Search results for 'Cross-Race facial deficit' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joshua Mugg (2013). What Are the Cognitive Costs of Racism? A Reply to Gendler. Philosophical Studies 166 (2):217-229.score: 420.0
    Tamar Gendler argues that, for those living in a society in which race is a salient sociological feature, it is impossible to be fully rational: members of such a society must either fail to encode relevant information containing race, or suffer epistemic costs by being implicitly racist. However, I argue that, although Gendler calls attention to a pitfall worthy of study, she fails to conclusively demonstrate that there are epistemic (or cognitive) costs of being racist. Gendler offers three supporting phenomena. (...)
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  2. Marilyn McCord Adams & Richard Cross (2005). Richard Cross. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):53-72.score: 180.0
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  3. Roberto Caldara (2010). Beyond Smiles: The Impact of Culture and Race in Embodying and Decoding Facial Expressions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):438-439.score: 144.0
    Understanding the very nature of the smile with an integrative approach and a novel model is a fertile ground for a new theoretical vision and insights. However, from this perspective, I challenge the authors to integrate culture and race in their model, because both factors would impact upon the embodying and decoding of facial expressions.
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  4. Megan H. Papesh & Stephen D. Goldinger (2010). A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces. Cognition 116 (2):283-288.score: 135.0
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  5. Ottmar V. Lipp, Belinda M. Craig, Mareka J. Frost, Deborah J. Terry & Joanne R. Smith (forthcoming). Searching for Emotion or Race: Task-Irrelevant Facial Cues Have Asymmetrical Effects. Cognition and Emotion:1-10.score: 120.0
  6. Gender Race (2002). 18 Crossing Boundaries. In Patricia Mohammed (ed.), Gendered Realities: Essays in Caribbean Feminist Thought. Centre for Gender and Development Studies. 325.score: 120.0
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  7. C. Braun, S. Bernier, R. Proulx & H. Cohen (1991). A Deficit of Primary Affective Facial Expression Independent of Bucco-Facial Dyspraxia in Chronic Schizophrenics. Cognition and Emotion 5 (2):147-159.score: 120.0
  8. Alvin G. Goldstein (1979). Race-Related Variation of Facial Features: Anthropometric Data I. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 13 (3):187-190.score: 120.0
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  9. Naoyuki Osaka (1986). Cross-Cultural Differences in the Perception of Facial Expressions of Ambiguous Noh Faces. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (6):427-430.score: 120.0
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  10. Mellor David (2012). Facial Affect Recognition and Schizotypal Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 120.0
  11. Takuma Takehara, Fumio Ochiai, Hiroshi Watanabe & Naoto Suzuki (2013). The Relationship Between Fractal Dimension and Other-Race and Inversion Effects in Recognising Facial Emotions. Cognition and Emotion 27 (4):577-588.score: 120.0
  12. James W. Tanaka, Markus Kiefer & Cindy M. Bukach (2004). A Holistic Account of the Own-Race Effect in Face Recognition: Evidence From a Cross-Cultural Study. Cognition 93 (1):B1-B9.score: 120.0
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  13. H. D. Lucas, J. Y. Chiao & K. A. Paller (2010). Why Some Faces Won't Be Remembered: Brain Potentials Illuminate Successful Versus Unsuccessful Encoding for Same-Race and Other-Race Faces. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:20-20.score: 102.0
    Memory is often less accurate for faces from another racial group than for faces from one's own racial group. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are a topic of active debate. Contemporary theories invoke factors such as inferior expertise with faces from other racial groups and an encoding emphasis on race-specifying information. We investigated neural mechanisms of this memory bias by recording event-related potentials while participants attempted to memorize same-race and other-race faces. Brain potentials at encoding were compared as a function (...)
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  14. Jan Oliver Huelle, Benjamin Sack, Katja Broer, Irina Komlewa & Silke Anders (forthcoming). Unsupervised Learning of Facial Emotion Recognition: A Possible Mechanism for Life-Long Tuning of Facial Emotion Decoding Skills. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.score: 84.0
    Research on the neural mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practise without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear (...)
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  15. J. T. Kubota & K. B. Senholzi (2010). Knowing You Beyond Race: The Importance of Individual Feature Encoding in the Other-Race Effect. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:33-33.score: 84.0
    Knowing You Beyond Race: The Importance of Individual Feature Encoding in the Other-Race Effect.
