Search results for 'Damian Keil' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Damian Keil & Keith Davids (2000). Lifting the Screen on Neural Organization: Is Computational Functional Modeling Necessary? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):544-545.
    Arbib et al.'s comprehensive review of neural organization, over-relies on modernist concepts and restricts our understanding of brain and behavior. Reliance on terms like coding, transformation, and representation perpetuates a “black-box approach” to the study of the brain. Recognition is due to the authors for attempting to introduce postmodern concepts such as chaos and self-organization to the study of neural organization. However, confusion occurs in the implementation of “biologically rooted” schema theory in which schemas are viewed as computer programs. The (...)
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  2.  19
    Frank Keil, Derek E Lyons, Laurie R Santos and Frank C Keil.
    uniquely human ability. We are thus left with a fascinating question: if not imitation, what are mirror neurons for? Recent..
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  3. Frank Keil, Frank C. Keil, Ph.D.
    At the most general level I am interested in how we come to make sense of the world around us. Much of this research involves asking how intuitive explanations and understandings emerge in development and how they are related to notions of cause, mechanism and agency. These relations are linked to broader questions of what concepts are, how they change with development and increasing expertise and how they are structured in adults.
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  4.  57
    Geert Keil (2001). Rorty und der Eliminative Materialismus – eine Mesalliance? In Thomas Schäfer, Udo Tietz & Rüdiger Zill (eds.), Hinter den Spiegeln. Beiträge zur Philosophie Richard Rortys. Suhrkamp 56-72.
    Im Beitrag von Geert Keil geht es um das Verhältnis zwischen Philosophie und Naturwissenschaft. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwiefern Rortys frühes Eintreten für den Eliminativen Materialismus mit seinen entspannten Auffassungen zum Status der Wissenschaften vereinbar ist. Allgemein sieht Rorty die Wissenschaften als eine Reihe etablierter sozialer Praktiken an, als Werkzeuge, mit bestimmten Teilen der Welt zurechtzukommen. Dieses pragmatistisch-instrumentalistische Wissenschaftsverständnis steht in auffallendem Kontrast zu der Rolle, die den Naturwissenschaften im Rahmen des Eliminativen Materialismus zufallen soll. Dieser Lösungsvorschlag (...)
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  5.  25
    Frank C. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (2000). The Shadows and Shallows of Explanation. In Frank C. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (eds.), Minds and Machines. MIT Press. 137-159.
    Reprinted, with modification, from Wilson and Keil 1998.
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  6.  20
    Hans-Johann Glock, Kathrin Glüer & Geert Keil (2003). Introduction. Grazer Philosophische Studien 66:1-5.
    Introduction to a collection of essays that celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Quine's paper "Two Dogmas of Empiricism". Contributor: Herbert Schnädelbach, Paul A. Boghossian, Kathrin Glüer, Verena Mayer, Christian Nimtz, Åsa Maria Wikforss, Hans-Johann Glock, Peter Pagin, Tyler Burge, Geert Keil und Donald Davidson.
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  7.  23
    Geert Keil & Herbert Schnädelbach (eds.) (2000). Naturalismus. Suhrkamp.
    Mit Beiträgen von Gerhard Vollmer, Dirk Koppelberg, Stephen Stich, W. v. O. Quine, Ansgar Beckermann, Dirk Hartmann und Rainer Lange, Mircea Flonta, Geert Keil, Peter Simons, Andreas Kemmerling, Lynne R. Baker, Holm Tetens und Peter Janich.
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  8.  13
    Frank Keil, Philosophical Psychology.
    To cite this Article: Keil, Frank C. (2008) 'Space—The Primal Frontier? Spatial Cognition and the Origins of Concepts', Philosophical Psychology, 21:2, 241 —.
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  9. Geert Keil (2004). Kausalität zwischen Physik und deskriptiver Metaphysik. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie 29 (3):287-294.
    The short paper continues a debate on free will, causation and laws of nature between the author and the German philosopher Peter Rohs (opened in a previous issue of the same journal). Both Keil and Rohs are libertarians, but they disagree on a number of metaphysical issues. Keil maintains that causation is a relation between changes, i.e. time-consuming events, not between instantaneous states. Against Davidson’s “principle of the nomological character of causality”, Keil holds that no exceptionless laws (...)
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  10.  26
    Herbert Schnädelbach, Heiner Hastedt & Geert Keil (eds.) (2009). Was Können Wir Wissen, Was Sollen Wir Tun?: Zwölf Philosophische Antworten. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag.
