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Profile: David Resnik (National Institutes of Health, North Carolina State University, National Institutes of Health)
  1. David B. Resnik (forthcoming). H5N1 Avian Flu ESEARCH. Hastings Center Report.
     
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  2.  63
    David B. Resnik (1998). The Ethics of Science: An Introduction. Routledge.
    During the past decade scientists, public policy analysts, politicians, and laypeople, have become increasingly aware of the importance of ethical conduct in scientific research. In this timely book, David B. Resnik introduces the reader to the ethical dilemmas and questions that arise in scientific research. Some of the issues addressed in the book include ethical decision-making, the goals and methods of science, and misconduct in science. The Ethics of Science also discusses significant case studies such as human and animal cloning, (...)
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  3.  7
    David B. Resnik (forthcoming). Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-9.
    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.
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  4.  20
    David Resnik (2010). Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (3):27-32.
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  5.  31
    David B. Resnik (2007). The Price of Truth: How Money Affects the Norms of Science. OUP Usa.
    Modern science is big business. Governments, universities, and corporations have invested billions of dollars in scientific and technological research in the hope of obtaining power and profit. For the most part, this investment has benefited science and society, leading to new discoveries, inventions, disciplines, specialties, jobs, and career opportunities. However, there is a dark side to the influx of money into science. Unbridled pursuit of financial gain in science can undermine scientific norms, such as objectivity, honesty, openness, respect for research (...)
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  6.  32
    David Resnik (2011). Scientific Research and the Public Trust. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):399-409.
    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion that public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. (...)
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  7. David Resnik & Kevin Elliott (2013). Taking Financial Relationships Into Account When Assessing Research. Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance 20 (3):184-205.
     
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  8. David B. Resnik (2012). Environmental Health Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    Environmental Health Ethics illuminates the conflicts between protecting the environment and promoting human health. In this study, David B. Resnik develops a method for making ethical decisions on environmental health issues. He applies this method to various issues, including pesticide use, antibiotic resistance, nutrition policy, vegetarianism, urban development, occupational safety, disaster preparedness and global climate change. Resnik provides readers with the scientific and technical background necessary to understand these issues. He explains that environmental health controversies cannot simply be reduced to (...)
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  9.  9
    David B. Resnik & Zubin Master (2011). Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):17 - 21.
    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing (...)
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  10.  13
    David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore (2016). Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a (...)
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  11.  28
    Zubin Master & David B. Resnik (2013). Hype and Public Trust in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):321-335.
    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities (...)
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  12.  50
    David B. Resnik (2012). Limits on Risks for Healthy Volunteers in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (2):137-149.
    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on (...)
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  13.  26
    David B. Resnik (2001). Developing Drugs for the Developing World: An Economic, Legal, Moral, and Political Dilemma. Developing World Bioethics 1 (1):11-32.
    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, (...)
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  14. D. B. Resnik (2003). A Pluralistic Account of Intellectual Property. Journal of Business Ethics 46 (4):319 - 335.
    This essay reviews six different approaches to intellectual property. It and argues that none of these accounts provide an adequate justification of intellectual property laws and policies because (1) there are many different types of intellectual property, and (2) a variety of incommensurable values play a role in the justification of intellectual property. The best approach to intellectual property is to assess and balance competing moral values in light of the particular facts and circumstances.
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  15.  18
    Weiqin Zeng & David Resnik (2010). Research Integrity in China: Problems and Prospects. Developing World Bioethics 10 (3):164-171.
    In little more than 30 years, China has recovered from the intellectual stagnation brought about by the Cultural Revolution to become a global leader in science and technology. Like other leading countries in science and technology, China has encountered some ethical problems related to the conduct of research. China 's leaders have taken some steps to respond to these problems, such as developing ethics policies and establishing oversight committees. To keep moving forward, China needs to continue to take effective action (...)
