This paper is primarily a response to ?analytically-minded? philosophers, such as Maudemarie Clark and Brian Leiter, who push for a ?naturalistic? interpretation of Nietzsche. In particular, this paper will consider Leiter?s (2007) discussion of Nietzsche?s chapter in Twilight of the Idols, ?The Four Great Errors?, and argue that Leiter has misinterpreted this chapter in at least four ways. I provide a superior interpretation of this chapter, which argues that Nietzsche is using a transcendental style of argument to argue against a (...) common conception of causation. I argue that Nietzsche?s ultimate aim of this chapter is to argue for ?the innocence of becoming? rather than, as Leiter claims, the error of free will. I argue that this anti-naturalist methodology and conclusion are in tension with Leiter/Clark?s Nietzsche, and highlights the need to pay attention to the being/becoming distinction in Nietzsche. (shrink)
In this paper I argue that Nietzsche should be understood as a “thorough-going nihilist”. Rather than broaching two general projects of destroying current values and constructing new ones, I argue that Nietzsche should be understood only as a destroyer of values. I do this by looking at Nietzsche’s views on nihilism and the role played by Nietzsche’s cyclical view of time, or his doctrine of the eternal recurrence of the same. I provide a typology of nihilisms, as they are found (...) in Nietzsche—negative, reactive and radical—through a close reading of an unpublished fragment in his later notebooks, remnants of which are scattered throughout his published work. I show how the progression between the different stages of nihilism are a “necessary consequence of the ideals entertained hitherto” (WTP 28), with the eternal recurrence of the same playing a vital role in this progression. The last stage of nihilism—radical nihilism—is ambiguous between a life-denying, or passive, nihilism and a life-affirming, or active, one; but, I argue, both kinds of nihilism preclude a construction of new values. But there is an inherent tension within Nietzsche’s account of nihilism insofar as it relies on the eternal recurrence of the same. This tension is brought out nicely by Löwith and (I argue) partially resolved by Klossowski. There are at least two meanings of the eternal recurrence of the same. In one sense, the cosmological reading, it is intended to make sense of the idea that time is infinite and matter is finite by claiming that every possible combination of matter will recur infinite times. In the other sense, the anthropological reading, it is a kind of thought experiment, analogous to Kant’s categorical imperative: “live in every moment so that you could will that moment back again over and over” (Löwith). There is a tension between these readings insofar as one must will to live in such a way that they will do it again, over and over (the anthropological reading), but also that what they do will make no difference, for what one decides to do has been done (and will be done) innumerable times. I argue that this tension can only be resolved by considering Nietzsche as aiming at “goal-lessness as such” and placing him as an active nihilist. (shrink)
Einstein in the public arena Content Type Journal Article Category Essay Review Pages 1-6 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9601-x Authors David E. Rowe, Geschichte der Mathematik und der Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Mathematik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz, Germany Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
I question whether chaotic itinerancy is anything new or different to existing research on heteroclinic cycles (cycling-chaos), and blow-out bifurcations (attractor-bubbling) that provide more detailed and better definition for nonlinear phenomena occurring in neural systems. I give a brief description of this research for comparison and expansion, and see it as an important component in dynamical models of neural activity.
We question the falsifiability of Tsuda's theory and emphasise the need for physiologically based, quantitative models of large scale cortical function that can be validated through experimental data. We outline such a model emphasising its verification through experimental data and possible avenues for testing Tsuda's predictions about nonlinearities in neural behaviour.
Howe et al. have mistaken gene x environment correlations for environmental main effects. Thus, they believe that training would develop the same level of performance in anyone, when it would not. The heritability of talents indicates their dependence on variation in physiological (including neurological) capacities. Talents may be difficult to predict from early cues because tests are poorly designed, or because the skill requirements change at more advanced levels of performance. One twin study of training effects demonstrated greater heritability of (...) physical skill after than before training. In summary, talents are real. (shrink)
Analytical expressions for the matrices and an explicit algorithm for computing Clebsch-Gordan coupling coefficients are given forsu(4) in au(3)-coupled basis as an example of the construction for anysu(n) in au(n−1) basis. The results areinduced from the known results foru(3) by means of the vector-coherent-state (VCS) theory of induced representations. The important recent result that makes this possible is the discovery that a complete set of shift tensors for the finitedimensional representations of reductive Lie algebras can be induced, by VCS methods, (...) from those of suitably defined subalgebras. (shrink)
Unlike some psychiatric illnesses, criminal lifestyles are not reproductive dead ends and may represent frequency-dependent adaptations. Sociopaths may gain reproductively from their greater relative to nonsociopaths. This mating-effort construct should be assessed directly in future studies of sociopathy. Collaboration between biologically oriented and environmentally oriented researchers is needed to investigate the biosocial basis of sociopathy.