Search results for 'Cybernetics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    W. Ross Ashby (1956). An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York, J. Wiley.
    We must, therefore, make a study of mechanism; but some introduction is advisable, for cybernetics treats the subject from a new, and therefore unusual, ...
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  2. Donato Bergandi (2000). Eco-Cybernetics: The Ecology and Cybernetics of Missing Emergences. Kybernetes 29 (7/8):928-942..
    Considers that in ecosystem, landscape and global ecology, an energetics reading of ecological systems is an expression of a cybernetic, systemic and holistic approach. In ecosystem ecology, the Odumian paradigm emphasizes the concept of emergence, but it has not been accompanied by the creation of a method that fully respects the complexity of the objects studied. In landscape ecology, although the emergentist, multi-level, triadic methodology of J.K. Feibleman and D.T. Campbell has gained acceptance, the importance of emergent properties is still (...)
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  3.  11
    Keizo Sato (1991). From AI to Cybernetics. AI and Society 5 (2):155-161.
    Well-known critics of AI such as Hubert Dreyfus and Michael Polanyi tend to confuse cybernetics with AI. Such a confusion is quite misleading and should not be overlooked. In the first place, cybernetics is not vulnerable to criticism of AI as cognitivistic and behaviouristic. In the second place, AI researchers are recommended to consider the cybernetics approach as a way of overcoming the limitations of cognitivism and behaviourism.
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  4.  60
    Andrew Pickering (2009). Beyond Design: Cybernetics, Biological Computers and Hylozoism. Synthese 168 (3):469 - 491.
    The history of British cybernetics offers us a different form of science and engineering, one that does not seek to dominate nature through knowledge. I want to say that one can distinguish two different paradigms in the history of science and technology: the one that Heidegger despised, which we could call the Modern paradigm, and another, cybernetic, nonModern, paradigm that he might have approved of. This essay focusses on work in the 1950s and early 1960s by two of Britain’s (...)
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  5. John Bryant (1991). Systems Theory and Scientific Philosophy: An Application of the Cybernetics of W. Ross Ashby to Personal and Social Philosophy, the Philosophy of Mind, and the Problems of Artificial Intelligence. Upa.
    Systems Theory and Scientific Philosophy constitutes a totally new approach to philosophy, the philosophy of mind and the problems of artificial intelligence, and is based upon the pioneering work in cybernetics of W. Ross Ashby. While science is humanity's attempt to know how the world works and philosophy its attempt to know why, scientific philosophy is the application of scientific techniques to questions of philosophy.
     
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  6.  8
    Norbert Wiener (1961). Cybernetics. New York, M.I.T. Press.
  7.  16
    Kenneth M. Sayre (1976). Cybernetics and the Philosophy of Mind. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    This book, published in 1976, presents an entirely original approach to the subject of the mind-body problem, examining it in terms of the conceptual links between the physical sciences and the sciences of human behaviour. It is based on the cybernetic concepts of information and feedback and on the related concepts of thermodynamic and communication-theoretic entropy. The foundation of the approach is the theme of continuity between evolution, learning and human consciousness. The author defines life as a process of energy (...)
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  8. Philippe Gagnon (2013). "Que reste-t-il de la théologie à l'âge électronique ? Valeur et cybernétique axiologique chez Raymond Ruyer" [What is left of Theology in the Electronic Age? Value and Axiological Cybernetics in Raymond Ruyer]. In Chromatikon Ix: Annales de la Philosophie En Procès — Yearbook of Philosophy in Process, M. Weber & V. Berne. 93-120.
    This is the outline: Introduction — La question de la cybernétique et de l'information — Une « pensée du milieu » — Cybernétique et homologie — Une théorie de l'apprentissage — L'information vue de l'autre côté — Champ et domaine unitaire — La thèse des « autres-je » — Le passage par l'axiologie — La rétroaction vraie — L'ontologie de Ruyer — Le bruissement de l'être même.
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  9. Roberto Cordeschi (2002). The Discovery of the Artificial: Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. Kluwer.
    The book provides a valuable text for undergraduate and graduate courses on the historical and theoretical issues of Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, Neuroscience, and the Philosophy of Mind. The book should also be of interest for researchers in these fields, who will find in it analyses of certain crucial issues in both the earlier and more recent history of their disciplines, as well as interesting overall insights into the current debate on the nature of mind.
