Search results for 'Damage' (try it on Scholar)

836 found
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  1. Anne Schwenkenbecher (2014). Collateral Damage and the Principle of Due Care. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (1):94-105.
    This article focuses on the ethical implications of so-called ‘collateral damage’. It develops a moral typology of collateral harm to innocents, which occurs as a side effect of military or quasi-military action. Distinguishing between accidental and incidental collateral damage, it introduces four categories of such damage: negligent, oblivious, knowing and reckless collateral damage. Objecting mainstream versions of the doctrine of double effect, the article argues that in order for any collateral damage to be morally permissible, (...)
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  2.  58
    Rocco J. Gennaro & Yonatan I. Fishman (2015). The Argument From Brain Damage Vindicated. In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield 105-133.
    It has long been known that brain damage has important negative effects on one’s mental life and even eliminates one’s ability to have certain conscious experiences. It thus stands to reason that when all of one’s brain activity ceases upon death, consciousness is no longer possible and so neither is an afterlife. It seems clear that human consciousness is dependent upon functioning brains. This essay reviews some of the overall neurological evidence from brain damage studies and concludes that (...)
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  3.  56
    Chrisoula Andreou (2006). Environmental Damage and the Puzzle of the Self-Torturer. Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (1):95–108.
    I show, building on Warren Quinn's puzzle of the self-torturer, that destructive conduct with respect to the environment can flourish even in the absence of interpersonal conflicts. As Quinn's puzzle makes apparent, in cases where individually negligible effects are involved, an agent, whether it be an individual or a unified collective, can be led down a course of destruction simply as a result of following its informed and perfectly understandable but intransitive preferences. This is relevant with respect to environmental ethics, (...)
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  4.  2
    Jolanta Zajančkauskienė (2011). Questions of Compensation for Damage, Caused by the Criminally Insane Person's Criminal Act (article in German). Jurisprudence 18 (3):1145-1161.
    The present article is aimed at dealing with certain questions of compensation for damage, caused by the criminally insane person. Disposal of a civil action on compensation for damage, caused by the criminally insane person, in the criminal procedure is analyzed in the first part of the article. The subjects, who are responsible for compensating for damage, caused by the criminally insane person’s deed, are dealt with in the second part. Not only the respective rules of law, (...)
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  5.  15
    A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio & S. W. Anderson (1993). Insensitivity to Future Consequences Following Damage to Human Prefrontal Cortex. Cognition 50 (1-3):7-15.
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  6.  50
    Kristina Blennow & Erik Persson (2013). Societal Impacts of Storm Damage. In Barry Gardiner, Andreas Schuck, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Christophe Orazio, Kristina Blennow & Bruce Nicoll (eds.), Living with Storm Damage to Forests. European Forest Institute 70-78.
    Wind damage to forests can be divided into (1) the direct damage done to the forest and(2) indirect effects. Indirect effects may be of different kinds and may affect the environ- ment as well as society. For example, falling trees can lead to power and telecommunica- tion failures or blocking of roads. The salvage harvest of fallen trees is another example and one that involves extremely dangerous work. In this overview we provide examples of different entities, services, and (...)
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  7.  1
    Samer Mi Hussein, Judith Elbaz & Andras A. Nagy (2013). Genome Damage in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Assessing the Mechanisms and Their Consequences. Bioessays 35 (3):152-162.
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  8.  44
    F. M. Kamm (2005). Terror and Collateral Damage: Are They Permissible? [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):381 - 401.
    This article begins by comparing terror and death and then focuses on whether killing combatants and noncombatants as a mere means to create terror, that is in turn a means to winning a war, is ever permissible. The role of intentions and alternative acts one might have done is examined in this regard. The second part of the article begins by criticizing a standard justification for causing collateral (side effect) deaths in war and offers an alternative justification that makes use (...)
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  9.  79
    Sophie Schwartz, Frédéric Assal, Nathalie Valenza, Mohamed L. Seghier & Patrik Vuilleumier (2005). Illusory Persistence of Touch After Right Parietal Damage: Neural Correlates of Tactile Awareness. Brain 128 (2):277-290.
