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David Ward [12]Dave Ward [11]D. Ward [9]David E. Ward [8]
Duren J. H. Ward [3]David V. Ward [3]D. E. Ward [1]D. J. Ward [1]

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Profile: Dave Ward (University of Edinburgh)
Profile: Dana Ward (College of DuPage)
Profile: Deirdre Ward
Profile: Donald Ward
  1. Dave Ward & Mog Stapleton (2012). Es Are Good. Cognition as Enacted, Embodied, Embedded, Affective and Extended. In Fabio Paglieri (ed.), Consciousness in Interaction: The role of the natural and social context in shaping consciousness.
    We present a specific elaboration and partial defense of the claims that cognition is enactive, embodied, embedded, affective and (potentially) extended. According to the view we will defend, the enactivist claim that perception and cognition essentially depend upon the cognizer’s interactions with their environment is fundamental. If a particular instance of this kind of dependence obtains, we will argue, then it follows that cognition is essentially embodied and embedded, that the underpinnings of cognition are inextricable from those of affect, that (...)
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  2.  38
    D. Ward (2012). Enjoying the Spread: Conscious Externalism Reconsidered. Mind 121 (483):731-751.
    According to a variety of recent ‘enactivist’ proposals, the material basis of conscious experience might extend beyond the boundaries of the brain and nervous system and into the environment. Clark (2009) surveys several such arguments and finds them wanting. Here I respond on behalf of the enactivist. Clarifying the commitments of enactivism at the personal and subpersonal levels and considering how those levels relate lets us see where Clark’s analysis of enactivism goes wrong. Clark understands the enactivists as attempting to (...)
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  3. Dave Ward, Tom Roberts & Andy Clark (2011). Knowing What We Can Do: Actions, Intentions, and the Construction of Phenomenal Experience. Synthese 181 (3):375-394.
    How do questions concerning consciousness and phenomenal experience relate to, or interface with, questions concerning plans, knowledge and intentions? At least in the case of visual experience the relation, we shall argue, is tight. Visual perceptual experience, we shall argue, is fixed by an agent’s direct unmediated knowledge concerning her poise (or apparent poise) over a currently enabled action space. An action space, in this specific sense, is to be understood not as a fine-grained matrix of possibilities for bodily movement, (...)
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  4.  17
    Dave Ward (2016). Hurley's Transcendental Enactivism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 23 (5-6):12-38.
    Susan Hurley (1998a, 2003a, 2008) argues that our capacities for perception, agency and thought are essentially interdependent and co-emerge from a tangle of sensorimotor processes that are both cause and effect of the web of interactive and communicative practices they weave us into. In this paper, I reconstruct this view and its main motivations, with a particular focus on three important aspects. First, Hurley argues that an essential aspect of conscious perception – its perspectival unity – constitutively depends on agency. (...)
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  5.  50
    Dave Ward (2015). Between Perception and Action By Bence Nanay. Analysis 75 (4):684-686.
    A short review of Bence Nanay's 'Between Action and Perception'.
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  6. David E. Ward (2002). The Complexity of Evil Behavior. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (1):23-26.
  7.  40
    Dave Ward (2011). Personal Identity, Agency and the Multiplicity Thesis. Minds and Machines 21 (4):497-515.
    I consider whether there is a plausible conception of personal identity that can accommodate the ‘Multiplicity Thesis’ (MT), the thesis that some ways of creating and deploying multiple distinct online personae can bring about the existence of multiple persons where before there was only one. I argue that an influential Kantian line of thought, according to which a person is a unified locus of rational agency, is well placed to accommodate the thesis. I set out such a line of thought (...)
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  8.  39
    Dave Ward (2016). Achieving Transparency: An Argument For Enactivism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (3):650-680.
    The transparency of perceptual experience has been invoked in support of many views about perception. I argue that it supports a form of enactivism—the view that capacities for perceptual experience and for intentional agency are essentially interdependent. I clarify the perceptual phenomenon at issue, and argue that enactivists should expect to find a parallel instance of transparency in our agentive experience, and that the two forms of transparency are constitutively interdependent. I then argue that i) we do indeed find such (...)
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  9.  66
    Dave Ward (2012). Why Don't Synaesthetic Colours Adapt Away? Philosophical Studies 159 (1):123-138.