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  16. Anne Warfield Rawls & Gary David (2005). Accountably Other: Trust, Reciprocity and Exclusion in a Context of Situated Practice. [REVIEW] Human Studies 28 (4):469 - 497.score: 81.0
    The first part of this paper makes five points: First, the problem of Otherness is different and differently constructed in modern differentiated societies. Therefore, approaches to Otherness based on traditional notions of difference and boundary between societies and systems of shared belief will not suffice; Second, because solidarity can no longer be maintained through boundaries between ingroup and outgroup, social cohesion has to take a different form; Third, to the extent that Otherness is not a condition of demographic, or belief (...)
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  17. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan (2013). Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'. Theoria. A Journal of Social and Political Theory (South Africa) 60 (3):54-80.score: 66.0
    All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g., racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g., racial skepticism) is correct? We think not. We believe that the results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies underdetermine whether bio-genomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures, (...)
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  18. Ulf Hlobil, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Aley Alexander, Sankara Sarma & Kurupath Radhakrishnan (2008). Impaired Facial Emotion Recognition in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis (MTLE-HS): Side and Age at Onset Matters. Epilepsy Research 80 (2-3):150–157.score: 66.0
    To define the determinants of impaired facial emotion recognition (FER) in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), we examined 76 patients with unilateral MTLE-HS, 36 prior to antero-mesial temporal lobectomy (AMTL) and 40 after AMTL, and 28 healthy control subjects with a FER test consisting of 60 items (20 each for anger, fear, and happiness). Mean percentages of the accurate responses were calculated for different subgroups: right vs. left MTLE-HS, early (age at onset <6 (...)
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  19. Holger Wiese (2013). Do Neural Correlates of Face Expertise Vary with Task Demands? Event-Related Potential Correlates of Own-and Other-Race Face Inversion. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:898.score: 66.0
    We are typically more accurate at remembering own- than other-race faces. This “own-race bias” has been suggested to result from enhanced expertise with and more efficient perceptual processing of own-race than other-race faces. In line with this idea, the N170, an event-related potential correlate of face perception, has been repeatedly found to be larger for other-race faces. Other studies, however, found no difference in N170 amplitude for faces from diverse ethnic groups. The present study tested whether these seemingly incongruent findings (...)
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  20. Benoit Bediou, Jerome Brunelin, Thierry D'Amato, Shirley Fecteau, Mohamed Saoud, Marie-Anne Hénaff & Pierre Krolak-Salmon (2012). A Comparison of Facial Emotion Processing in Neurological and Psychiatric Conditions. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 66.0
    Investigating the relative severity of emotion recognition deficit across different clinical and high-risk populations has potential implications not only for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, but also for our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of emotion perception itself. We reanalyzed data from 4 studies in which we examined facial expression and gender recognition using the same tasks and stimuli. We used a standardized and bias-corrected measure of effect size (Cohen’s D) to assess the extent of (...)
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  21. Robert Bernasconi (2012). Crossed Lines in the Racialization Process: Race as a Border Concept. Research in Phenomenology 42 (2):206-228.score: 62.0
    Abstract The phenomenological approach to racialization needs to be supplemented by a hermeneutics that examines the history of the various categories in terms of which people see and have seen race. An investigation of this kind suggests that instead of the rigid essentialism that is normally associated with the history of racism, race predominantly operates as a border concept, that is to say, a dynamic fluid concept whose core lies not at the center but at its edges. I illustrate this (...)
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  22. Richard H. Bell (2002). Understanding African Philosophy: A Cross-Cultural Approach to Classical and Contemporary Issues. Routledge.score: 54.0
    Understanding African Philosophy serves as a critical guide to some of the most important issues in modern African philosophy. Richard Bell introduces readers to the complexity of Africa, the legacy of colonialism, the challenges of post independence Africa, and other recent developments in African Philosophy. Chapters discuss the value of African oral and written texts for philosophy, concepts of "negritude," "African socialism," and "race," as well as current discussions in international development ethics connected to poverty and human suffering. Two chapters (...)