  10.  4
    Richard D. Weiner (1984). Does Electroconvulsive Therapy Cause Brain Damage? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):1.
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  11.  13
    Deborah Giaschi, James E. Jan, Bruce Bjornson, Simon Au Young, Matthew Tata, Christopher J. Lyons, William V. Good & Peter K. H. Wong (2003). Conscious Visual Abilities in a Patient with Early Bilateral Occipital Damage. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 45 (11):772-781.
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  12.  2
    Thomas G. Hofmann, Carolina Glas & Nadja Bitomsky (2013). HIPK2: A Tumour Suppressor That Controls DNA Damage‐Induced Cell Fate and Cytokinesis. Bioessays 35 (1):55-64.
  13.  1
    Björn Schumacher (2009). Transcription‐Blocking DNA Damage in Aging: A Mechanism for Hormesis. Bioessays 31 (12):1347-1356.
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  14. Tirin Moore, Hillary R. Rodman & Charles G. Gross (2001). Recovery of Visual Function Following Damage to the Striate Cortex in Monkeys. In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press 35-51.
     
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  15.  30
    Jaak Panksepp, Thomas Fuchs, Victor Garcia & Adam Lesiak (2007). Does Any Aspect of Mind Survive Brain Damage That Typically Leads to a Persistent Vegetative State? Ethical Considerations. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):32-.
    Recent neuroscientific evidence brings into question the conclusion that all aspects of consciousness are gone in patients who have descended into a persistent vegetative state (PVS). Here we summarize the evidence from human brain imaging as well as neurological damage in animals and humans suggesting that some form of consciousness can survive brain damage that commonly causes PVS. We also raise the issue that neuroscientific evidence indicates that raw emotional feelings (primary-process affects) can exist without any cognitive awareness (...)
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  16.  96
    Howard Nye (2014). On the Equivalence of Trolleys and Transplants: The Lack of Intrinsic Difference Between ‘Collateral Damage’ and Intended Harm. Utilitas 26 (4):432-479.
    In this article I attempt to show conclusively that the apparent intrinsic difference between causing collateral damage and directly attacking innocents is an illusion. I show how eleven morally irrelevant alterations can transform an apparently permissible case of harming as a side-effect into an apparently impermissible case of harming as a means. The alterations are as obviously irrelevant as the victims’ skin colour, and consistently treating them as relevant would have unacceptable implications for choices between more and less harmful (...)
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  17.  18
    Michael Thomas & Annette Karmiloff-Smith (2002). Are Developmental Disorders Like Cases of Adult Brain Damage? Implications From Connectionist Modelling. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):727-750.
    It is often assumed that similar domain-specific behavioural impairments found in cases of adult brain damage and developmental disorders correspond to similar underlying causes, and can serve as convergent evidence for the modular structure of the normal adult cognitive system. We argue that this correspondence is contingent on an unsupported assumption that atypical development can produce selective deficits while the rest of the system develops normally (Residual Normality), and that this assumption tends to bias data collection in the field. (...)
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  18.  29
    Adina Roskies (2006). Patients with Ventromedial Frontal Damage Have Moral Beliefs. Philosophical Psychology 19 (5):617 – 627.
    Michael Cholbi thinks that the claim that motive internalism (MI), the thesis that moral beliefs or judgments are intrinsically motivating, is the best explanation for why moral beliefs are usually accompanied by moral motivation. He contests arguments that patients with ventromedial (VM) frontal brain damage are counterexamples to MI by denying that they have moral beliefs. I argue that none of the arguments he offers to support this contention are viable. First, I argue that given Cholbi's own commitments, he (...)
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  19.  27
    Olaf Dammann (2007). Perinatal Brain Damage Causation. Developmental Neuroscience 29:280–8.