    Synaesthetes persistently perceive certain stimuli as systematically accompanied by illusory colours, even though they know those colours to be illusory. This appears to contrast with cases where a subject’s colour vision adapts to systematic distortions caused by wearing coloured goggles. Given that each case involves longstanding systematic distortion of colour perception that the subjects recognize as such, how can a theory of colour perception explain the fact that perceptual adaptation occurs in one case but not the other? I argue that (...)
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  10.  11
    M. Villalobos & D. Ward (2016). Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):204-212.
    Context: The majority of contemporary enactivist work is influenced by the philosophical biology of Hans Jonas. Jonas credits all living organisms with experience that involves particular “existential” structures: nascent forms of concern for self-preservation and desire for objects and outcomes that promote well-being. We argue that Jonas’s attitude towards living systems involves a problematic anthropomorphism that threatens to place enactivism at odds with cognitive science, and undermine its legitimate aims to become a new paradigm for scientific investigation and understanding of (...)
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  11.  48
    Graham Oddie & David Ward (1989). The Aesthetic Adequacy of Copies. British Journal of Aesthetics 29 (3):258-260.
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  12.  48
    Duren J. H. Ward (1909). The Classification of Religions (Concluded). The Monist 19 (1):544-575.
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  13.  28
    David E. Ward (1995). Imaginary Scenarios, Black Boxes and Philosophical Method. Erkenntnis 43 (2):181 - 198.
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  14.  38
    David A. Ward (2001). Transformed Religion. Renascence 53 (2):97-117.
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  15.  34
    Dave Ward (2009). The Agent in Magenta. Psyche 15 (1).
    How should we understand the relationship between conscious perception and action? Does an appeal to action have any place in an account of colour experience? This essay aims to shed light on the first question by giving a positive response to the second. I consider two types of enactive approach to perceptual consciousness, and two types of account of colour perception. Each approach to colour perception faces serious objections. However, the two views can be combined in a way that resists (...)
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  16.  18
    David Ward (1996). Antefascism/Antifascism: Benedetto Croce, Carlo Levi, and Cultural Politics in Italy, 1943–1945. The European Legacy 1 (1):59-64.
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  17.  30
    Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward (2015). Living Systems: Autonomy, Autopoiesis and Enaction. Philosophy and Technology 28 (2):225-239.
    The autopoietic theory and the enactive approach are two theoretical streams that, in spite of their historical link and conceptual affinities, offer very different views on the nature of living beings. In this paper, we compare these views and evaluate, in an exploratory way, their respective degrees of internal coherence. Focusing the analyses on certain key notions such as autonomy and organizational closure, we argue that while the autopoietic theory manages to elaborate an internally consistent conception of living beings, the (...)
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  18.  14
    Suzanne Pinac Ward, Dan R. Ward & Alan B. Deck (1993). Certified Public Accountants: Ethical Perception Skills and Attitudes on Ethics Education. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 12 (8):601 - 610.
    This study investigated the proficiency of CPAs in recognizing and evaluating ethical and unethical situations. In addition, CPAs provided attitudes on ethics education. Respondents were asked to evaluate the ethical acceptability of CPA behavior as presented in six vignettes involving a variety of ethical dilemmas from questions of conflict of interest to questions of personal honor. The results tend to signify that CPAs can, to a degree, distinguish ethical and unethical behaviors. It appears that ethical behaviors and very specific unethical (...)
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  19.  54
    David V. Ward (1984). Identity. Philosophy Research Archives 10:353-382.
    This paper argues that there are no necessary and sufficient conditions for the identity through time of material objects where those conditions have a kind of empirical content necessary for them to function as criteria for identity through time. Taking Eli Hirsch’s program in The Concept of Identity as representative of attempts to formulate conditions which are logically necessary and sufficient and which also function as criteria guiding our tracing of objects’ careers through time, I argue (a) that, when such (...)
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  20.  47
    Duren J. H. Ward (1909). The Classification of Religions (Concluded). The Monist 19 (1):544-575.
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  21.  4
    D. Ward & M. Villalobos (2016). Authors’ Response: Enactivism, Cognitive Science, and the Jonasian Inference. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):228-233.
