Search results for 'Dangerous Behavior' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Mark S. Kaplan (forthcoming). AIDS and the Psycho-Social Disciplines: The Social Control of" Dangerous" Behavior. Journal of Mind and Behavior.score: 96.0
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  2. Lynne Eccleston, Mark Brown & Tony Ward (2002). The Assessment of Dangerous Behaviour. In Serge P. Shohov (ed.), Advances in Psychology Research. Nova Science Publishers. 11.score: 90.0
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  3. Christopher Ryan (2011). One Flu Over The Cuckoo's Nest: Comparing Legislated Coercive Treatment for Mental Illness with That for Other Illness. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):87-93.score: 60.0
    Many of the world’s mental health acts, including all Australian legislation, allow for the coercive detention and treatment of people with mental illnesses if they are deemed likely to harm themselves or others. Numerous authors have argued that legislated powers to impose coercive treatment in psychiatric illness should pivot on the presence or absence of capacity not likely harm, but no Australian act uses this criterion. In this paper, I add a novel element to these arguments by comparing the use (...)
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  4. James L. Werth, Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel & G. Andrew H. Benjamin (eds.) (2009). The Duty to Protect: Ethical, Legal, and Professional Considerations for Mental Health Professionals. American Psychological Association.score: 60.0
     
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  5. William A. Rae, Jeremy R. Sullivan, Nancy Peña Razo & Roman Garcia de Alba (2009). Breaking Confidentiality to Report Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior by School Psychologists. Ethics and Behavior 19 (6):449-460.score: 48.0
    School psychologists often break confidentiality if confronted with risky adolescent behavior. Members of the National Association of School Psychologists ( N = 78) responded to a survey containing a vignette describing an adolescent engaging in risky behaviors and rated the degree to which it is ethical to break confidentiality for behaviors of varying frequency, intensity, and duration. Respondents generally found it ethical to break confidentiality when risky adolescent behaviors became more dangerous or potentially harmful, although there was considerable (...)
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  6. Clayton Neighbors, Eric R. Pedersen, Debra Kaysen, Magdalena Kulesza & Theresa Walter (2011). What Should We Do When Participants Report Dangerous Drinking? The Impact of Personalized Letters Versus General Pamphlets as a Function of Sex and Controlled Orientation. Ethics and Behavior 22 (1):1 - 15.score: 48.0
    Research in which participants report potentially dangerous health-related behaviors raises ethical and professional questions about what to do with that information. Policies and laws regarding reportable behaviors vary across states and Institutional Review Boards (IRB). In alcohol research, IRBs often require researchers to respond to participants who report dangerous drinking practices. Researchers have little guidance regarding how best to respond in such cases. Personalized feedback or general nonpersonalized information may prove differentially effective as a function of gender and/or (...)
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  7. Luis Castro-Nogueira Laureano Castro, A. Castro-Nogueira Miguel & A. Toro Miguel (2010). Cultural Transmission and Social Control of Human Behavior. Biology and Philosophy 25 (3).score: 42.0
    Humans have developed the capacity to approve or disapprove of the behavior of their children and of unrelated individuals. The ability to approve or disapprove transformed social learning into a system of cumulative cultural inheritance, because it increased the reliability of cultural transmission. Moreover, people can transmit their behavioral experiences (regarding what can and cannot be done) to their offspring, thereby avoiding the costs of a laborious, and sometimes dangerous, evaluation of different cultural alternatives. Our thesis is that, (...)
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  8. Leon R. Kass (2009). Forbidding Science: Some Beginning Reflections. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (3):271-282.score: 36.0
    Growing powers to manipulate human bodies and minds, not merely to heal disease but to satisfy desires, control deviant behavior, and to change human nature, make urgent questions of whether and how to regulate their use, not merely to assure safety and efficacy but also to safeguard our humanity. Oversight in democratic societies rightly belongs to the polity, not merely to self-appointed experts, scientific or ethical. Yet the task of governing the uses of dangerous knowledge is daunting, and (...)
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  9. R. Barnitt (1998). Ethical Dilemmas in Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy: A Survey of Practitioners in the UK National Health Service. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (3):193-199.score: 30.0
    OBJECTIVES: To identify ethical dilemmas experienced by occupational and physical therapists working in the UK National Health Service (NHS). To compare ethical contexts, themes and principles across the two groups. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was circulated to the managers of occupational and physical therapy services in England and Wales. SUBJECTS: The questionnaires were given to 238 occupational and 249 physical therapists who conformed to set criteria. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas experienced during the previous six months were reported by 118 occupational and (...)
