Search results for 'Criticism of Mathematical Natural Philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Eric Schliesser, Spinoza and the Philosophy of Science: Mathematics, Motion, and Being.score: 1157.0
    This chapter argues that the standard conception of Spinoza as a fellow-travelling mechanical philosopher and proto-scientific naturalist is misleading. It argues, first, that Spinoza’s account of the proper method for the study of nature presented in the Theological-Political Treatise (TTP) points away from the one commonly associated with the mechanical philosophy. Moreover, throughout his works Spinoza’s views on the very possibility of knowledge of nature are decidedly sceptical (as specified below). Third, in the seventeenth-century debates over proper methods in (...)
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  2. Michael Barber (2006). Philosophy and Reflection: A Critique of Frank Welz's Sociological and “Processual” Criticism of Husserl and Schutz. [REVIEW] Human Studies 29 (2):141 - 157.score: 751.2
    Frank Welz’s Kritik der Lebenswelt undertakes a sociology of knowledge criticism of the work of Edmund Husserl and Alfred Schutz that construes them as developing absolutist, egological systems opposed to the “processual” worldview prominent since the modern rise of natural science. Welz, though, misunderstands the work of Schutz and Husserl and neglects how their focus on consciousness and eidetic features pertains to the kind of reflection that one must undertake if one would avoid succumbing to absolutism, that uncovers (...)
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  3. Ian G. Stewart (2004). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (3):665-667.score: 638.4
  4. A. A. H. Hamilton (1998). The Books of Nature and Scripture. Recent Essays on Natural Philosophy, Theology, and Biblical Criticism in the Netherlands of Spinoza's Time and the British Isles of Newton's Time. Heythrop Journal. A Quarterly Review of Philosophy and Theology 39:206-207.score: 638.4
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  5. Isaac Newton (2007). Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. In Aloysius Martinich, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Early Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell Pub..score: 602.4
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  6. K. P. F. (1964). The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 18 (1):181-181.score: 602.4
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  7. Helen Sullivan (1952). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Natural and Mathematical Sciences. New York, Vantage Press.score: 600.0
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  8. Alessandro Bertinetto (2004). The Criticism of Fichte in Natural Philosophy in the Years of Education as the University of Berlin (1810-1814). Filosofia 55 (1):1-32.score: 590.4
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  9. I. Bernard Cohen (1999). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.score: 590.4
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  10. J. J. MacMahon (1965). The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Philosophical Studies 14:264-265.score: 590.4
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  11. Edward A. Maziarz (1953). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Natural and Mathematical Sciences. New Scholasticism 27 (3):347-349.score: 576.0
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  12. Edward Grant (2007). A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.score: 535.2
    Natural philosophy encompassed all natural phenomena of the physical world. It sought to discover the physical causes of all natural effects and was little concerned with mathematics. By contrast, the exact mathematical sciences were narrowly confined to various computations that did not involve physical causes, functioning totally independently of natural philosophy. Although this began slowly to change in the late Middle Ages, a much more thoroughgoing union of natural philosophy and mathematics (...)
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  13. Sarah Powrie (2013). The Importance of Fourteenth-Century Natural Philosophy for Nicholas of Cusa's Infinite Universe. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (1):33-53.score: 535.2
    This paper argues that Nicholas of Cusa’s investigation of infinity and incommensurability in De docta ignorantia was shaped by the mathematical innovations and thought experiments of fourteenth-century natural philosophy. Cusanus scholarship has overlooked this influence, in part because Raymond Klibansky’s influential edition of De docta ignorantia situated Cusa within the medieval Platonic tradition. However, Cusa departs from this tradition in a number of ways. His willingness to engage incommensurability and to compare different magnitudes of infinity distinguishes him (...)
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  14. Imre Lakatos (1976). Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery. Cambridge University Press.score: 533.8
    Proofs and Refutations is essential reading for all those interested in the methodology, the philosophy and the history of mathematics. Much of the book takes the form of a discussion between a teacher and his students. They propose various solutions to some mathematical problems and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of these solutions. Their discussion (which mirrors certain real developments in the history of mathematics) raises some philosophical problems and some problems about the nature of mathematical discovery (...)