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  23. John Mcclain Watson (2004). From Interpretation to Identification: A History of Facial Images in the Sciences of Emotion. History of the Human Sciences 17 (1):29-51.score: 54.0
    Although images of faces have long been employed in the scientific study of emotion, the objectives and assumptions motivating their use have shifted according to the various fields and research programs within which they have been put to use. This article traces these shifts through three such fields – the social psychology of interwar America, cross-cultural research of the 1970s, and the contemporary neurosciences of emotion – in order to assess the recent use of facial images as a means (...)
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  24. Zsófia Ruttkay (2009). Cultural Dialects of Real and Synthetic Emotional Facial Expressions. AI and Society 24 (3):307-315.score: 54.0
    In this article we discuss the aspects of designing facial expressions for virtual humans (VHs) with a specific culture. First we explore the notion of cultures and its relevance for applications with a VH. Then we give a general scheme of designing emotional facial expressions, and identify the stages where a human is involved, either as a real person with some specific role, or as a VH displaying facial expressions. We discuss how the display and the emotional (...)
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  25. Victor Petrenko (2008). Cross-Confessional Investigation of Religious Visions of the World. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:271-278.score: 54.0
    The majority of world religions have developed in the course of overcoming tribal and clan identity. The idea of "One God" carries the implication, overtly or not, of uniting mankind on basis of religious belief. The rise of world religions was associated with rise of huge empires and states where various ethnic groups coexisted, not only on the basis of force alone, but also on basis of common religious belief and value systems imposed by religious ideology. Governing polyethnic territories, developments (...)
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  26. Ann Pellegrini (1997). Performance Anxieties: Staging Psychoanalysis, Staging Race. Routledge.score: 48.0
    Performance Anxieties looks at the on-going debates over the value of psychoanalysis for feminist theory and politics--specifically concerning the social and psychical meanings of racialization. Beginning with an historicized return to Freud and the meaning of Jewishness in Freud's day, Ann Pellegrini indicates how "race" and racialization are not incidental features of psychoanalysis or of modern subjectivity, but are among the generative conditions of both. Performance Anxieties stages a series of playful encounters between elite and popular performance texts--Freud meets Sarah (...)
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  27. Sandrine Vieillard & Anne-Laure Gilet (2013). Age-Related Differences in Affective Responses to and Memory for Emotions Conveyed by Music: A Cross-Sectional Study. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 48.0
    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and (...)
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  28. Bob Ekblad (2011). Reading Scripture for Good News That Crosses Barriers of Race/Ethnicity, Class, and Culture. Interpretation 65 (3):229-248.score: 40.0
    Reading Scripture in multicultural settings requires an awareness of racial/ethnic, cultural, social class, and theological assumptions. This essay identifies common pitfalls to individual and group discovery of good news in Scripture, and presents effective pedagogies and communication strategies to facilitate transformational encounters with God in diverse settings. The essay concludes with a tried and tested step-by-step dramatic reenactment of John 8:1–11.
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  29. R. Ruggles Gates (1936). Race Crossing. The Eugenics Review 28 (3):245.score: 40.0
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  30. J. B. S. Haldane (1936). Race Crossing. The Eugenics Review 28 (3):245.score: 40.0
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  31. Jon Alfred Mjöen (1931). Race-Crossing and Glands: Some Human Hybrids and Their Parent Stocks. The Eugenics Review 23 (1):31.score: 40.0
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  32. Bruce R. Dain (2002). A Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early Republic. Harvard University Press.score: 38.0
    A Hideous Monster of the Mind reveals that ideas on race crossed racial boundaries in a process that produced not only well-known theories of biological racism ...
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  33. Vittorio Gallese Mariateresa Sestito, Maria Alessandra Umiltà, Giancarlo De Paola, Renata Fortunati, Andrea Raballo, Emanuela Leuci, Simone Maffei, Matteo Tonna, Mario Amore, Carlo Maggini (2013). Facial Reactions in Response to Dynamic Emotional Stimuli in Different Modalities in Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia: A Behavioral and EMG Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 38.0
    Emotional facial expression is an important low-level mechanism contributing to the experience of empathy, thereby lying at the core of social interaction. Schizophrenia is associated with pervasive social cognitive impairments, including emotional processing of facial expressions. In this study we test a novel paradigm in order to investigate the evaluation of the emotional content of perceived emotions presented through dynamic expressive stimuli, facial mimicry evoked by the same stimuli, and their functional relation. Fifteen healthy controls and 15 (...)