    The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause (causal production vs. facilitation), (2) extrapolating from possibility to fact (potential vs. factual causation), (3) if X, then invariably Y (determinism vs. probabilism), (4) co-occurrence in individuals vs. association in (...)
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  20.  20
    Julian Savulescu (2009). Brain Damage and the Moral Significance of Consciousness. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (1):6-26.
    Neuroimaging studies of brain-damaged patients diagnosed as in the vegetative state suggest that the patients might be conscious. This might seem to raise no new ethical questions given that in related disputes both sides agree that evidence for consciousness gives strong reason to preserve life. We question this assumption. We clarify the widely held but obscure principle that consciousness is morally significant. It is hard to apply this principle to difficult cases given that philosophers of mind distinguish between a range (...)
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  21. Peter Carruthers & Vincent Picciuto (2011). Should Damage to the Machinery for Social Perception Damage Perception. Cognitive Neuroscience 2 (2):116-17.
    We argue that Graziano and Kastner are mistaken to claim that neglect favors their self-directed social perception account of consciousness. For the latter should not predict that neglect would result from damage to mechanisms of social perception. Neglect is better explained in terms of damage to attentional mechanisms.
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  22.  28
    A. Rebecca Reuber & Eileen Fischer (2010). Organizations Behaving Badly: When Are Discreditable Actions Likely to Damage Organizational Reputation? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 93 (1):39 - 50.
    Everyday there are revelations of organizations behaving in discreditable ways. Sometimes these actions result in damage to an organization's reputation, but often they do not. In this article, we examine the question of why external stakeholders may overlook disclosed discreditable actions, even those entailing ethical breaches. Drawing on stigmatization theory, we develop a model to explain the likelihood of reputational loss following revelations of discreditable actions. The model integrates four properties of actions (perceived control, perceived certainty, perceived threat, and (...)
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  23.  6
    C. A. Rentmeester (2008). Moral Damage to Health Care Professionals and Trainees: Legalism and Other Consequences for Patients and Colleagues. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (1):27-43.
    Health care professionals’ and trainees’ conceptions of their responsibilities to patients can change over time for a number of reasons: evolving career goals, desires to serve different patient populations, and changing family obligations, for example. Some changes in conceptions of responsibility are healthy, but others express moral damage. Clinicians’ changes in their conceptions of what they are responsible for express moral damage when their responses to others express a meager, rather than robust, sense of what they owe others. (...)
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  24.  18
    J. Angelo Corlett (1996). Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Damage. Environmental Ethics 18 (2):195-207.
    I set forth and defend an analysis of corporate moral responsibility, which, I argue, ought to serve as the foundation for corporate legal responsibility, punishment, and compensation for environmental damage caused by corporations.
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  25.  7
    Minako Ichikawa Smart & Shunzo Majima (2012). The Moral Grounds for Reparation for Collateral Damage in Expeditionary Interventions: Beyond the Just War Tradition. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (2):181-195.
    Despite a significant effort to reduce civilian casualties, a large number of civilians have been killed and injured by the military forces of the Western powers undertaking military operations in remote regions. However, there is no requirement in the just war tradition and international humanitarian law to provide reparation for the victims of unintended and proportional attacks. This article seeks to establish moral grounds for responsibility to provide reparation for “collateral damage” by focusing on the distinct characteristics of expeditionary (...)
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  26.  5
    C. Tollefsen (2008). Intending Damage to Basic Goods. Christian Bioethics 14 (3):272-282.
    Richard McCormick justified his move to proportionalism in part because of the perceived inadequacy of the Grisez-Finnis approach to morality to answer the following question: “What is to count for turning against a basic good, and why?” In this paper, I provide the beginnings of an account of what it means to intend damage to a good; I then show that the account is readily exportable to judgments regarding killing and lying defended by Grisez and others. I then indicate (...)
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  27.  2
    Christy A. Rentmeester (2008). Moral Damage to Health Care Professionals and Trainees: Legalism and Other Consequences for Patients and Colleagues. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (1):27-43.