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  15. Angus Fletcher (2011). Evolving Hamlet: Seventeenth-Century English Tragedy and the Ethics of Natural Selection. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 528.0
  16. F. Töpfer & U. Wiesing (2005). The Medical Theory of Richard Koch II: Natural Philosophy and History. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):323-334.score: 516.6
    Richard Koch1 became known in the 1920s with works on basic medical theory. Among these publications, the character of medical action and its status within the theory of science was presented as the most important theme. While science is inherently driven by the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, medicine pursues the practical purpose of helping the sick. Therefore, medicine must be seen as an active relationship between a helping and a suffering person. While elucidating this relationship, Koch discusses (...)
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  17. Dennis des Chene, How the World Became Mathematical.score: 514.4
    My title, of course, is an exaggeration. The world no more became mathematical in the seventeenth century than it became ironic in the nineteenth. Either it was mathematical all along, and seventeenth-century philosophers discovered it was, or, if it wasn’t, it could not have been made so by a few books. What became mathematical was physics, and whether that has any bearing on the furniture of the universe is one topic of this paper. Garber says, and I (...)
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  18. N. Maxwell (2012). In Praise of Natural Philosophy: A Revolution for Thought and Life. Philosophia 40 (4):705-715.score: 507.6
    Modern science began as natural philosophy. In the time of Newton, what we call science and philosophy today – the disparate endeavours – formed one mutually interacting, integrated endeavour of natural philosophy: to improve our knowledge and understanding of the universe, and to improve our understanding of ourselves as a part of it. Profound, indeed unprecedented discoveries were made. But then natural philosophy died. It split into science on the one hand, and (...) on the other. This happened during the 18th and 19th centuries, and the split is now built into our intellectual landscape. But the two fragments, science and philosophy, are defective shadows of the glorious unified endeavour of natural philosophy. Rigour, sheer intellectual good sense and decisive argument demand that we put the two together again, and rediscover the immense merits of the integrated enterprise of natural philosophy. This requires an intellectual revolution, with dramatic implications for how we understand our world, how we understand and do science, and how we understand and do philosophy. There are dramatic implications, too, for education, and for the entire academic endeavour, and its capacity to help us discover how to tackle more successfully our immense global problems. (shrink)
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  19. Roman Murawski (2010). Philosophy of Mathematics in the Warsaw Mathematical School. Axiomathes 20 (2-3):279-293.score: 498.0
    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the philosophical views concerning mathematics of the founders of the so called Warsaw Mathematical School, i.e., Wacław Sierpiński, Zygmunt Janiszewski and Stefan Mazurkiewicz. Their interest in the philosophy of mathematics and their philosophical papers will be considered. We shall try to answer the question whether their philosophical views influenced their proper mathematical investigations. Their views towards set theory and its rôle in mathematics will be emphasized.
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  20. Denis Fisette (2010). Descriptive Psychology and Natural Sciences: Husserl’s Early Criticism of Brentano. In C. Iena (ed.), Edmund Husserl 150 Years: Philosophy, Phenomenology, Sciences. Springer. 221--253.score: 494.4
    In defining his phenomenology as descriptive psychology in the introduction to the first edition of his Logical Investigations 1, Husserl suggests that the field study of his phenomenology as his methodology are very close to that of Brentano’s psychology, and that the research in the book somehow contributes to Brentano’s philosophical program, one of whose main axes is psychology or philosophy of mind.
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  21. Aspasia S. Moue, Kyriakos A. Masavetas & Haido Karayianni (2006). Tracing the Development of Thought Experiments in the Philosophy of Natural Sciences. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (1):61 - 75.score: 477.0
    An overview is provided of how the concept of the thought experiment has developed and changed for the natural sciences in the course of the 20th century. First, we discuss the existing definitions of the term 'thought experiment' and the origin of the thought experimentation method, identifying it in Greek Presocratics epoch. Second, only in the end of the 19th century showed up the first systematic enquiry on thought experiments by Ernst Mach's work. After the Mach's work, a negative (...)
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  22. Christopher Pincock (2009). Towards a Philosophy of Applied Mathematics. In Otávio Bueno & Øystein Linnebo (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Mathematics. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 467.2
    Most contemporary philosophy of mathematics focuses on a small segment of mathematics, mainly the natural numbers and foundational disciplines like set theory. While there are good reasons for this approach, in this paper I will examine the philosophical problems associated with the area of mathematics known as applied mathematics. Here mathematicians pursue mathematical theories that are closely connected to the use of mathematics in the sciences and engineering. This area of mathematics seems to proceed using different methods (...)
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  23. Leon Horsten, Philosophy of Mathematics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 453.6
    If mathematics is regarded as a science, then the philosophy of mathematics can be regarded as a branch of the philosophy of science, next to disciplines such as the philosophy of physics and the philosophy of biology. However, because of its subject matter, the philosophy of mathematics occupies a special place in the philosophy of science. Whereas the natural sciences investigate entities that are located in space and time, it is not at all (...)