    Der akademischen Philosophie wird manchmal nachgesagt, sie suche Antworten auf Fragen, die außer Philosophen niemanden umtreiben. In diesem Band sind »zwölf philosophische Antworten« auf Fragen versammelt, die sich jeder irgendwann einmal stellt und über die professionelle Philosophen lediglich etwas schärfer und gründlicher nachdenken. Die Autoren dieses Bandes greifen pointiert, allgemeinverständlich und mit philosophischem Vertiefungsanspruch aktuelle Kontroversen auf. Sie erheben dabei den Anspruch, philosophisch argumentativ sowohl dem Zeitgeistrelativismus als auch der Dominanz empirischer Wissenschaften entgegenzutreten. Es ist keineswegs „alles bloß Ansichtssache“; denn (...)
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  11. John Sutton, Celia B. Harris, Paul G. Keil & Amanda J. Barnier (2010). The Psychology of Memory, Extended Cognition, and Socially Distributed Remembering. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (4):521-560.
    This paper introduces a new, expanded range of relevant cognitive psychological research on collaborative recall and social memory to the philosophical debate on extended and distributed cognition. We start by examining the case for extended cognition based on the complementarity of inner and outer resources, by which neural, bodily, social, and environmental resources with disparate but complementary properties are integrated into hybrid cognitive systems, transforming or augmenting the nature of remembering or decision-making. Adams and Aizawa, noting this distinctive complementarity argument, (...)
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  12. Brian Timneylf & Kathy Keil (1996). Horses Are Sensitive to Pictorial Depth Cues. In Enrique Villanueva (ed.), Perception. Ridgeview 25--1121.
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  13. Geert Keil (2007). What Do Deviant Causal Chains Deviate From? In Christoph Lumer & Sandro Nannini (eds.), Intention, Deliberation and Autonomy. Ashgate 69-90.
    The problem of deviant causal chains is endemic to any theory of action that makes definitional or explanatory use of a causal connection between an agent’s beliefs and pro-attitudes and his bodily movements. Other causal theories of intentional phenomena are similarly plagued. The aim of this chapter is twofold. First, to defend Davidson’s defeatism. In his treatment of deviant causal chains, Davidson makes use of the clause “in the right way” to rule out causal waywardness, but he regards any attempt (...)
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  14. Geert Keil (2005). How the Ceteris Paribus Laws of Physics Lie. In Jan Faye, Paul Needham, Uwe Scheffler & Max Urchs (eds.), Nature's Principles. Springer 167-200.
    After a brief survey of the literature on ceteris paribus clauses and ceteris paribus laws (1), the problem of exceptions, which creates the need for cp laws, is discussed (2). It emerges that the so-called skeptical view of laws of nature does not apply to laws of any kind whatever. Only some laws of physics are plagued with exceptions, not THE laws (3). Cp clauses promise a remedy, which has to be located among the further reactions to the skeptical view (...)
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  15.  10
    Matthew Fisher, Joshua Knobe, Brent Strickland & Frank C. Keil (2016). The Influence of Social Interaction on Intuitions of Objectivity and Subjectivity. Cognitive Science 40 (5):n/a-n/a.
    We present experimental evidence that people's modes of social interaction influence their construal of truth. Participants who engaged in cooperative interactions were less inclined to agree that there was an objective truth about that topic than were those who engaged in a competitive interaction. Follow-up experiments ruled out alternative explanations and indicated that the changes in objectivity are explained by argumentative mindsets: When people are in cooperative arguments, they see the truth as more subjective. These findings can help inform research (...)
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  16.  90
    Geert Keil (2010). Über den Homunkulus-Fehlschluss. E-Journal Philosophie der Psychologie 14.
    Ein Homunkulus im philosophischen Sprachgebrauch ist eine postulierte menschenähnliche Instanz, die ausdrücklich oder unausdrücklich zur Erklärung der Arbeitsweise des menschlichen Geistes herangezogen wird. Als Homunkulus-Fehlschluß wird die Praxis bezeichnet, Prädikate, die auf kognitive oder perzeptive Leistungen einer ganzen Person zutreffen, auch auf Teile von Personen oder auf subpersonale Vorgänge anzuwenden, was typischerweise zu einem Regreß führt. Der vorliegende Beitrag erörtert den Homunkulus-Fehlschluß zunächst in argumentationstheoretischer Hinsicht und stellt dabei ein Diagnoseschema auf. Dann werden zwei Anwendungsfelder erörtert: Instanzenmodelle der Psyche (Platon, (...)