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  34. E. D. Hirsch (2006). The Knowledge Deficit: Closing the Shocking Education Gap for American Children. Houghton Mifflin.score: 36.0
    Perhaps our most insightful thinker on what schools teach, E. D. Hirsch, Jr., shows why American students--beginning with a fourth-grade slump--perform less well than students in other industrialized countries. Drawing on classroom observation, the history of ideas, and current scientific understanding of the patterns of intellectual growth, Hirsch builds the case that our schools have indeed made progress in teaching the mechanics of reading. But, as he brilliantly shows, they fail virtually all American children--poor and middle class, in public and (...)
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  35. Jayantha S. Wimalasiri (2004). Contrasts in Moral Reasoning Capacity: The Fijians and the Singaporeans. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3):251-272.score: 36.0
    The moral reasoning capacity of managementstudents in Fiji and in Singapore, twoculturally distinct nations, was examinedusing the Defining Issue Test (DIT). Statistical analyses of the data revealed amarked difference in the reasoning capacity of thetwo groups. In the Fiji sample, religion andrace were found to have a moderating effect onmoral judgment. In the Singapore sample, age,race and religion were found to have asignificant correlation with moral judgment. The data were subjected to paired-samplest-tests using p-score as a dependent variable. The results (...)
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  36. Hillary Anger Elfenbein (2013). Nonverbal Dialects and Accents in Facial Expressions of Emotion. Emotion Review 5 (1):90-96.score: 36.0
    This article focuses on a theoretical account integrating classic and recent findings on the communication of emotions across cultures: a dialect theory of emotion. Dialect theory uses a linguistic metaphor to argue emotion is a universal language with subtly different dialects. As in verbal language, it is more challenging to understand someone speaking a different dialect—which fits with empirical support for an in-group advantage, whereby individuals are more accurate judging emotional expressions from their own cultural group versus foreign groups. Dialect (...)
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  37. Arun Kumar Pokhrel (2010). Ethnicity, Race and Question of Englishness. Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 5 (12):59-61.score: 36.0
  38. Jan B. Engelmann & Marianna Pogosyan (2013). Emotion Perception Across Cultures: The Role of Cognitive Mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 36.0
    Despite consistently documented cultural differences in the perception of facial expressions of emotion, the role of culture in shaping cognitive mechanisms that are central to affect perception has received relatively little attention in past research. We review recent developments in cross-cultural psychology that provide particular insights into the modulatory role of culture on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion through two distinct routes: display rules and cognitive styles. Investigations of affect intensity perception have demonstrated (...)
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  39. Aster Yong (2008). Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Managerial Perceptions on Profit. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):775 - 791.score: 36.0
    The study investigated the effects of three cultural variables – country of employment, race/ethnicity and religion – on managerial views of profit and 15 other business priorities. In total, 203 responses were obtained (120 randomly and 83 by quota) from executives and managers belonging to either of two race/ethnic groups (Caucasian and Chinese) and three religious denominations (Christian, Buddhist and Malay Muslim) located in three different countries (Australia, Singapore and Malaysia). Findings indicated that these three different cultural variables affected (to (...)
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  40. Isabelle Jalenques Martial Mermillod, Damien Devaux, Philippe Derost, Isabelle Rieu, Patrick Chambres, Catherine Auxiette, Guillaume Legrand, Fabienne Galland, Hélène Dalens, Louise Marie Coulangeon, Emmanuel Broussolle, Franck Durif (2013). Rapid Presentation of Emotional Expressions Reveals New Emotional Impairments in Tourette's Syndrome. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
    Objective: Based on a variety of empirical evidence obtained within the theoretical framework of embodiment theory, we considered it likely that motor disorders in Tourette’s syndrome (TS) would have emotional consequences for TS patients. However, previous research using emotional facial categorization tasks suggests that these consequences are limited to TS patients with obsessive-compulsive behaviors(OCB). Method: These studies used long stimulus presentations which allowed the participants to categorize the different emotional facial expressions (EFEs) on the basis of a perceptual (...)
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  41. Tobias Brosch Matthias J. Wieser (2012). Faces in Context: A Review and Systematization of Contextual Influences on Affective Face Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 36.0
    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant “basic emotion“ approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived (...)