    Health care professionals’ and trainees’ conceptions of their responsibilities to patients can change over time for a number of reasons: evolving career goals, desires to serve different patient populations, and changing family obligations, for example. Some changes in conceptions of responsibility are healthy, but others express moral damage. Clinicians’ changes in their conceptions of what they are responsible for express moral damage when their responses to others express a meager, rather than robust, sense of what they owe others. (...)
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  28.  24
    Minako Ichikawa Smart & Shunzo Majima (2012). The Moral Grounds for Reparation for Collateral Damage in Expeditionary Interventions. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (2):181-195.
    Despite a significant effort to reduce civilian casualties, a large number of civilians have been killed and injured by the military forces of the Western powers undertaking military operations in remote regions. However, there is no requirement in the just war tradition (JWT) and international humanitarian law (IHL) to provide reparation for the victims of unintended and proportional attacks. This article seeks to establish moral grounds for responsibility to provide reparation for “collateral damage” by focusing on the distinct characteristics (...)
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  29.  7
    Dahlia W. Zaidel (2007). Overall Intelligence and Localized Brain Damage. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):173-174.
    Overall mean performance on intelligence tests by brain-damaged patients with focal lesions can be misleading in regard to localization of intelligence. The widely used WAIS has many subtests that together recruit spatially distant neural but individually the subtests reveal localized functions. Moreover, there are kinds of intelligence that defy the localizationist approach inferred from brain damage.
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  30.  8
    Anders Rydvall, Niklas Juth, Mikael Sandlund, Magnus Domellöf & Niels Lynøe (forthcoming). To Treat or Not to Treat a Newborn Child with Severe Brain Damage? A Cross-Sectional Study of Physicians' and the General Population's Perceptions of Intentions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-8.
    Ethical dilemmas are common in the neonatal intensive care setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinions of Swedish physicians and the general public on treatment decisions regarding a newborn with severe brain damage. We used a vignette-based questionnaire which was sent to a random sample of physicians (n = 628) and the general population (n = 585). Respondents were asked to provide answers as to whether it is acceptable to discontinue ventilator treatment, (...)
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  31.  6
    Peter R. Breggin (1990). Brain Damage, Dementia, and Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Associated with Neuroleptic Drugs: Evidence, Etiology, Implications. Journal of Mind and Behavior 11 (3):4.
    Several million people are treated with neuroleptic medications in North America each year. A large percentage of these patients develop a chronic neurologic disorder-tardive dyskinesia-characterized by abnormal movements of the voluntary muscles. Most cases are permanent and there is no known treatment. Evidence has been accumulating that the neuroleptics also cause damage to the highest centers of the brain, producing chronic mental dysfunction, tardive dementia and tardive psychosis. These drug effects may be considered a mental equivalent of tardive dyskinesia. (...)
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  32.  5
    Donald G. Stein & Marylou M. Glasier (1995). Are Fetal Brain Tissue Grafts Necessary for the Treatment of Brain Damage? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):86-107.
    Despite some clinical promise, using fetal transplants for degenerative and traumatic brain injury remains controversial and a number of issues need further attention. This response reexamines a number of questions. Issues addressed include: temporal factors relating to neural grafting, the role of behavioral experience in graft outcome, and the relationship of rebuilding of neural circuitry to functional recovery. Also discussed are organization and type of transplanted tissue, the of transplant viability, and whether transplants are really needed to obtain functional recovery (...)
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  33.  5
    Chelsea Pietsch (2010). Is the Child Damage? Bioethics Research Notes 22 (4):54.
    Pietsch, Chelsea In a claim of negligence, plaintiffs must be able to prove that they have suffered some sort of damage or loss. Proving damage is usually a straightforward task which involves making a comparison between the plaintiff's position before and after the alleged negligence. However, what damage has been done if a doctor's negligence results in the conception and subsequent birth of a child? Is it ever possible to conceive of life as damage? These questions (...)