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  17. Celia B. Harris, Paul Keil, John Sutton, Amanda Barnier & Doris McIlwain (2011). We Remember, We Forget: Collaborative Remembering in Older Couples. Discourse Processes 48 (4):267-303.
    Transactive memory theory describes the processes by which benefits for memory can occur when remembering is shared in dyads or groups. In contrast, cognitive psychology experiments demonstrate that social influences on memory disrupt and inhibit individual recall. However, most research in cognitive psychology has focused on groups of strangers recalling relatively meaningless stimuli. In the current study, we examined social influences on memory in groups with a shared history, who were recalling a range of stimuli, from word lists to personal, (...)
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  18.  8
    Leonid Rozenblit & Frank Keil (2002). The Misunderstood Limits of Folk Science: An Illusion of Explanatory Depth. Cognitive Science 26 (5):521-562.
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  19.  51
    Geert Keil (2014). Wie fängt (man) eine Handlung an? In Anne-Sophie Spann & Daniel Wehinger (eds.), Vermögen und Handung. Der dispositionale Realismus und unser Selbstverständnis als Handelnde. Mentis 135-157.
    Das Verb „anfangen“ lässt sich sowohl mit einem Akteur an Subjektstelle als auch subjektlos verwenden. Sogenannte subjektlose Sätze wie „Es fängt zu regnen an“ haben freilich ein grammatisches Subjekt, aber auf die Rückfrage „Wer oder was fängt zu regnen an?“ ist die einzig mögliche Antwort „Es“ unbefriedigend. Das grammatische Subjekt fungiert in solchen Sätzen lediglich als synkategorematischer Ausdruck. Menschliche Akteure können in gehaltvollerem Sinn etwas anfangen, zum Beispiel Streit, oder, wie es bei Kant heißt, „eine Reihe von Begebenheiten“. Mit dem (...)
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  20.  17
    M. Damian (2001). Congruity Effects Evoked by Subliminally Presented Primes: Automaticity Rather Than Semantic Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27:154-165.
  21.  50
    Geert Keil (2003). Über den Einwand einer anderen möglichen Vernunft. In Dietrich Böhler, Matthias Kettner & Gunnar Skirbekk (eds.), Reflexion und Verantwortung. Auseinandersetzungen mit Karl-Otto Apel. Suhrkamp 65-82.
  22.  97
    Brent Strickland, Matthew Fisher, Frank Keil & Joshua Knobe (2014). Syntax and Intentionality: An Automatic Link Between Language and Theory-of-Mind. Cognition 133 (1):249–261.
    Three studies provided evidence that syntax influences intentionality judgments. In Experiment 1, participants made either speeded or unspeeded intentionality judgments about ambiguously intentional subjects or objects. Participants were more likely to judge grammatical subjects as acting intentionally in the speeded relative to the reflective condition (thus showing an intentionality bias), but grammatical objects revealed the opposite pattern of results (thus showing an unintentionality bias). In Experiment 2, participants made an intentionality judgment about one of the two actors in a partially (...)
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  23.  61
    Geert Keil (2000). Naturalismus und Intentionalität. In Geert Keil & Herbert Schnädelbach (eds.), Naturalismus. Suhrkamp 187-204.
    Naturalism in theoretical philosophy comes in three kinds: metaphysical, scientific and semantical. Metaphysical naturalism holds that only natural things exist, scientific (or methodological) naturalism holds that the methods of natural science provide the only avenue to truth, semantic (or analytic) naturalism tries to provide sufficient nonintentional conditions for intentional phenomena. The paper argues that analytic naturalism does not render metaphysical or scientific naturalism obsolete, but can be understood as a further step in elaborating upon these programmes. The intentional idiom of (...)
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  24.  17
    Frank Keil (1998). Two Dogmas of Conceptual Empiricism: Implications for Hybrid Models of the Structure of Knowledge. Cognition 65 (2-3):103-135.