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  16. David B. Resnik (2004). Owning the Genome: A Moral Analysis of Dna Patenting. State University of New York Press.
    A clear, introductory overview of the issues surrounding gene patenting.
     
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  17. David B. Resnik (2000). The Moral Significance of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in Human Genetics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):365-377.
    The therapy-enhancement distinction occupies a central place in contemporary discussions of human genetics and has been the subject of much debate. At a recent conference on gene therapy policy, scientists predicted that within a few years researchers will develop techniques that can be used to enhance human traits. In thinking about the morality of genetic interventions, many writers have defended somatic gene therapy, and some have defended germline gene therapy, but only a handful of writers defend genetic enhancement, or even (...)
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  18.  47
    David B. Resnik (2003). Is the Precautionary Principle Unscientific? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):329-344.
    The precautionary principle holds that we should not allow scientific uncertainty to prevent us from taking precautionary measures in response to potential threats that are irreversible and potentially disastrous. Critics of the principle claim that it deters progress and development, is excessively risk-aversive and is unscientific. This paper argues that the principle can be scientific provided that the threats addressed by the principle are plausible threats, and the precautionary measures adopted are reasonable. The paper also argues that one may use (...)
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  19.  54
    David B. Resnik (2003). Exploitation in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the merits (...)
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  20.  20
    David B. Resnik (2004). The Distribution of Biomedical Research Resources and International Justice. Developing World Bioethics 4 (1):42–57.
    ABSTRACTAccording to some estimates, less than 10% of the world's biomedical research funds are dedicated to addressing problems that are responsible for 90% of the world's burden of disease. This paper explains why this disparity exists and what should be done about it. It argues that the disparity exists because: 1) multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies do not regard research and development investments on the health problems of developing nations to be economically lucrative; and 2) governmental agencies that sponsor biomedical (...)
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  21.  59
    D. B. Resnik (2007). Responsibility for Health: Personal, Social, and Environmental. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (8):444-445.
    Most of the discussion in bioethics and health policy concerning social responsibility for health has focused on society’s obligation to provide access to healthcare. While ensuring access to healthcare is an important social responsibility, societies can promote health in many other ways, such as through sanitation, pollution control, food and drug safety, health education, disease surveillance, urban planning and occupational health. Greater attention should be paid to strategies for health promotion other than access to healthcare, such as environmental and public (...)
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  22.  20
    David B. Resnik (2002). The Commercialization of Human Stem Cells: Ethical and Policy Issues. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 10 (2):127-154.
    The first stage of the human embryonic stem(ES) cell research debate revolved aroundfundamental questions, such as whether theresearch should be done at all, what types ofresearch may be done, who should do theresearch, and how the research should befunded. Now that some of these questions arebeing answered, we are beginning to see thenext stage of the debate: the battle forproperty rights relating to human ES cells. The reason why property rights will be a keyissue in this debate is simple and (...)
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  23.  38
    David B. Resnik (1998). The Ethics of HIV Research in Developing Nations. Bioethics 12 (4):286–306.
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  24.  18
    David B. Resnik (2005). Openness Versus Secrecy in Scientific Research. Episteme 2 (3):135-147.
    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientifi c inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for (...)
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  25.  9
    D. B. Resnik (2005). Eliminating the Daily Life Risks Standard From the Definition of Minimal Risk. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (1):35-38.
    The phrase “minimal risk,” as defined in the United States’ federal research regulations, is ambiguous and poorly defined. This article argues that most of the ambiguity that one finds in the phrase stems from the “daily life risks” standard in the definition of minimal risk. In this article, the author argues that the daily life risks standard should be dropped and that “minimal risk” should be defined as simply “the probability and magnitude of the harm or discomfort anticipated in research (...)
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  26.  26
    David B. Resnik (1991). How-Possibly Explanations in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (2):141-149.