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  42. Marianna Pogosyan & Jan B. Engelmann (2011). Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 36.0
    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived (...)
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  43. Kim Cornish, Ann Steele, Camila Rondinelli Cobra Monteiro, Annette Dionne Karmiloff-Smith & Gaia Scerif (2012). Attention Deficits Predict Phenotypic Outcomes in Syndrome-Specific and Domain-Specific Ways. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 34.0
    Attentional difficulties, both at home and in the classroom, are reported across a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, exactly how attention influences early socio-cognitive learning remains unclear. We addressed this question both concurrently and longitudinally in a cross-syndrome design, with respect to the communicative domain of vocabulary and to the cognitive domain of early literacy, and then extended the analysis to social behavior. Participants were young children (aged 4 to 9 years at Time 1) with either Williams syndrome (WS, N=26) (...)
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  44. Garrett Albert Duncan (2000). Race and Human Rights Violations in the United States: Considerations for Human Rights and Moral Educators. Journal of Moral Education 29 (2):183-201.score: 30.0
    In the previous article Mary M. Brabeck and Lauren Rogers called for dialogue between moral educators of North America and human rights educators of South America, noting that the latter group has much to offer the former for its work in the United States. In what follows, I posit that moral educators can learn not only from South American human rights workers but also from North Americans who have challenged US human rights violations, especially those occurring within their own national (...)
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  45. Jonathan Cole (2000). Living with Difficulties of Facial Processing: Some Ontological Consequences of Clinical Facial Problems. Pragmatics and Cognition 8 (1):237-260.score: 30.0
    The present paper considers the processing of facial information from a personal and narrative aspect, attempting to address the effects that deficits in such processing have on people¿s perceptions of themselves and of others. The approach adopted has been a narrative and mainly subjective one, entering the experience of several subjects with facial problems to tease out the interactions between their facial problems and their relations with others. The subjects are those with blindness, either congenital or acquired, (...)
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  46. Sharon Elizabeth Fox, Jennifer Wagner, Christine L. Shrock, Helen Tager Flusberg & Charles A. Nelson (2013). Neural Processing of Facial Identity and Emotion in Infants at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 30.0
    Deficits in face processing and social impairment are core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder. The present work examined 7 month-old infants at high risk for developing autism and typically developing controls at low risk, using a face perception task designed to differentiate between the effects of face identity and facial emotions on neural response using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). In addition, we employed independent component analysis (ICA), as well as a novel method of condition-related component selection and classification (...)
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  47. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2014). The Genetic Reification of 'Race'? A Story of Two Mathematical Methods. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (2):204-223.score: 27.0
    Two families of mathematical methods lie at the heart of investigating the hierarchical structure of genetic variation in Homo sapiens: /diversity partitioning/, which assesses genetic variation within and among pre-determined groups, and /clustering analysis/, which simultaneously produces clusters and assigns individuals to these “unsupervised” cluster classifications. While mathematically consistent, these two methodologies are understood by many to ground diametrically opposed claims about the reality of human races. Moreover, modeling results are sensitive to assumptions such as preexisting theoretical commitments to certain (...)
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  48. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2013). Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'. Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.score: 24.0
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when it relies (...)
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  49. Neven Sesardic (2010). Race: A Social Destruction of a Biological Concept. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):143-162.score: 24.0
    It is nowadays a dominant opinion in a number of disciplines (anthropology, genetics, psychology, philosophy of science) that the taxonomy of human races does not make much biological sense. My aim is to challenge the arguments that are usually thought to invalidate the biological concept of race. I will try to show that the way “race” was defined by biologists several decades ago (by Dobzhansky and others) is in no way discredited by conceptual criticisms that are now fashionable and widely (...)
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  50. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). What Are We to Make of the Concept of Race? Thoughts of a Philosopher–Scientist. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):272-277.score: 24.0
    Discussions about the biological bases (or lack thereof) of the concept of race in the human species seem to be never ending. One of the latest rounds is represented by a paper by Neven Sesardic, which attempts to build a strong scientific case for the existence of human races, based on genetic, morphometric and behavioral characteristics, as well as on a thorough critique of opposing positions. In this paper I show that Sesardic’s critique falls far short of the goal, and (...)
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