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  25.  35
    Geert Keil (2000). Indexikalität und Infallibilität. In Audun Ofsti, Peter Ulrich & Truls Wyller (eds.), Indexicality and Idealism: The Self in Philosophical Perspective. Mentis
    Some, if not all statements containing the word 'I' seem to be 'immune to error through misidentification relative to the first-person pronoun' (Shoemaker). This immunity, however, is due to the fact that the pronoun 'I' plays no identifying role in the first place. Since no identification takes place here, the alleged immunity to misidentification should come as no surprise. But there is a second immunity thesis, which captures the peculiarity of 'I' better: The first-person pronoun is immune to reference-failure. Some (...)
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  26. Frank Keil (2005). Doubt, Deference, and Deliberation: Understanding and Using the Division of Cognitive Labour. In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology. OUP Oxford 143.
     
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  27. Geert Keil (2001). How Do We Ever Get Up? On the Proximate Causation of Actions and Events. Grazer Philosophische Studien 61 (1):43-62.
    Many candidates have been tried out as proximate causes of actions: belief-desire pairs, volitions, motives, intentions, and other kinds of pro-attitudes. None of these mental states or events, however, seems to be able to do the trick, that is, to get things going. Each of them may occur without an appropriate action ensuing. After reviewing several attempts at closing the alleged “causal gap”, it is argued that on a correct analysis, there is no missing link waiting to be discovered. On (...)
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  28.  6
    Frank C. Keil (1990). Constraints on Constraints: Surveying the Epigenetic Landscape. Cognitive Science 14 (1):135-168.
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  29.  31
    G. Keil (2005). Eine fulminante Lehnstuhlkritik der Neurowissenschaften. Uber: Max R. Bennett/Peter M. S. Hacker: Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience. [REVIEW] Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie:951.
  30.  31
    Geert Keil (2007). Making Something Happen. Where Causation and Agency Meet. In Francesca Castellani & Josef Quitterer (eds.), Agency and Causation in the Human Sciences. Mentis 19-35.
    1. Introduction: a look back at the reasons vs. causes debate. 2. The interventionist account of causation. 3. Four objections to interventionism. 4. The counterfactual analysis of event causation. 5. The role of free agency. 6. Causality in the human sciences. -- The reasons vs. causes debate reached its peak about 40 years ago. Hempel and Dray had debated the nature of historical explanation and the broader issue of whether explanations that cite an agent’s reasons are causal or not. Melden, (...)
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  31.  31
    Geert Keil & Herbert Schnädelbach (2000). Naturalismus. In Geert Keil & Herbert Schnädelbach (eds.), Naturalismus. Suhrkamp 7-45.
    Survey article which introduces a collection of essays on philosophical naturalism, mainly dealing with the question what “naturalism” means in contemporary philosophy. Structure of the article: 1. History of Ideas/History of the Problems, 2. Man as a Part of Nature, 3. The Explanatory Primacy of the Natural Sciences, 4. Naturalism and Unity of Science, 5. The Consideration of Empirical Knowledge, 6. Naturalism, Science and Common Sense.
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  32.  21
    Frank C. Keil (2010). The Feasibility of Folk Science. Cognitive Science 34 (5):826-862.
    If folk science means individuals having well worked out mechanistic theories of the workings of the world, then it is not feasible. Laypeople’s explanatory understandings are remarkably coarse, full of gaps, and often full of inconsistencies. Even worse, most people overestimate their own understandings. Yet recent views suggest that formal scientists may not be so different. In spite of these limitations, science somehow works and its success offers hope for the feasibility of folk science as well. The success of science (...)
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  33.  26
    Geert Keil (2002). Der Nullpunkt der Orientierung. In Audun Øfsti, Peter Ulrich & Truls Wyller (eds.), Indexicality and Idealism: The Self in Philosophical Perspective. Mentis 9-29.
    The indexical sentence “I am here now” can be used any time and anywhere by anyone to say something true. Rather than yielding a special kind of infallible knowledge, this fact indicates that every speaker or thinker has a zero of an egocentric coordinate system at his disposal. Many idealist philosophers assume that this egocentric zero can be further reduced. The ability to make a de se-reference with the first person pronoun, they claim, need not involve spatiotemporal self-localization. The paper (...)
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  34.  4
    Frank C. Keil, Courtney Stein, Lisa Webb, Van Dyke Billings & Leonid Rozenblit (2008). Discerning the Division of Cognitive Labor: An Emerging Understanding of How Knowledge Is Clustered in Other Minds. Cognitive Science 32 (2):259-300.
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  35.  50
    Geert Keil (2013). Making Causal Counterfactuals More Singular, and More Appropriate for Use in Law. In Benedikt Kahmen Markus Stepanians (ed.), Causation and Responsibility: Critical Essays. De Gruyter 157-189.