    Biologists in many different fields of research give how-possibly explanations of the phenomena they study. Although such explanations lack empirical support, and might be regarded by some as unscientific, they play an important heuristic role in biology by helping biologists develop theories and concepts and suggesting new areas of research. How-possibly explanations serve as a useful framework for conducting research in the absence of adequate empiri cal data, and they can even become how-actually explanations if they gain enough empirical support.
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  27.  23
    David B. Resnik (2010). Can Scientists Regulate the Publication of Dual Use Research? Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 4 (1).
    The growing threat of the misuse of science and technology for terrorist or criminal purposes has led scientists, institutions, professional organizations, funding agencies, journals, and governments to consider how best to control research that can be readily used to cause significant harm to public health, the economy, the environment, or national security, also known as dual use research. This commentary argues that scientists can regulate dual use research, provided that they are committed to developing effective dual use policies and a (...)
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  28.  12
    D. B. Resnik & E. Ness (2012). Participants' Responsibilities in Clinical Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (12):746-750.
    Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enrol in a study. These responsibilities are (...)
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  29.  14
    Adil Shamoo & David Resnik (2006). Strategies to Minimize Risks and Exploitation in Phase One Trials on Healthy Subjects. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):W1-W13.
    Most of the literature on phase one trials has focused on ethical and safety issues in research on patients with advanced cancer, but this article focuses on healthy, adult subjects. The article makes six specific recommendations for protecting the rights and welfare of healthy subjects in phase one trials: 1) because phase one trials are short in duaration (usually 1 to 3 months), researchers should gather more data on the short-term and long-term risks of participation in phase one studies by (...)
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  30.  97
    Laurence J. O'Connell, James Parker, Mary C. Rawlinson, Massimo Reichlin, David Resnik, John Sadler, Yosaf Hulgus, George Agich, Marian Gray Secundy & Mark J. Sedler (1994). AIDS 519 Murphy, Timothy F. Health-Care Workers with AIDS and a Patient's Right to Know 553 Nelson, James Lindemann. Publicity and Pricelessness: Grassroots Decisionmaking and Justice in Rationing 333. [REVIEW] Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19:641-645.
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  31.  15
    David B. Resnik (2009). Playing Politics with Science: Balancing Scientific Independence and Government Oversight. Oxford University Press.
    In Playing Politics with Science, David B. Resnik explores the philosophical, political, and ethical issues related to the politicalization of science and ...
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  32.  19
    David B. Resnik (2009). What is “Dual Use” Research? A Response to Miller and Selgelid. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):3-5.
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  33.  13
    David B. Resnik (1997). A Proposal for a New System of Credit Allocation in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):237-243.
    This essay discusses some of the problems with current authorship practices and puts forward a proposal for a new system of credit allocation: in published works, scientists should more clearly define the responsibilities and contributions of members of research teams and should distinguish between different roles, such as author, statistican, technician, grant writer, data collector, and so forth.
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  34.  6
    David Resnik (2009). Direct-to-Consumer Genomics, Social Networking, and Confidentiality. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):45-46.
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  35.  9
    David B. Resnik (2004). The Precautionary Principle and Medical Decision Making. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):281 – 299.
    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary principle, this (...)
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  36.  13
    Zubin Master & David B. Resnik (2013). Incorporating Exclusion Clauses Into Informed Consent for Biobanking. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (2):203-212.
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  37.  12
    David B. Resnik (2014). Data Fabrication and Falsification and Empiricist Philosophy of Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):423-431.
    Scientists have rules pertaining to data fabrication and falsification that are enforced with significant punishments, such as loss of funding, termination of employment, or imprisonment. These rules pertain to data that describe observable and unobservable entities. In this commentary I argue that scientists would not adopt rules that impose harsh penalties on researchers for data fabrication or falsification unless they believed that an aim of scientific research is to develop true theories and hypotheses about entities that exist, including unobservable ones. (...)
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  38.  6
    David B. Resnik & Kevin C. Elliott (2015). Bisphenol A and Risk Management Ethics. Bioethics 29 (3):182-189.