    Upshot: In our target article we claimed that, at least since Weber and Varela, enactivism has incorporated a theoretical commitment to one important aspect of Jonas’s philosophical biology, namely its anthropomorphism, which is at odds with the methodological commitments of modern science. In this general reply we want to clarify what we mean by anthropomorphism, and explain why we think it is incompatible with science. We do this by spelling out what we call the “Jonasian inference,” i.e., the idea that (...)
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  22.  20
    Gian C. Gonzaga, Dacher Keltner & Daniel Ward (2008). Power in Mixed-Sex Stranger Interactions. Cognition and Emotion 22 (8):1555-1568.
  23.  17
    Chris Dede, S. Korte, R. Nelson, G. Valdez & D. J. Ward (2005). Transforming Learning for the 21st Century: An Economic Imperative. Common Knowledge 399.
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  24.  13
    M. Fox & D. Ward (1992). Endnotes for Fox/Ward, From Page 6. Inquiry 10 (4):11-11.
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  25.  25
    David V. Ward (1995). Pornography and Censorship. Social Philosophy Today 10:207-219.
  26.  7
    M. Fox & D. Ward (1992). Multiculturalism, Liberalism, and Science. Inquiry 10 (4):3-6.
  27.  5
    Duren J. H. Ward (1909). The Classification of Religions : Part IV. According to Their Usual Names, Locations, and Numbers of Adherents---Geographical and Statistical Method. The Monist 19 (1):95-135.
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  28. David Ward (2000). A New Approach to the Philosophical Problem of Akrasia. Dialogos 35 (76):97-110.
     
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  29. David Ward, Fun and Games.
    When Kant is explaining how aesthetic judgments are made, he contrasts them with cognitive judgments in which the imagination is, as he puts it, "in the service" of the understanding. In effect, he thinks of cognitive judgments as tasks in which the imagination is attempting to see whether some given item falls under a concept or rule provided by the understanding. If the rule is reasonably specific-separate the cubes from the spheres-there is not much room for the imagination to determine (...)
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  30.  12
    David Ward (1989). Human Rights and National Self-Detennination. Social Philosophy Today 2:51-59.
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  31.  4
    David V. Ward (1993). Does Medical Experimentation on Children and Incompetents Violate the Fourth Amendment? Social Philosophy Today 8:205-217.
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  32.  15
    David Ward (1984). The Indeterminacy of Identity Conditions. Southern Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):257-262.
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  33. David Ward, Thought #11.
    particular, the class were fascinated by W's remark following 2.71 ('A picture can depict any reality whose form it has') namely "A picture, cannot however, depict its pictorial form: it displays it." (2.172) At this point I usually tell the story about the anthropologist who shows a polaroid photograph of a some local scene to members of the newly discovered tribe. They can't make head nor tail of it which surprises the anthropologist until he recalls W's remark at 2.172. The (...)
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  34. David E. Ward, THE SOLUTION TO THE PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM OF AKRASIA.
    I would like to begin by welcoming all of you and by saying how nice it is to be President of the AAP NZ DIV or (the altervative Title) and to be addressing you tonight in that capacity. As I began writing this it occurred to me that every former Secretary of this Association must have asked themselves at some time just how meaningful this automatic honour of becoming President the following year actually is. Certainly it is an advantage to (...)
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  35.  4
    David E. Ward (1991). Explaining Agency Via Kant and Spinoza. Studia Spinozana: An International and Interdisciplinary Series 7:57-68.
  36.  11
    David E. Ward (2002). Explaining Evil Behavior: Using Kant and M. Scott Peck to Solve the Puzzle of Understanding the Moral Psychology of Evil People. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (1):1-12.
  37. David E. Ward, The Abortion Debate : A Compromise.
    The fundamental issue dividing Pro- and Anti-abortionists is the question of whether or not the foetus/unborn child is to be regarded as a human being, a person with a right to life. An answer to this question which would satisfy both disputants must be developed in a consistent way from beliefs that are shared between them. I outline these shared beliefs (viz., attitudes towards potential life, and, how and when the value of life is realised by an individual) and argue (...)
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  38.  3
    David Ward (2001). Did I Dream That or Did It Really Happen? A Phenomenological Criterion for Distinguishing Remembered Dream Experiences From Remembered Waking Experiences. Manuscrito 24 (1):85-101.