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  24. Stewart Shapiro (ed.) (2005). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic. Oxford University Press.score: 442.4
    Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on (...)
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  25. Tim Crane (1999). The Autonomy of Psychology. In Rob Wilson & Frank Keil (eds.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. MIT Press.score: 441.0
    Psychology has been considered to have an autonomy from the other sciences (especially physical science) in at least two ways: in its subject-matter and in its methods. To say that the subject-matter of psychology is autonomous is to say that psychology deals with entities—properties, relations, states—which are not dealt with or not wholly explicable in terms of physical (or any other) science. Contrasted with this is the idea that psychology employs a characteristic method of explanation, which is not shared by (...)
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  26. Lloyd P. Gerson (1990/1994). God and Greek Philosophy: Studies in the Early History of Natural Theology. Routledge.score: 441.0
    THE PRE-SOCRATIC ORIGINS OF NATURAL THEOLOGY § INTRODUCTION St Augustine informs us that pagan philosophers divided theology into three parts: () civic ...
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  27. V. O. Lobovikov (1999). Mathematical Jurisprudence and Mathematical Ethics: A Mathematical Simulation of the Evaluative and the Normative Attitudes to the Rigoristic Sub-Systems of the Positive Law and of the Natural-Law-and-Morals. The Urals State University Press.score: 434.4
     
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  28. Alexander Klein (2008). Divide Et Impera! William James's Pragmatist Tradition in the Philosophy of Science. Philosophical Topics 36 (1):129-166.score: 433.6
    ABSTRACT. May scientists rely on substantive, a priori presuppositions? Quinean naturalists say "no," but Michael Friedman and others claim that such a view cannot be squared with the actual history of science. To make his case, Friedman offers Newton's universal law of gravitation and Einstein's theory of relativity as examples of admired theories that both employ presuppositions (usually of a mathematical nature), presuppositions that do not face empirical evidence directly. In fact, Friedman claims that the use of such presuppositions (...)
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  29. Carlo Cellucci (1996). Mathematical Logic: What has It Done for the Philosophy of Mathematics? In Piergiorgio Odifreddi (ed.), Kreiseliana. About and Around Georg Kreisel, pp. 365-388. A K Peters.score: 433.2
    onl y to discuss some claims concerning the relationship between mathematical logic and the philosophy of mathematics that repeatedly occur in his writings. Although I do not know to what extent they are representative of his present position, they correspond to widespread views of the logical community and so seem worth discussing anyhow. Such claims will be used as reference to make some remarks about the present state of relations between mathematical logic and the philosophy of (...)
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  30. Maarten Van Dyck & Albrecht Heeffer (2014). Script and Symbolic Writing in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. Foundations of Science 19 (1):1-10.score: 427.2
    We introduce the question whether there are specific kinds of writing modalities and practices that facilitated the development of modern science and mathematics. We point out the importance and uniqueness of symbolic writing, which allowed early modern thinkers to formulate a new kind of questions about mathematical structure, rather than to merely exploit this structure for solving particular problems. In a very similar vein, the novel focus on abstract structural relations allowed for creative conceptual extensions in natural (...) during the scientific revolution. These preliminary reflections are meant to set the stage for the following contributions in this volume. (shrink)
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  31. Marije Martijn (2010). Proclus on Nature: Philosophy of Nature and its Methods in Proclus' Commentary on Plato's Timaeus. Brill.score: 424.4
    One of the hardest questions to answer for a (Neo)platonist is to what extent and how the changing and unreliable world of sense perception can itself be an object of scientific knowledge. My dissertation is a study of the answer given to that question by the Neoplatonist Proclus (Athens, 411-485) in his Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus. I present a new explanation of Proclus’ concept of nature and show that philosophy of nature consists of several related subdisciplines matching the ontological (...)
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  32. Kenneth R. Westphal (1998). ‘On Hegel’s Early Critique of Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science’. In S. Houlgate (ed.), Hegel and the Philosophy of Nature. SUNY.score: 420.8
    In 1801 Hegel charged that, on Kant’s analysis, forces are ‘either purely ideal, in which case they are not forces, or else they are transcendent’. I argue that this objection, which Hegel did not spell out, reveals an important and fundamental line of internal criticism of Kant’s Critical philosophy. I show that Kant’s basic forces of attraction and repulsion, which constitute matter, are merely ideal because Kant’s arguments for them are circular and beg the question, and they have (...)