    It is widely recognized that endocrine disrupting compounds, such as Bisphenol A, pose challenges for traditional paradigms in toxicology, insofar as these substances appear to have a wider range of low-dose effects than previously recognized. These compounds also pose challenges for ethics and policymaking. When a chemical does not have significant low-dose effects, regulators can allow it to be introduced into commerce or the environment, provided that procedures and rules are in place to keep exposures below an acceptable level. This (...)
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  39.  16
    David B. Resnik (2001). Setting Biomedical Research Priorities: Justice, Science, and Public Participation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (2):181-204.
  40.  6
    David B. Resnik (2013). H5N1 Avian Flu Research and the Ethics of Knowledge. Hastings Center Report 43 (2):22-33.
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  41.  8
    D. B. Resnik & G. E. Dinse (2013). Scientific Retractions and Corrections Related to Misconduct Findings. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (1):46-50.
    We examined all 208 closed cases involving official findings of research misconduct published by the US Office of Research Integrity from 1992 to 2011 to determine how often scientists mention in a retraction or correction notice that there was an ethical problem with an associated article. 75 of these cases cited at least one published article affected by misconduct for a total of 174 articles. For 127 of these 174, we found both the article and a retraction or correction statement. (...)
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  42.  8
    David Resnik (2010). Practical and Political Problems With a Global Research Tax. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):44-45.
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  43.  5
    David B. Resnik (2001). Research Participation and Financial Inducements. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):54-56.
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  44.  5
    David Resnik (2010). Public Trust as a Policy Goal for Research With Human Subjects. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):15-17.
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  45.  37
    David B. Resnik (2001). DNA Patents and Scientific Discovery and Innovation: Assessing Benefits and Risks. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):29-62.
    This paper focuses on the question of whether DNA patents help or hinder scientific discovery and innovation. While DNA patents create a wide variety of possible benefits and harms for science and technology, the evidence we have at this point in time supports the conclusion that they will probably promote rather than hamper scientific discovery and innovation. However, since DNA patenting is a relatively recent phenomena and the biotechnology industry is in its infancy, we should continue to gather evidence about (...)
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  46.  58
    David B. Resnik (2000). A Pragmatic Approach to the Demarcation Problem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):249-267.
    The question of how to distinguish between science and non-science, the so-called ‘demarcation problem’, is one of the most high-profile, perennial, and intractable issues in the philosophy of science. It is not merely a philosophical issue, however, since it has a significant bearing on practical policy questions and practical decisions. This essay develops a pragmatic approach to the demarcation problem: it argues that while there are some core principles that we can use in distinguishing between science and non-science, particular judgments (...)
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  47.  21
    David B. Resnik (1998). Conflicts of Interest in Science. Perspectives on Science 6 (4):381-408.
    : This essay provides an analysis of conflicts of interest in science. It gives an overview of some current conflict of interest policies and distinguishes between real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest. The essay argues that scientists should disclose real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest and that they should avoid conflicts that threaten scientific objectivity or trustworthiness. The essay also uses several hypothetical scenarios to illustrate some of the key points made in the analysis and suggests some strategies (...)
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  48.  71
    David B. Resnik (1994). Hacking's Experimental Realism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):395 - 411.
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  49.  63
    D. B. Resnik (1998). The Commodification of Human Reproductive Materials. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (6):388-393.
    This essay develops a framework for thinking about the moral basis for the commodification of human reproductive materials. It argues that selling and buying gametes and genes is morally acceptable although there should not be a market for zygotes, embryos, or genomes. Also a market in gametes and genes should be regulated in order to address concerns about the adverse social consequences of commodification.
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  50.  8
    David B. Resnik (2009). The Clinical Investigator-Subject Relationship: A Contextual Approach. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4 (1):16-.
    BackgroundThe nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol.Results and conclusionIn this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty (...)
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