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Profile: Darwin Ray Baird (Tallinn Technical University)
  1. Davis Baird (2004). Thing Knowledge: A Philosophy of Scientific Instruments. University of California Press.
    Western philosophers have traditionally concentrated on theory as the means for expressing knowledge about a variety of phenomena. This absorbing book challenges this fundamental notion by showing how objects themselves, specifically scientific instruments, can express knowledge. As he considers numerous intriguing examples, Davis Baird gives us the tools to "read" the material products of science and technology and to understand their place in culture. Making a provocative and original challenge to our conception of knowledge itself, _Thing Knowledge _demands that we (...)
     
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  2. Davis Baird (1987). Exploratory Factor Analysis, Instruments and the Logic of Discovery. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (3):319-337.
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  3.  48
    Dugald Baird (1951). Heredity and Environment in the Determination of Stature. The Eugenics Review 43 (3):163.
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  4. Cyrus Cm Mody, Davis Baird, Alfred Nordmann & Joachim Schummer (2004). Discovering the Nanoscale. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios
     
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  5. Davis Baird & Thomas Faust (1990). Scientific Instruments, Scientific Progress and the Cyclotron. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (2):147-175.
  6.  87
    D. Baird (1986). SKYRMS, BRIAN [1984]: Pragmatics and Empiricism. Yale University Press. Pp. Xi+143. 16.95. (ISBN 0-300-03174-2). [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (4):514-516.
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  7.  14
    Davis Baird & Ashley Shew (2004). Probing the History of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios 145--156.
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  8.  21
    Davis Baird (2002). Editor's Note on Volume Numeration and Publication Dates. Techne 6 (1):1-1.
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  9.  55
    Davis Baird (1983). The Fisher/Pearson Chi-Squared Controversy: A Turning Point for Inductive Inference. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (2):105-118.
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  10.  19
    David Baird (2013). G. K. Chesterton by Michael Hurley. The Chesterton Review 39 (1-2):142-146.
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  11.  18
    Davis Baird (2000). Organic Necessity. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 5 (1):12-20.
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  12.  12
    F. M. Akeroyd, D. Baird, T. Benfey, P. Duhem, R. B. King, J. Kovac, J. G. Mcevoy, J. Morrell, R. K. Nesbet & J. L. Ramsey (2000). Authors Index Volume 2. Foundations of Chemistry 2 (265).
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  13.  15
    Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2004). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 1. Hyle 10 (2):63 - 64.
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  14.  6
    Davis Baird (1993). Analytical Chemistry and the ‘Big’ Scientific Instrumentation Revolution. Annals of Science 50 (3):267-290.
    By a close examination of changes in analytical chemistry between the years 1920 and 1950, I document the case that natural science has undergone and continues to undergo a major revolution. The central feature of this transformation is the rise in importance of scientific instrumentation. Prior to 1920, analytical chemists determined the chemical constitution of some unknown by treating it with a series of known compounds and observing the kind of reactions it underwent. After 1950, analytical chemists determined the chemical (...)
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  15.  6
    Davis Baird (1997). Scientific Instrument Making, Epistemology, and the Conflict Between Gift and Commodity Economics. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 2 (3/4):127-139.
  16.  7
    Dugald Baird (1966). A Fifth Freedom? The Eugenics Review 58 (4):195.
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  17.  18
    Davis Baird (2002). Thing Knowledge - Function and Truth. Techne 6 (2):96-105.
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  18.  21
    Davis Baird (1995). Common Sense, Science and Scepticism. Review of Metaphysics 48 (4):917-918.
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  19.  10
    Davis Baird (2002). Editor's Note. Techne 6 (2):86-86.
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  20.  9
    Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2005). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part 2. Hyle 11 (1):3 - 4.
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  21.  10
    Mark S. Cohen & Davis Baird (1999). Why Trade? Perspectives on Science 7 (2):231-254.
    : According to Peter Galison (1997), science has a highly fractionated structure with multiple sub-sub-disciplines, each with its own agenda. Cooperative trading between groups is necessary for most scientific work to move forward, and it is this trading that preserves the stability of science. We argue that it is not trading per se, but trading in a gift (as opposed to a commodity) economy that guarantees stability. We support our claims with an examination of contemporary work on magnetic resonance imaging (...)