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  33. Daniel E. Shannon (2013). Hegel's Philosophy of Nature of 1805-6; Its Relation to the Phenomenology of Spirit. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (1):101-132.score: 420.6
    800x600 Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) was supposed to be the introduction and first part of the Jena System III, and as such it was to introduce us to the other parts of the project. Most commentators on Hegel’s Phenomenology , however, do not consider how the Phenomenology relates the other parts, and some discount Hegel understanding and commitment to the natural philosophy of his day. This paper attempts to make the connection between the Phenomenology and the (...) Philosophy of 1805-06 explicit; to show where and how the connections are made; to identify how Hegel uses the natural sciences of his day in creating his system. By showing this I hope to prove that his concept of Spirit is born within his natural philosophy. It is part of his cosmology. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}. (shrink)
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  34. Roger Schmit (2004). Wie Natürlich Ist Das System der Natürlichen Deduktion? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 35 (1):129-145.score: 420.0
    How natural is natural deduction?– Gentzen's system of natural deduction intends to fit logical rules to the effective mathematical reasoning in order to overcome the artificiality of deductions in axiomatic systems (¶ 2). In spite of this reform some of Gentzen's rules for natural deduction are criticised by psychologists and natural language philosophers for remaining unnatural. The criticism focuses on the principle of extensionality and on formalism of logic (¶ 3). After sketching the (...)
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  35. Nicholas Maxwell (forthcoming). Popper's Paradoxical Pursuit of Natural Philosophy. In J. Shearmur & G. Stokes (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Popper. Cambridge University Press.score: 417.6
    Philosophy of science is seen by most as a meta-discipline – one that takes science as its subject matter, and seeks to acquire knowledge and understanding about science without in any way affecting, or contributing to, science itself. Karl Popper’s approach is very different. His first love is natural philosophy or, as he would put it, cosmology. This intermingles cosmology and the rest of natural science with epistemology, methodology and metaphysics. Paradoxically, however, one of his best (...)
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  36. Jan-Erik Jones (2012). Review of John Locke and Natural Philosophy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2012.score: 417.6
    This is a review of Peter Anstey's John Locke and Natural Philosophy, which is a masterful and well-argued study of Locke's philosophy of science that shall become both the standard and starting place, for scholars and students alike, for decades to come. Anstey's meticulous and thorough research, combined with his comprehensive knowledge of the history of natural philosophy, make this work a must-read for all who are interested in Locke, early modern philosophy, the history (...)
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  37. Michael J. White, Locke on Newton's Principia: Mathematics or Natural Philosophy?score: 415.2
    In his Essay concerning Human Understanding, John Locke explicitly refers to Newton’s Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica in laudatory but restrained terms: “Mr. Newton, in his never enough to be admired Book, has demonstrated several Propositions, which are so many new Truths, before unknown to the World, and are farther Advances in Mathematical Knowledge” (Essay, 4.7.3). The mathematica of the Principia are thus acknowledged. But what of philosophia naturalis? Locke maintains that natural philosophy, conceived as natural science (...)
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  38. Stewart Shapiro (1997). Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology. Oxford University Press.score: 414.4
    Do numbers, sets, and so forth, exist? What do mathematical statements mean? Are they literally true or false, or do they lack truth values altogether? Addressing questions that have attracted lively debate in recent years, Stewart Shapiro contends that standard realist and antirealist accounts of mathematics are both problematic. As Benacerraf first noted, we are confronted with the following powerful dilemma. The desired continuity between mathematical and, say, scientific language suggests realism, but realism in this context suggests seemingly (...)
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  39. Charles T. Wolfe, Teleomechanism Redux? The Conceptual Hybridity of Living Machines in Early Modern Natural Philosophy.score: 414.0
    We have been accustomed at least since Kant and mainstream history of philosophy to distinguish between the ‘mechanical’ and the ‘teleological’; between a fully mechanistic, quantitative science of Nature exemplified by Newton (or Galileo, or Descartes) and a teleological, qualitative approach to living beings ultimately expressed in the concept of ‘organism’ – a purposive entity, or at least an entity possessed of functions. The beauty of this distinction is that it seems to make intuitive sense and to map onto (...)