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  10. Jiří Zeman (1988). Theory of Reflection and Cybernetics: The Concepts of Reflection and Information and Their Significance for Materialist Monism. Elsevier.
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  11.  30
    Glenn Negley (1951). Cybernetics and Theories of Mind. Journal of Philosophy 48 (September):574-82.
  12.  31
    Frederick J. Crosson (ed.) (1967). Philosophy And Cybernetics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  13.  16
    Keith Gunderson (1969). Cybernetics and Mind-Body Problems. Inquiry 12 (1-4):406-19.
    It is asked to what extent answers to such questions as ?Can machines think??, ?Could robots have feelings?? might be expected to yield insight into traditional mind?body questions. It has sometimes been assumed that answering the first set of questions would be the same as answering the second. Against this approach other philosophers have argued that answering the first set of questions would not help us to answer the second. It is argued that both of these assessments are mistaken. It (...)
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  14. Frederick James Crosson & Kenneth M. Sayre (1968). Philosophy and Cybernetics Essays Delivered to the Philosophic Institute for Artificial Intelligence at the University of Notre Dame. Simon &Schuster.
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  15.  17
    F. H. George (1979). Philosophical Foundations of Cybernetics. Abacus Press.
    Artificial intelligence and the interrogation game; Scientific method and explanation; Godel's incompleteness theorem; Determinism and uncertainty; Axioms, theorems and formalisation; Creativity; Consciousness and free will; Pragmatics; A ...
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  16. Gotthard Gunther (1965). Cybernetics and the Transition From Classical to Trans-Classical Logic. [Urbana, Biological Computer Laboratory, University of Illinois.
     
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  17. N. Katherine Hayles (1999). How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. University of Chicago Press.
    In this age of DNA computers and artificial intelligence, information is becoming disembodied even as the "bodies" that once carried it vanish into virtuality. While some marvel at these changes, envisioning consciousness downloaded into a computer or humans "beamed" _Star Trek_-style, others view them with horror, seeing monsters brooding in the machines. In _How We Became Posthuman,_ N. Katherine Hayles separates hype from fact, investigating the fate of embodiment in an information age. Hayles relates three interwoven stories: how information lost (...)
     
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  18.  10
    L. H. Kauffman (2016). Cybernetics, Reflexivity and Second-Order Science. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):489-497.
    Context: Second-order cybernetics and its implications have been understood within the cybernetics community for some time. These implications are important for understanding the structure of scientific endeavor, and for researchers in other fields to see the reflexive nature of scientific research. This article is about the role of context in the creation and exploration of our experience. Problem: The purpose of this article is to point out the fundamental nature of the circularity in cybernetics and in scientific (...)
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  19.  9
    S. A. Umpleby (2016). Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):455-465.
    Context: The term “second-order cybernetics” was introduced by von Foerster in 1974 as the “cybernetics of observing systems,” both the act of observing systems and systems that observe. Since then, the term has been used by many authors in articles and books and has been the subject of many conference panels and symposia. Problem: The term is still not widely known outside the fields of cybernetics and systems science and the importance and implications of the work associated (...)
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  20.  8
    Søren Brier (1999). Biosemiotics and the Foundation of Cybersemiotics: Reconceptualizing the Insights of Ethology, Second-Order Cybernetics, and Peirce’s Semiotics in Biosemiotics to Create a Non-Cartesian Information Science. Semiotica 127 (1-4):169-198.
    Any great new theoretical framework has an epistemological and an ontological aspect to its philosophy as well as an axiological one, and one needs to understand all three aspects in order to grasp the deep aspiration and idea of the theoretical framework. Presently, there is a widespread effort to understand C. S. Peirce's (1837–1914) pragmaticistic semeiotics, and to develop it by integrating the results of modern science and evolutionary thinking; first, producing a biosemiotics and, second, by integrating it with the (...)
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  21.  5
    D. Griffiths (2016). Understanding Design From a Second-Order Cybernetics Perspective: Is There a Place for Material Agency? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):581-583.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: This commentary supports Sweeting’s case for the relationship between the design tradition, second-order cybernetics and second-order science. It argues, however, that the extension of this argument to other intellectual traditions and areas of practice is complicated by differing views of material agency.