    Unlike any other monograph on legal liability, Michael S. Moore’s book CAUSATION AND RESPONSIBILITY contains a well-informed and in-depth discussion of the metaphysics of causation. Moore does not share the widespread view that legal scholars should not enter into metaphysical debates about causation. He shows respect for the subtleties of philosophical debates on causal relata, identity conditions for events, the ontological distinctions between events, states of affairs, facts and tropes, and the counterfactual analysis of event causation, and he considers all (...)
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  36.  60
    Celia Harris, Amanda Barnier, John Sutton & Paul Keil (2010). How Did You Feel When the Crocodile Hunter Died?’: Voicing and Silencing in Conversation. Memory 18 (2):170-184.
    Conversations about the past can involve voicing and silencing; processes of validation and invalidation that shape recall. In this experiment we examined the products and processes of remembering a significant autobiographical event in conversation with others. Following the death of Australian celebrity Steve Irwin, in an adapted version of the collaborative recall paradigm, 69 participants described and rated their memories for hearing of his death. Participants then completed a free recall phase where they either discussed the event in groups of (...)
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  37.  17
    James M. Beale & Frank C. Keil (1995). Categorical Effects in the Perception of Faces. Cognition 57 (3):217-239.
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  38.  4
    Daniel J. Simons & Frank C. Keil (1995). An Abstract to Concrete Shift in the Development of Biological Thought: The Insides Story. Cognition 56 (2):129-163.
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  39.  8
    Jonathan F. Kominsky & Frank C. Keil (2014). Overestimation of Knowledge About Word Meanings: The “Misplaced Meaning” Effect. Cognitive Science 38 (8):1604-1633.
    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a “Misplaced Meaning” effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much they rely on outside sources to determine precise reference. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that children and adults show a highly consistent MM effect, and that it is stronger in young children. Study 3 (...)
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  40.  35
    Geert Keil (2013). Was lehrt uns das Gettier-Problem über das Verhältnis zwischen Intuitionen und Begriffsanalysen? In Gerhard Ernst & Lisa Marani (eds.), Das Gettierproblem. Eine Bilanz nach 50 Jahren. Mentis 107-144.
    Der Beitrag beleuchtet einen bisher kaum gewürdigten Grund dafür, dass die Gettier-Debatte nicht zu einer systematisch verbesserten Analyse des Wissensbegriffs geführt hat. Es wird die These entwickelt und verteidigt, dass diejenigen Komplikationen, die einen Gettierfall zu einem solchen machen, sich stets in den blinden Flecken der Situationsrepräsentation des epistemischen Subjekts befinden. Diese These ist in die metaphilosophische Fragestellung eingebettet, was das Gettierproblem uns über das Verhältnis von sprachlichen Intuitionen und Begriffsanalysen lehrt. Es gibt unter kompetenten Sprechern beträchtliche Einmütigkeit darüber, dass (...)
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  41.  6
    Geert Keil (2016). Von der Kunstlehre des Verstehens zur radikalen Interpretation. In Andreas Arndt & Jörg Dierken (eds.), Friedrich Schleiermachers Hermeneutik. Interpretationen und Perspektiven. De Gruyter 197-224.
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  42.  99
    Paul Bloom & Frank C. Keil (2001). Thinking Through Language. Mind and Language 16 (4):351–367.
    What would it be like to have never learned English, but instead only to know Hopi, Mandarin Chinese, or American Sign Language? Would that change the way you think? Imagine entirely losing your language, as the result of stroke or trauma. You are aphasic, unable to speak or listen, read or write. What would your thoughts now be like? As the most extreme case, imagine having been raised without any language at all, as a wild child. What—if anything—would it be (...)
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  43.  8
    Markus F. Damian, Gabriella Vigliocco & Willem J. M. Levelt (2001). Effects of Semantic Context in the Naming of Pictures and Words. Cognition 81 (3):B77-B86.
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  44.  32
    Frank Keil (2003). Folkscience: Coarse Interpretations of a Complex Reality. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (8):368-373.
    The rise of appeals to intuitive theories in many areas of cognitive science must cope with a powerful fact. People understand the workings of the world around them in far less detail than they think. This illusion of knowledge depth has been uncovered in a series of recent studies and is caused by several distinctive properties of explanatory understanding not found in other forms of knowledge. Other experimental work has shown that people do have skeletal frameworks of expectations that constrain (...)