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  40. Matthias Schirn (ed.) (1998). The Philosophy of Mathematics Today. Clarendon Press.score: 413.6
    This comprehensive volume gives a panorama of the best current work in this lively field, through twenty specially written essays by the leading figures in the field. All essays deal with foundational issues, from the nature of mathematical knowledge and mathematical existence to logical consequence, abstraction, and the notions of set and natural number. The contributors also represent and criticize a variety of prominent approaches to the philosophy of mathematics, including platonism, realism, nomalism, constructivism, and formalism.
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  41. John Bigelow (1988). The Reality of Numbers: A Physicalist's Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.score: 412.8
    Challenging the myth that mathematical objects can be defined into existence, Bigelow here employs Armstrong's metaphysical materialism to cast new light on mathematics. He identifies natural, real, and imaginary numbers and sets with specified physical properties and relations and, by so doing, draws mathematics back from its sterile, abstract exile into the midst of the physical world.
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  42. Philippe Huneman (2006). From the Critique of Judgment to the Hermeneutics of Nature: Sketching the Fate of Philosophy of Nature After Kant. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 39 (1):1-34.score: 412.8
    This paper proposes an interpretative framework for some developments of the philosophy of nature after Kant. I emphasize the critique of the economy of nature in the Critique of judgement. I argue that it resulted in a split of a previous structure of knowledge; such a structure articulated natural theology and natural philosophy on the basis of the consideration of the order displayed by living beings, both in their internal organisation and their ecological distribution. The possibility (...)
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  43. Alfred A. Vichutinsky (2008). Of a Real Philosophy and the Natural Sciences Free of the Paranoia. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 41:47-55.score: 411.6
    The bases of tenets of the World came from the East; Pythagoras learnt all there up the 26 years. At a home, the east ideas where took in no; then he bound the mathematics with the elements of matter. This was the best way to a blood feud of the all Humanity. The 17th age gave the bases of mathematics and the Greek atomism; this had led to the paranoia in all sciences. The LCE was brought in 19th age with (...)
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  44. Ursula Renz (2011). From Philosophy to Criticism of Myth: Cassirer's Concept of Myth. Synthese 179 (1):135 - 152.score: 410.4
    This article discusses the question whether or not Cassirer's philosophical critique of technological use of myth in The Myth of the State implies a revision of his earlier conception and theory of myth as provided by The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. In the first part, Cassirer's early theory of myth is compared with other approaches of his time. It is claimed that Cassirer's early approach to myth has to be understood in terms of a transcendental philosophical approach. In consequence, (...)
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  45. Jordi Cat (2012). Into the 'Regions of Physical and Metaphysical Chaos': Maxwell's Scientific Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy of Action (Agency, Determinacy and Necessity From Theology, Moral Philosophy and History to Mathematics, Theory and Experiment). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):91-104.score: 406.0
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  46. Miren Boehm (2013). Hume's Foundational Project in the Treatise. European Journal of Philosophy 22 (2).score: 406.0
    In the Introduction to the Treatise Hume very enthusiastically announces his project to provide a secure and solid foundation for the sciences by grounding them on his science of man. And Hume indicates in the Abstract that he carries out this project in the Treatise. But most interpreters do not believe that Hume's project comes to fruition. In this paper, I offer a general reading of what I call Hume's ‘foundational project’ in the Treatise, but I focus especially on Book (...)
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  47. C. Smeenk (2005). David B. Malament, Editor, Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics, Open Court, Chicago and La Salle, IL (2002) ISBN 0-8126-9506-2 (Pp. 424 US $ 42.95, Hardcover). [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 36 (1):194-199.score: 406.0
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  48. Ae Miller & Mg Miller (1994). Central Themes of Kant's Philosophy of Science: Metaphysics and Mathematics as the a Priori Basis for Natural Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 159:10-16.score: 406.0
  49. Lisa Downing (2005). Berkeley's Natural Philosophy and Philosophy of Science. In Kenneth Winkler (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Berkeley. Cambridge University Press. 230--265.score: 404.0
    Although George Berkeley himself made no major scientific discoveries, nor formulated any novel theories, he was nonetheless actively concerned with the rapidly evolving science of the early eighteenth century. Berkeley's works display his keen interest in natural philosophy and mathematics from his earliest writings (Arithmetica, 1707) to his latest (Siris, 1744). Moreover, much of his philosophy is fundamentally shaped by his engagement with the science of his time. In Berkeley's best-known philosophical works, the Principles and Dialogues, he (...)
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  50. Hermann Weyl (1949). Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science. Princeton University Press.score: 402.8
    This is a book that no one but Weyl could have written--and, indeed, no one has written anything quite like it since.
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