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  22.  4
    G. Becerra (2016). Connecting Second-Order Cybernetics’ Revolution with Genetic Epistemology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):468-470.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Connecting Umpleby’s article with Piaget and García’s genetic epistemology, I will argue that the revolution the former discerns is more comprehensive. Additionally, since the latter differ from cybernetic and radical traditions in their philosophical assumptions about society and its conditioning on knowledge, I will suggest that these assumptions must be considered to explain each constructivist program’s achievements and challenges.
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  23.  35
    Richard A. Cohen (2000). Ethics and Cybernetics: Levinasian Reflections. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 2 (1):27-35.
    Is cybernetics good, bad, or indifferent? SherryTurkle enlists deconstructive theory to celebrate thecomputer age as the embodiment of difference. Nolonger just a theory, one can now live a virtual life. Within a differential but ontologically detachedfield of signifiers, one can construct and reconstructegos and environments from the bottom up andendlessly. Lucas Introna, in contrast, enlists theethical philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to condemn thesame computer age for increasing the distance betweenflesh and blood people. Mediating the face-to-facerelation between real people, allowing (...)
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  24.  3
    M. Arnold-Cathalifaud & D. Thumala-Dockendorff (2016). To What Extent Can Second-Order Cybernetics Be a Foundation for Psychology? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):520-521.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Scott’s proposal is well-founded and opens interesting possibilities. We selected some critical aspects of his argumentation and discuss them in the context of the constructivist perspective. We highlight as Scott’s “blind spot” his statement - presented without further argument - of the need for a conceptual and theoretical unification of psychology from the perspective of second-order cybernetics. We find this especially worrisome as it is based (...)
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  25.  3
    T. R. Flanagan (2016). Second-Order Cybernetics Needs a Unifying Methodology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):475-478.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Theory without a strong methodology is stranded in philosophy. Principles devolved from theory can be applied to situations in the arena of practice in many ways; however, a continually improving science must refine its theories with feedback from data drawn from the use of continually improving sets of codified methodologies. Second-order cybernetics is contingent upon sense-making within sapient systems. A (...)
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  26.  3
    A. Leonard (2016). Obstacles and Opportunities in the Future of Second-Order Cybernetics and Other Compatible Methods. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):466-467.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: This commentary looks at the parallel developments in contiguous fields that include and encourage multiple viewpoints and the validity of multiple positions. I contend that necessity will overcome the resistance to disturbing the status quo of power structures when the stakes become high enough.
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  27.  3
    M. R. Lissack (2016). Shed the Name to Find Second-Order Success: Renaming Second-Order Cybernetics to Rescue its Essence. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):470-472.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Buried in the jargon of constructivism and cybernetics lies the essence of what second-order cybernetics can do for its practitioners. The labels and names get in the way; to move forward we must refocus on that essence - which is to ask always how context matters.
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  28.  3
    T. Scholte (2016). “Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):598-610.
    Context: The thoroughly second-order cybernetic underpinnings of naturalist theatre have gone almost entirely unremarked in the literature of both theatre studies and cybernetics itself. As a result, rich opportunities for the two fields to draw mutual benefit and break new ground through both theoretical and empirical investigations of these underpinnings have, thus far, gone untapped. Problem: The field of cybernetics continues to remain academically marginalized for, among other things, its alleged lack of experimental rigor. At the same time, (...)
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  29.  3
    S. A. Umpleby (2016). Author’s Response: Struggling to Define an Identity for Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):481-488.
    Upshot: Second-order cybernetics is an important field for the scientific enterprise but it has difficulty explaining itself to those outside the field and defining itself to those inside the field.
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  30.  2
    P. Baron (2016). Obstacles to Cybernetics Becoming a Conceptual Framework and Metanarrative in the Psychologies. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):524-527.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Scott’s ideas of a unifying conceptual framework and metanarrative for the seemingly divergent psychology fields may be met with challenges. Four obstacles are presented, which can be addressed in order to mitigate resistance to Scott achieving his goal of cybernetics fulfilling these dual roles in the psychologies.
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  31.  2
    C. M. Herr (2016). What Can Cybernetics Learn From Design? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):583-585.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: Based on Sweeting’s central question of what design can bring to cybernetics, this commentary extends and adds further depth to the target article. Aspects discussed include the nature of practice in relation to design, the introduction of designerly ways of acting and thinking through acting to cybernetics, and the re-introduction of material experimentation typical of early cybernetics.