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  10. Colin Tudge (2013). Why Genes Are Not Selfish and People Are Nice: A Challenge to the Dangerous Ideas That Dominate Our Lives. Floris Books.score: 30.0
     
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  11. L. Buckley, R. L. Chapman, M. Sheehan & L. Cunningham (2011). Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks. Educational Studies 38 (4):373-381.score: 26.0
    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents? reports of intervening to try and stop friends? engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents (mean age?=?13.51?years, 50.1% females). Findings showed that intervening behaviour after three months was predicted by the confidence to intervene which in turn was predicted by student and teacher support although not (...)
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  12. Michael E. Mann (2009). Do Global Warming and Climate Change Represent a Serious Threat to Our Welfare and Environment? Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):193-230.score: 24.0
    The science underlying global warming, climate change, and the connections between these phenomena are reviewed. Projected future climate changes under various plausible scenarios of future human behavior are explored, as are the potential impacts of projected climate changes on society, ecosystems, and our environment. The economic, security, and ethical considerations relevant to determining the threat posed by climate change are subsequently assessed. The article then discusses the various means available for climate change mitigation, focusing on the relative strengths and (...)
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  13. Joshua Landy (2008). A Nation of Madame Bovarys : On the Possibility and Desirability of Moral Improvement Through Fiction. In Garry Hagberg (ed.), Art and Ethical Criticism. Blackwell Pub.. 63--94.score: 24.0
    "A Nation of Madame Bovarys" rebuts the notion that literature improves its readers morally, whether: (1) by imparting instruction, (2) by eliciting empathy for nonparochial groups, or (3) by forcibly fine-tuning our capacity to navigate difficult ethical waters. Taking Geoffrey Chaucer’s ’Nun’s Priest’s Tale’ as its test case, it argues that the positions taken by Nussbaum, Booth, Rorty, et al. -- also including the "imaginative resistance" position -- are vastly overblown; that empathy is unreliable as a guide to moral (...); that readers tend only to "learn" what they already believed going in; and that it is dangerous to expect otherwise, there being a risk, if the contemporary consensus were to hold, of the populace degenerating into a nation of Madame Bovarys. Accordingly, a view of literary engagement as primarily an opportunity for clarification may be not only more accurate but also, in the end, more salutary. (shrink)
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  14. Robert Allan Cooke (1991). Danger Signs of Unethical Behavior: How to Determine If Your Firm is at Ethical Risk. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):249 - 253.score: 24.0
    This paper is designed to do three things. First, it discusses some of the key trends in business ethics in the academic and corporate communities. Initiatives like the Arthur Andersen Business Ethics Program are noted. Secondly, the paper examines certain basic misconceptions about the field and concludes that the adage that good ethics is good business is still true. Finally, the paper highlights fourteen business attitudes or practices that may put a firm at ethical risk. For example, the paper discusses (...)
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  15. Christian Lenk (2007). Is Enhancement in Sport Really Unfair? Arguments on the Concept of Competition and Equality of Opportunities. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 (2):218 – 228.score: 24.0
    Doping in sport counts as a typical example of unfair behaviour and a good illustration of ethical problems produced by enhancement activities. However, there are some authors who argue that enhancement in sport is not intrinsically problematic but only so in those circumstances that make it dangerous for athletes or unfair to competitors, or which give rise to suspicion in the viewing public. In contrast to this, the author of the present article shows that enhancement activities are contradictory to (...)
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  16. Don Ross, Author's Personal Copy.score: 24.0
    Addiction may or may not be a highly prevalent condition, but the concept of addiction is undeniably ubiquitous. From the people who cheerfully and publicly announce their addiction to coffee, or chocolate, or shopping, to those who ruefully and perhaps only in very special settings admit their addiction to alcohol or drugs, ‘‘addiction” is an oft-invoked explanatory frame for the presentation and characterization of individual behavior. Lately, it has even been applied to the behavior of super-personal entities, as (...)