    Is there a way to tell whether what you remember was something you dreamt or something that really happened without making reference to coherence criteria? I suggest contra Descartes that there is a certain sign ‘by means of which one can distinguish clearly between being awake and being asleep’. This certain sign is the intensive magnitude associated with every sensation.
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  39.  1
    Dr P. M. Ward (2010). In Defence of Philosophy in Schools. British Journal of Educational Studies 31 (3):252-264.
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  40. David E. Ward, A Basic Schema for Understanding Aesthetic Transactions.
    My intention in this paper is to present a schema for understanding �sthetic transactions. (By '�sthetic transactions' I mean to refer to the artist's creation of a work of art and the audience's appreciation of it). For Kant a schema was a rule or principle that enables the under- standing to apply its categories. I am using this term in a narrower sense but in the same spirit : The schema to be considered is to serve as a principle which (...)
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  41.  1
    David Ward (1987). Exploring the Concept of Mind (Review). Philosophy and Literature 11 (2):357-358.
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  42. Samantha E. Bankston, Harold Barclay, Lewis Call, Alexandre J. M. E. Christoyannopoulos, Vernon Cisney, Jesse Cohn, Abraham DeLeon, Francis Dupuis-Déri, Benjamin Franks, Clive Gabay, Karen Goaman, Rodrigo Gomes Guimarães, Uri Gordon, James Horrox, Anthony Ince, Sandra Jeppesen, Stavros Karageorgakis, Elizabeth Kolovou, Thomas Martin, Todd May, Nicolae Morar, Irène Pereira, Stevphen Shukaitis, Mick Smith, Scott Turner, Salvo Vaccaro, Mitchell Verter, Dana Ward & Dana M. Williams (2009). New Perspectives on Anarchism. Lexington Books.
    The study of anarchism as a philosophical, political, and social movement has burgeoned both in the academy and in the global activist community in recent years. Taking advantage of this boom in anarchist scholarship, Nathan J. Jun and Shane Wahl have compiled twenty-six cutting-edge essays on this timely topic in New Perspectives on Anarchism.
     
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  43. Franz H. Bäuml & Donald J. Ward (1967). Zur mündlichen Überlieferung des Nibelungenliedes. Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft Und Geistesgeschichte 41 (3):351-390.
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  44. Matthew Chrisman, Duncan Pritchard, Jane Suilin Lavelle, Michela Massimi, Alasdair Richmond & Dave Ward (2013). Philosophy for Everyone. Routledge.
    Philosophy for Everyone begins by explaining what philosophy is before exploring the questions and issues at the foundation of this important subject. Key topics and their areas of focus include: Epistemology - what our knowledge of the world and ourselves consists in, and how we come to have it; Philosophy of Science - foundational conceptual issues in scientific research and practice; Philosophy of Mind - what it means for something to have a mind, and how minds should be understood and (...)
     
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  45. Matthew Chrisman, Duncan Pritchard, Guy Fletcher, Elinor Mason, Jane Suilin Lavelle, Michela Massimi, Alasdair Richmond & Dave Ward (2016). Philosophy for Everyone. Routledge.
    Philosophy for Everyone begins by explaining what philosophy is before exploring the questions and issues at the foundation of this important subject. Key topics in this new edition and their areas of focus include: Moral philosophy – the nature of our moral judgments and reactions, whether they aim at some objective moral truth, or are mere personal or cultural preferences; and the possibility of moral responsibility given the sorts of things that cause behavior; Political philosophy – fundamental questions about the (...)
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  46. Karin Fester & David Ward (2004). Finding the Way Towards a Feminist Business Ethic. Philosophy for Business 13.
     
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  47. Robyn McPhail & David E. Ward (1988). Morality and Agency. Upa.
    The authors argue that an understanding of human agency based on Spinoza's views can resolve the apparent conflict between the demands of happiness and the dictates of morality without damaging the unique values associated with the moral form of life espoused by Kant.
     
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  48. D. Ward (2003). Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line. By Paul Gilroy. The European Legacy 8 (6):848-848.
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  49. D. Ward (2000). Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. By Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi. The European Legacy 5 (3):486-486.
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  50. D. Ward (2000). Italy and the Wider World, 1860-1960. By RJB Bosworth. The European Legacy 5 (3):483-483.
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