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  32.  2
    A. Müller (2016). Does Second-Order Cybernetics Provide a Framework for Theatre Studies? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):618-619.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: Scholte’s attempt to link theatre studies with cybernetics faces at least two problems: historically, there could not have been any direct influence between these two fields; and conceptually, do we need second-order cybernetics, and the concept of the black box in particular, to account for the Stanislavski system?
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  33.  2
    K. H. Müller & A. Riegler (2016). Mapping the Varieties of Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):443-454.
    Context: Although second-order cybernetics was proposed as a new way of cybernetic investigations around 1970, its general status and its modus operandi are still far from obvious. Problem: We want to provide a new perspective on the scope and the currently available potential of second-order cybernetics within today’s science landscapes. Method: We invited a group of scholars who have produced foundational work on second-order cybernetics in recent years, and organized an open call for new approaches to second-order (...)
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  34.  2
    L. D. Richards (2016). The Many Varieties of Experimentation in Second-Order Cybernetics: Art, Science, Craft. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):621-622.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: Scholte proposes using the theatre as a laboratory for experimenting with ideas in second-order cybernetics, adding to the repertoire of approaches for advancing this way of thinking. Second-order cybernetics, as art, science and craft, raises questions about the forms of experimentation most useful in such a laboratory. Theatre provides an opportunity to “play” with the dynamics of (...)
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  35.  2
    L. Šugman Bohinc (2016). Cybernetics and Synergetics as Foundations for Complex Approach Towards Complexities of Life. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):530-532.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Based on my personal and professional experiences as a university teacher of social work, systemic psychotherapy, and education, I suggest the concepts of third-order cybernetics and synergetics as a support to creating a more unified and integrated framework of psychology to better understand and deal with complex, self-organizing systems.
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  36.  57
    Anatol Rapoport (1949). Mathematical Biophysics, Cybernetics and Significs. Synthese 8 (1):182 - 193.
    It remains to summarize the contributions which each of the three disciplines discussed here is making toward the development of a science of man. "Significs" makes a study of the effects on human behavior of the linguistic aspects of the evaluative process, the most distinctly human aspect of the behavior of the human organism. "Mathematical Biophysics" seeks to describe the events associated with evaluative processes in physico-mathematical terms. "Cybernetics" is discovering important invariants common to these processes and others, particularly (...)
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  37.  38
    Angela Espinosa (2004). Organizational Cybernetics as a Tool Box to Assist in the Development of Evolutionary Learning Networks. World Futures 60 (1 & 2):137 – 145.
    Organizational cybernetics offers theoretical and methodological support for self-organizing communities seeking to contribute to the conscious evolution of society. Previous experiences with the Viable Systems Model (VSM) and Team Syntegrity (TS) illustrate ways of enabling social networks to create a shared language, reach democratic agreements, and develop knowledge networks.
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  38.  12
    S. Franchi (2007). Blunting the Edge of Second-Order Cybernetics: The Heritage of Heinz von Foerster. Review Of: Albert Müller & Karl H. Müller (Eds.) (2007) An Unfinished Revolution? [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 3 (1):53-54.
    Summary: The aim of this collection is to provide a two-fold access to von Foerster's legacy and his work at the Biological Computer Laboratory, the institution he founded and directed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1958 to 1976. It represents a precious contribution for the understanding of BCL, a crucial but still not properly understood chapter in the history of cybernetics and, more generally, of cognitive science. It is greatly recommended.
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  39.  1
    M. de Sousa van Stralen (2016). Digital Design Research and Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):586-587.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: I claim that the parallels between design research, second-order cybernetics and second-order science, as discussed by Sweeting in the target article, are more explicit in digital design. The discussion of SOC and SOS can point towards the creation of an epistemological foundation to digital design, where self-reflexivity and the inclusion of the observer are central questions.
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  40.  3
    D. Griffiths & P. Baron (2015). The Tensions Between Second-Order Cybernetics and Traditional Academic Conferences. Constructivist Foundations 11 (1):86-88.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Designing Academic Conferences in the Light of Second-Order Cybernetics” by Laurence D. Richards. Upshot: Richards’s long history and commitment to cybernetics provides a well-rounded view of the dichotomy between the traditional conference and one aspiring for second-order cybernetic attributes. We examine why traditional conferences have proved so resilient, despite their shortcomings, and discuss some issues that underlie the dynamics of the participation of academics in non-traditional conferences.