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  34.  10
    M. Zimmermann (2012). Narrating Stroke: The Life-Writing and Fiction of Brain Damage. Medical Humanities 38 (2):73-77.
    Cerebro-vascular events are, after neurodegenerative disorders, the most frequent cause of brain damage that leads to the patient's impaired cognitive and/or bodily functioning. While the medico-scientific discourse related to stroke suggests that patients experience a change in identity and self-concept, the present analysis focuses on the patients' personal presentation of their experience to, first, highlight their way of thinking and feeling and, second, contribute to the clinician's actual understanding of the meaning of stroke within the life of each individual. (...)
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  35.  10
    J. Angelo Corlett (1996). Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Damage. Environmental Ethics 18 (2):195-207.
    I set forth and defend an analysis of corporate moral responsibility (retrospective moral liability), which, I argue, ought to serve as the foundation for corporate legal responsibility, punishment, and compensation for environmental damage caused by corporations.
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  36.  4
    Leonard Frank (1990). Electroshock: Death, Brain Damage, Memory Loss, and Brainwashing. Journal of Mind and Behavior 11 (3-4):498-512.
    Since its introduction in 1938, electroshock, or electroconvulsion therapy , has been one of psychiatry's most controversial procedures. Approximately 100,000 people in the United States undergo ECT yearly, and recent media reports indicate a resurgence of its use. Proponents claim that changes in the technology of ECT administration have greatly reduced the fears and risk formely associated with the procedure. I charge, however that ECT as routinely used today is at least as harmful overall as it was before these changes (...)
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  37.  1
    Samuel Beswick (2015). ‘Losses in Any Event’ in the Case of Damage to Property. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 35 (4):755-775.
    In several relatively recent decisions, the House of Lords and the Court of Appeal have declared, relying on a series of early 20th century admiralty cases, that the occurrence of supervening events is irrelevant to the determination of damages for negligent injury to property. The principle has been described as ‘a firm sub-rule’ that applies to cases of property damage but not to other categories of loss. This paper, conversely, contends that the proper and consistent position in law is (...)
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  38.  9
    Rolf Verleger (2003). Double Dissociation in the Effects of Brain Damage on Working Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):758-759.
    As revealed by standard neuropsychological testing, patients with damage either to the frontal lobe or to the hippocampus suffer from distinct impairments of working memory. It is unclear how Ruchkin et al.'s model integrates the role played by the hippocampus.
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  39.  2
    Simona Selelionytė-Drukteinienė (2010). The Multiple Debtors Case: the Extent of the Tortious Duty to Compensate Damage—Solidary or Proportional Liability? (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 121 (3):233-250.
    Among the most complicated issues in the law of delict, in the case of multiple debtors, is to determine the scope of each co-debtor’s liability. The rule of proportional liability clearly favours debtors more than the aggrieved party. And, on the contrary, the solidary liability best suits the interests of the aggrieved party as the risk of co-debtor’s insolvency is transferred to the debtors. Furthermore, in the latter case, the debtors who attempt to allocate the scope of their liability among (...)
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  40.  2
    Jeffrey Brand-Ballard (2009). Innocents Lost: Proportional Sentencing and the Paradox of Collateral Damage. Legal Theory 15 (2):67.
    Retributive restrictions are principles of justice according to which what a criminal deserves on account of his individual conduct and character restricts how states are morally permitted to treat him. The main arguments offered in defense of retributive restrictions involve thought experiments in which the state punishes the innocent, a practice known as telishment . In order to derive retributive restrictions from the wrongness of telishment, one must engage in moral argument from generalization. I show how generalization arguments of the (...)
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  41. C. M. Bolin, R. Basha, D. Cox, N. H. Zawia, B. Maloney, D. K. Lahiri & F. Cardozo-Pelaez (2006). Exposure to Lead and the Developmental Origin of Oxidative DNA Damage in the Aging Brain. Faseb J 20:788-90.
    Oxidative damage to DNA has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Developmental exposure to lead has been shown to elevate the Alzheimer's disease related beta-amyloid peptide , which is known to generate reactive oxygen species in the aging brain. This study measures the lifetime cerebral 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and the activity of the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in rats developmentally exposed to Pb. Oxo8dG was transiently modulated early in life , but was later elevated 20 months after exposure to (...)