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  22.  2
    Davis Baird (2002). Editor's Note. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 6 (2):86-86.
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  23.  14
    Davis Baird (1988). The Rationality of Induction. Review of Metaphysics 42 (2):411-413.
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  24.  3
    Elizabeth M. Alder, David T. Baird, Martin M. Lees, Dennis W. Lincoln, Nancy B. Loudon & Allan A. Templeton (1986). Attitudes of Women of Reproductive Age to in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Research. Journal of Biosocial Science 18 (2):155.
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  25.  26
    Davis Baird (2000). Encapsulating Knowledge: The Direct Reading Spectrometer. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 2 (1):5-46.
    The direct reading emission spectrometer was developed during the1940s. By substituting photo-multiplier tubes and electronics forphotographic film spectrograms, the interpretation of special lineswith a densitometer was avoided. Instead, the instrument providedthe desired information concerning percentage concentration ofelements of interest directly on a dial. Such instruments `de-skill' the job of making such measurements. They do this by encapsulatingin the instrument the skills previously employed by the analyst,by `skilling' the instrument. This paper presents a history of thedevelopment of the Dow Chemical/Baird Associates (...)
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  26.  6
    Davis Baird (1998). Encapsulating Knowledge. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 3 (3):113-118.
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  27. Davis Baird (1996). The Creation of Scientific Effects: Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 63 (1):141-143.
     
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  28.  3
    D. Baird (2004). The End of Pure Science: Science Policy From Bayh-Dole to the NNI. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios 217.
  29.  3
    Dugald Baird (1971). The Galton Lecture 1970: The Obstetrician and Society. Journal of Biosocial Science 3 (S3):93-111.
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  30.  11
    Davis Baird (1994). Meaning in a Material Medium. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:441 - 451.
    Recently we have learned how experiment can have a life of its own. However, experiment remains epistemologically disadvantaged. Scientific knowledge must have a theoretical/propositional form. To begin to redress this situation, I discuss three ways in which instruments carry meaning: 1. Scientific instruments can carry tremendous loads of meaning through association, analogy and metaphor. 2. Instrumental models of complicated phenomena work representationally in much the same way as theories. 3. Instruments which create new phenomena establish a new field of material (...)
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  31.  10
    Davis Baird (1985). Lehrer/Wagner Consensual Probabilities Do Not Adequately Summarize the Available Information. Synthese 62 (1):47 - 62.
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  32.  7
    Davis Baird (1988). Five Theses on Instrumental Realism. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:165 - 173.
    I present five theses to characterize and argue for "Instrumental Realism," a realism wedded to what we do with instruments, and not what our theories say: The Independence Thesis: Questions about realism are independent of questions about meaning. The Intervening Thesis: Our ability to produce consistent effects with our instruments provides one guarantee that we are engaged with the real world. The Historical Thesis: If the descriptions of what we know and do are of something real, then it will be (...)
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  33.  5
    D. Baird (1975). Induced Abortion: Epidemiological Aspects. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (3):122-126.
    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion (...)
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  34.  2
    Davis Baird & Joachim Schummer (2004). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part I. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 8 (2):1-3.
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  35.  15
    Davis Baird & Alfred Nordmann (1994). Facts-Well-Put. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):37-77.
    In this paper we elucidate a particular type of instrument. Striking-phenomenon instruments assume their striking profile against the shifting backdrop of theoretical uncertainties. While technologically stable, the phenomena produced by these instruments are linguistically fuzzy, subject to a variety of conceptual representations. But in virtue of their technological stability alone, they can provide a foundation for further technological as well as conceptual development. Sometimes, as in the case of the pulse glass, the phenomenon is taken to confirm conflicting theoretical views; (...)
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  36.  3
    Davis Baird & Mark S. Cohen (1999). Why Trade? Perspectives on Science 7 (2):231-254.