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  41.  20
    Titus R. Neumann, Susanne Huber & Heinrich H. Bülthoff (2001). Artificial Systems as Models in Biological Cybernetics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1071-1072.
    From the perspective of biological cybernetics, “real world” robots have no fundamental advantage over computer simulations when used as models for biological behavior. They can even weaken biological relevance. From an engineering point of view, however, robots can benefit from solutions found in biological systems. We emphasize the importance of this distinction and give examples for artificial systems based on insect biology.
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  42.  7
    E. B. Babskii & E. S. Gelle (1970). Cybernetics and Life. Russian Studies in Philosophy 8 (4):354-370.
    The ideas and methods of cybernetics are increasingly penetrating the biological and medical sciences, and today we are justified in speaking of a new branch of science: biological and medical cybernetics. This branch already has a number of important and encouraging subfields.
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  43.  11
    B. Clarke (2012). From Information to Cognition: The Systems Counterculture, Heinz von Foerster's Pedagogy, and Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 7 (3):196-207.
    Context: In this empirical and conceptual paper on the historical, philosophical, and epistemological backgrounds of second-order cybernetics, the emergence of a significant pedagogical component to Heinz von Foerster’s work during the last years of the Biological Computer Laboratory is placed against the backdrop of social and intellectual movements on the American landscape. Problem: Previous discussion in this regard has focused largely on the student radicalism of the later 1960s. A wider-angled view of the American intellectual counterculture is needed. However, (...)
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  44.  17
    Masudul Alam Choudhury & Mohammad Shahadat Hossain (2010). Neuro-Cybernetics of Socio-Scientific Systems. Mind and Society 9 (1):59-83.
    The field of information technology is broadened up to the domain of ‘learning’ systems and cybernetics. In covering this extension of the field due recourse is made to the epistemological basis of theory construction. When so comprehended, information technology becomes a philosophical inquiry on a variety of social, scientific and technological issues. A new idea that we refer to as neuro-cybernetics is born. The term neuro-cybernetics is used to delineate the epistemological field of system and cybernetic study. (...)
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  45.  2
    J. Lombardi (2015). Cybernetics, Conversation and Consensus: Designing Academic Conferences. Constructivist Foundations 11 (1):79-81.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Designing Academic Conferences in the Light of Second-Order Cybernetics” by Laurence D. Richards. Upshot: Richards offers a variety of second-order concepts relevant when designing academic conferences. I insist and add on a few ideas. An emphasis for both: How can one design a space and structure that encourages deep conversations?
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  46.  2
    L. D. Richards (2015). Designing Academic Conferences in the Light of Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (1):65-73.
    Context: A tension exists between the needs and desires of the institutions providing the funding for academics to attend conferences and the potential for transforming the knowledge and understanding of conference participants - than in advancing their own careers and celebrity. Approaches to the problem can recognize the importance of funding and career-building in the current society, while still experimenting in ways that could generate new ideas. Method: Ideas from second-order cybernetics are used to derive design principles that might (...)
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  47.  7
    Valerie Morkevicius (2014). Tin Men: Ethics, Cybernetics and the Importance of Soul. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (1):3-19.
    (2014). Tin Men: Ethics, Cybernetics and the Importance of Soul. Journal of Military Ethics: Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 3-19. doi: 10.1080/15027570.2014.908011.
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  48.  14
    Leon Rocha (2012). The Fateful Entanglements of Psychoanalysis, Cybernetics and Digital Media. Metascience 21 (2):435-438.
    The fateful entanglements of psychoanalysis, cybernetics and digital media Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9570-0 Authors Leon Antonio Rocha, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge, CB2 3RH UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  49.  15
    Ronald Kline (2011). Cybernetics as a Usable Past. Metascience 20 (3):519-524.
    Cybernetics as a usable past Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9497-x Authors Ronald R. Kline, Science and Technology Studies Department, 334 Rockefeller Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  50.  6
    A. I. Berg (1962). On Certain Problems Concerning Cybernetics. Russian Studies in Philosophy 1 (1):57-65.
    No generally accepted, unambiguous definition of the term "cybernetics" yet exists. However, we believe that many disputes about the purpose and spheres of application of cybernetics could be brought to an end if the definition of it as the science of the laws of control of complex dynamic systems were accepted. Such dynamic systems exist in unique forms both in living nature and in human society. These are systems capable of changing their state and comprising a multitude of (...)
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