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  42.  6
    Neta Crawford (2013). Accountability for Killing: Moral Responsibility for Collateral Damage in America's Post-9/11 Wars. OUP Usa.
    A sophisticated and intellectually powerful analysis of culpability and moral responsibility in war, This book focuses on the causes of many episodes of foreseeable collateral damage. Trenchant, original, and ranging across security studies, international law, ethics, and international relations, Accountability for Killing will reshape our understanding of the ethics of contemporary war.
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  43. John Devereux (2014). Collateral Damage: A Patient, a New Procedure, and the Learning Curve. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):563-564.
    This article is a review of the 2010 book Collateral Damage by Dan Walter.
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  44. Charles Goodwin (ed.) (2003). Conversation and Brain Damage. Oxford University Press Usa.
    How do people with brain damage communicate? How does the partial or total loss of the ability to speak and use language fluently manifest itself in actual conversation? How are people with brain damage able to expand their cognitive ability through interaction with others - and how do these discursive activities in turn influence cognition? This groundbreaking collection of new articles examines the ways in which aphasia and other neurological deficits lead to language impairments that shape the production, (...)
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  45. Juozas Žilys (2011). The Referendum of 14 June 1992 “On Unconditional and Urgent Withdrawal of the Former Ussr Army from the Territory of the Republic of Lithuania and Restitution of Damage to Lithuania” in the Constitutional Genesis (article in Lithuanian). [REVIEW] Jurisprudence 18 (2):467-496.
    The paper aims at revealing the key legal and political factors that determined the organization and holding of the referendum on unconditional and urgent withdrawal of the former USSR army from the territory of the Republic of Lithuania and restitution of damage to Lithuania. It is established that the main factor was that the Supreme Council-Reconstituent Seimas of the Lithuanian Republic adopted provisions on the status of the occupation army and was constant in seeking to ensure (...)
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  46. Kenneth J. Saltman (2000). Collateral Damage: Corporatizing Public Schools--A Threat to Democracy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    From schools advertising McDonald's, Nike, and Shell oil to military generals appointed as superintendents; from corporate CEOs hailed as education experts to students suspended for wearing Pepsi tee shirts on Coke day; Collateral Damage sifts through a wide range of incidents to reveal how the rising corporatization of public schools needs to be understood as a part of a broader attack on the public sector. Uniquely, Collateral Damage considers the privatization of public education in relation to both globalization (...)
     
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  47.  4
    John Marshall & Ian Robertson (eds.) (1993). Unilateral Neglect: Clinical And Experimental Studies (Brain Damage, Behaviour and Cognition). Psychology Press.
    This book covers all aspects of the disorder, from an historical survey of research to date, through the nature and anatomical bases of neglect, and on to review contemporary theories on the subject.
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  48.  2
    Mary Ellen Wojtasiewicz (2006). Damage Compounded: Disparities, Distrust, and Disparate Impact in End-of-Life Conflict Resolution Policies. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (5):8 – 12.
    For a little more than a decade, professional organizations and healthcare institutions have attempted to develop guidelines and policies to deal with seemingly intractable conflicts that arise between clinicians and patients (or their proxies) over appropriate use of aggressive life-sustaining therapies in the face of low expectations of medical benefit. This article suggests that, although such efforts at conflict resolution are commendable on many levels, inadequate attention has been given to their potential negative effects upon particular groups of patients/proxies. Based (...)
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  49.  17
    John R. Speakman & Colin Selman (2011). The Free‐Radical Damage Theory: Accumulating Evidence Against a Simple Link of Oxidative Stress to Ageing and Lifespan. Bioessays 33 (4):255-259.
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  50.  11
    I. Peretz (1998). Music and Emotion: Perceptual Determinants, Immediacy, and Isolation After Brain Damage. Cognition 68 (2):111-141.
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