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  45. Katharina Spalek, Noriko Hoshino, Yan Jing Wu, Markus Damian & Guillaume Thierry (2014). Speaking Two Languages at Once: Unconscious Native Word Form Access in Second Language Production. Cognition 133 (1):226-231.
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  46.  23
    Geert Keil (2011). Ich bin jetzt hier - aber wo ist das? In Siri Granum Carson, Jonathan Knowles & Bjørn K. Myskja (eds.), Kant: Here, Now, and How. Mentis 15-34.
    Menschen verfügen über ein komplexes Vermögen der Selbstlokalisierung in Raum und Zeit. Seine eigene Position festzustellen kann in verschiedenen Kontexten Verschiedenes bedeuten. Nicht jedes unsere raumzeitliche Lokalisierung und Orientierung betreffende Problem ist philosophischer Natur. Fragen wie »Wo ist Norden?«, »Wie weit ist es nach Hause?« oder »In welcher Richtung liegt das Ziel?« sind lebensweltliche und gegebenenfalls navigatorische Fragen. Die kognitiven Mechanismen und Fähigkeiten zu untersuchen, die unseren Lokalisierungs- und Orientierungsleistungen zugrunde liegen, ist eine Aufgabe für die Kognitionswissenschaften. Die Untersuchung der (...)
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  47.  22
    Geert Keil (2014). Ein bisschen Embryo? Begriffliche, ontologische und normative Überlegungen zur totipotenzbasierten Legaldefinition von 'Embryo'. In Thomas Heinemann Hans-Georg Dederer & Tobias Cantz (eds.), Entwicklungsbiologische Totipotenz in Ethik und Recht. Zur normativen Bewertung von totipotenten menschlichen Zellen. 251-287.
    Im deutschen Embryonenschutz- und im Stammzellgesetz sind zwei Rechtsbegriffe von 'Embryo' definiert worden, die sich auf die Zelleigenschaft der Totipotenz stützen und dieser damit eine ontologische und normative Bedeutung beimessen, die angesichts der vielfältigen divergierenden Intuitionen und Argumente zur sogenannten Statusfrage nicht leicht zu rechtfertigen ist. Der vorliegende Beitrag diskutiert die Schwierigkeiten, den ontologischen, moralischen und rechtlichen Status totipotenter Humanzellen plausibel zu begründen, und argumentiert insbesondere, dass zwischen Grundannahmen der Substanzontologie und naturphilosophischen Kontinuitätsüberlegungen unaufhebbare Spannungen bestehen, die der Gesetzgeber durch (...)
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  48.  2
    Matthew Fisher & Frank C. Keil (2016). The Curse of Expertise: When More Knowledge Leads to Miscalibrated Explanatory Insight. Cognitive Science 40 (5):1251-1269.
    Does expertise within a domain of knowledge predict accurate self-assessment of the ability to explain topics in that domain? We find that expertise increases confidence in the ability to explain a wide variety of phenomena. However, this confidence is unwarranted; after actually offering full explanations, people are surprised by the limitations in their understanding. For passive expertise, miscalibration is moderated by education; those with more education are accurate in their self-assessments. But when those with more education consider topics related to (...)
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  49.  29
    Benjamin M. Rottman, Jonathan F. Kominsky & Frank C. Keil (2014). Children Use Temporal Cues to Learn Causal Directionality. Cognitive Science 38 (3):489-513.
    The ability to learn the direction of causal relations is critical for understanding and acting in the world. We investigated how children learn causal directionality in situations in which the states of variables are temporally dependent (i.e., autocorrelated). In Experiment 1, children learned about causal direction by comparing the states of one variable before versus after an intervention on another variable. In Experiment 2, children reliably inferred causal directionality merely from observing how two variables change over time; they interpreted Y (...)
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  50. Patricia Smith Churchland, Rick Grush, Rob Wilson & Frank Keil, Computation and the Brain.
    Two very different insights motivate characterizing the brain as a computer. One depends on mathematical theory that defines computability in a highly abstract sense. Here the foundational idea is that of a Turing machine. Not an actual machine, the Turing machine is really a conceptual way of making the point that any well-defined function could be executed, step by step, according to simple 'if-you-are-in-state-P-and-have-input-Q-then-do-R' rules, given enough time (maybe infinite time) [see COMPUTATION]. Insofar as the brain is a device whose (...)
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