    According to Peter Galison , science has a highly fractionated structure with multiple sub-sub-disciplines, each with its own agenda. Cooperative trading between groups is necessary for most scientific work to move forward, and it is this trading that preserves the stability of science. We argue that it is not trading per se, but trading in a gift economy that guarantees stability. We support our claims with an examination of contemporary work on magnetic resonance imaging instrumentation. Specifically, we consider: How a (...)
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  37.  9
    F. Anderson, A. Glasier, J. Ross & D. T. Baird (1994). Attitudes of Women to Fetal Tissue Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (1):36-40.
    The use of human fetal tissue for scientific research has enormous potential but is subject to government legislation. In the United Kingdom the Polkinghorne Committee's guidelines were accepted by the Department of Health in 1990. These guidelines set out to protect women undergoing termination of pregnancy from exploitation but in so doing may significantly restrict potential research. Although the committee took evidence from a wide variety of experts they did not seek the views of the general public. We asked 108 (...)
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  38.  9
    Davis Baird (1984). Tests of Significance Violate the Rule of Implication. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:81 - 92.
    The rule of implication, (+) If hypothesis H implies hypothesis I, then evidence sufficient to warrant the rejection of I, in turn warrants the rejection of H, is a very plausible principle of inductive inference. It is shown that significance tests violate this principle. Two ways to account for this violation are considered; neither account is fully satisfactory. First, a distinction might be made between the absolute degree of confirmation and the change in the degree of confirmation due to a (...)
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  39.  2
    D. Baird (2004). Dissolution of the Nature-Technology Dichotomy? Perspectives From an Everyday Understanding of Nature on Nanotechnology. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios 209.
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  40.  8
    Davis Baird (1999). Internal History and the Philosophy of Experiment. Perspectives on Science 7 (3):383-407.
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  41.  6
    Davis Baird (2010). Engineering Realities. Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):94-110.
    We live in a world that increasingly is designed by engineers. So it is worth asking what are engineers doing when they design. There is no simple universal answer to this question, and my strategy for answering it both acknowledges the impossibility of a simple answer, while also identifying and elaborating some important elements to engineering realities. I start with the simple posit that engineering a reality is about controlling aspects of that reality through designed artifice. I then “complexify” this (...)
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  42.  1
    Davis Baird (2000). Analytical Instrumentation and Instrumental Objectivity. In Nalini Bhushan & Stuart Rosenfeld (eds.), Of Minds and Molecules: New Philosophical Perspectives on Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press 90--113.
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  43.  1
    Joachim Schummer & Davis Baird (2005). Editorial: Nanotech Challenges, Part II. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 8 (3):1-2.
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  44.  5
    Davis Baird & Richard E. Otte (1982). How to Commit the Gambler's Fallacy and Get Away with It. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:169 - 180.
    In a recent article Ian Hacking argues that there can be cases where no probabilities may correctly be ascribed to individual members of a population, while probabilities are correctly ascribable to the population as a whole. In this paper a simple artificial coin-flipping model for such probabilities, not 'grounded from below' is constructed. The inferences licensed by this model and a consequence of the model for the theory of statistical tests is explored.
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  45.  2
    David Baird (2003). Technology and the Good Life? Environmental Ethics 25 (3):325-328.
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  46.  2
    Dugald Baird (1974). The Epidemiology of Low Birth Weight: Changes in Incidence in Aberdeen, 1948–72. Journal of Biosocial Science 6 (3):323-341.
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  47.  1
    Dugald Baird (1975). The Changing Pattern of Human Reproduction in Scotland, 1928–72. Journal of Biosocial Science 7 (1):77-97.
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  48.  1
    Dugald Baird (1970). Chairman's Introduction. Journal of Biosocial Science 2 (S2):5-6.
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  49.  1
    Dugald Baird (1975). Size at Birth. Ciba Foundation Symposium 27. Pp. 408. (Associated Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, 1974.) Price US$28.95. [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 7 (4):496-499.
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  50.  6
    Davis Baird & Alfred Nordmann (1999). Editor's Introduction to Peter Galison's Image and Logic and This Pos Collection of Critical Essays. Perspectives on Science 7 (2):147-150.
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