the standard account with citations from such widely used and respected professional resources as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I then flesh out the implications of some of these well-settled (...)
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  45. Ann E. Cudd (2005). How to Explain Oppression: Criteria of Adequacy for Normative Explanatory Theories. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (1):20-49.score: 18.0
    This article discusses explanatory theories of normative concepts and argues for a set of criteria of adequacy by which such theories may be evaluated. The criteria offered fall into four categories: ontological, theoretical, pragmatic, and moral. After defending the criteria and discussing their relative weighting, this article uses them to prune the set of available explanatory theories of oppression. Functionalist theories, including Hegelian recognition theory and Foucauldian social theory, are rejected, as are psychoanalytic theory and social dominance (...)
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  46. Fred Ablondi (1998). Automata, Living and Non-Living: Descartes' Mechanical Biology and His Criteria for Life. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):179-186.score: 18.0
    Despite holding to the essential distinction between mind and body, Descartes did not adopt a life-body dualism. Though humans are the only creatures which can reason, as they are the only creatures whose body is in an intimate union with a soul, they are not the only finite beings who are alive. In the present note, I attempt to determine Descartes'' criteria for something to be ''living.'' Though certain passages associate such a principle with the presence of a properly (...)
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  47. Brian Epstein (2012). Sortals and Criteria of Identity. Analysis 72 (3):474-478.score: 18.0
    In a recent article, Harold Noonan argues that application conditions and criteria of identity are not distinct from one another. This seems to threaten the standard approach to distinguishing sortals from adjectival terms. I propose that his observation, while correct, does not have this consequence. I present a simple scheme for distinguishing sortals from adjectival terms. I also propose an amended version of the standard canonical form of criteria of identity.
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  48. Hannes Leitgeb (2013). Criteria of Identity: Strong and Wrong. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):61-68.score: 18.0
    We show that finitely axiomatized first-order theories that involve some criterion of identity for entities of a category C can be reformulated as conjunctions of a non-triviality statement and a criterion of identity for entities of category C again. From this, we draw two conclusions: First, criteria of identity can be very strong deductively. Second, although the criteria of identity that are constructed in the proof of the theorem are not good ones intuitively, it is difficult to say (...)
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  49. Predrag Šustar (2005). Nomological and Transcendental Criteria for Scientific Laws. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (3):533-544.score: 18.0
    It has become a standard view in the philosophy of science scholarship (e.g., van Fraassen [1989]) that debates on the problem of laws of nature and/or scientific laws employ pre-Kantian approaches to the subject in question. But what exactly a Kantian approach might look like and, above all, what Kant endorses on this matter are not entirely settled issues. In particular, this regards Kant’s argument on the problem of ’necessity grounding’ with respect to different types of the so-called “empirical laws (...)
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  50. Leon Horsten (2010). Impredicative Identity Criteria. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 80 (2):411-439.score: 18.0
    In this paper, a general perspective on criteria of identity of kinds of objects is developed. The question of the admissibility of impredicative or circular identitycriteria is investigated in the light of the view that is articulated. It is argued that in and of itself impredicativity docs not constitute sufficient grounds for rejecting aputative identity criterion. The view that is presented is applied to Davidson's criterion of identity for events and to the structuralist criterion of identity of placesin a (...)
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