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  17. Lisa Aronson Fontes (2004). Articles: Ethics in Violence Against Women Research: The Sensitive, the Dangerous, and the Overlooked. Ethics and Behavior 14 (2):141 – 174.score: 24.0
    Traditional disciplinary guidelines are inadequate to address some of the ethical dilemmas that emerge when conducting research on violence against women and girls. This article is organized according to the ethical principles of respect for persons, privacy and confidentiality, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. In the article, I describe dilemmas involved in cross-cultural research, research on children, informed consent, voluntariness, coercion, deception, safety, mandated reporting, and dissemination. In the article, I include examples from qualitative and quantitative studies in many nations. I (...)
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  18. John A. Teske (2010). A Literary Trinity for Cognitive Science and Religion. Zygon 45 (2):469-478.score: 24.0
    The cognitive sciences may be understood to contribute to religion-and-science as a metadisciplinary discussion in ways that can be organized according to the three persons of narrative, encoding the themes of consciousness, relationality, and healing. First-person accounts are likely to be important to the understanding of consciousness, the "hard problem" of subjective experience, and contribute to a neurophenomenology of mind, even though we must be aware of their role in human suffering, their epistemic limits, and their indirect causal role in (...)
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  19. Marvin Belzer, The United States Should Not Launch a Strike Against Iraq.score: 24.0
    President Kennedy once said, “Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind.” The purpose of my presentation this evening is to show why a strike against Iraq is dangerous, unjustified, and unnecessary. Since Saddam Hussein has not engaged in any aggressive behavior since the Gulf War, launching an attack would be pre-emptive in nature.
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  20. Gabriela Remow (2007). General Rules in the Moral Theories of Smith and Hume. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 5 (2):119-134.score: 24.0
    Adam Smith and David Hume agree that first-level general rules of morality may be discovered by induction, and that reflection on these rules may influence human behavior. But Hume thinks a deeper, second level of moral general rules may also be discovered, and used to correct erroneous first-level rules (which correction is a practice followed by the wise). Thus on Hume's view, some reasoned reflection may be needed in order to feel the proper moral sentiment (which sentiment would (...)
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  21. Simon Cushing (2013). Autism: The Very Idea. In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield. 17-45.score: 24.0
    If each of the subtypes of autism is defined simply as constituted by a set of symptoms, then the criteria for its observation are straightforward, although, of course, some of those symptoms themselves might be hard to observe definitively. Compare with telling whether or not someone is bleeding: while it might be hard to tell if someone is bleeding internally, we know what it takes to find out, and when we have the right access and instruments we can settle the (...)
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  22. Andy Miah & Alexandre Mauron (2007). Current Anti-Doping Policy: A Critical Appraisal. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-10.score: 24.0
    BackgroundCurrent anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public.DiscussionWe review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. (...)
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  23. A. A. Michel (2011). Psychiatry After Virtue: A Modern Practice in the Ruins. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (2):170-186.score: 24.0
    Contemporary psychiatry maintains the myth that it is value neutral by appeal to modern medical science for both its diagnostic categories and its therapeutic interventions, leaving the impression that it relies on reason—that is to say, reason divorced from tradition—to master human nature. Such a practice has a certain way of characterizing and defining humanity's lapses from acceptable human behavior—a lapse from human being. The modern practice of psychiatry applies a particular notion (largely influenced by Enlightenment ideals) of scientific (...)
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  24. Gedon J. Rossouw (1998). Establishing Moral Business Culture in Newly Formed Democracies. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (14):1563-1571.score: 24.0
    Business Ethics is often regarded as a low priority in newly formed democracies, because it seems there are more urgent demands that have to be dealt with first. In this paper it is argued that this perception is not only wrong, but also dangerous. A lack of morality in business can undermine exactly those priorities that newly formed democracies regard as most urgent.It starts by indicating why morality in business is a precondition for the legitimacy of a market economy (...)
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  25. Robert C. Solomon (1999). Game Theory as a Model for Business and Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (1):11-29.score: 24.0
    Fifty years ago, two Princeton professors established game theory as an important new branch of applied mathematics. Gametheory has become a celebrated discipline in its own right, and it now plays a prestigious role in many disciplines, including ethics,due in particular to the neo-Hobbesian thinking of David Gauthier and others. Now it is perched at the edge of business ethics. I believethat it is dangerous and demeaning. It makes us look the wrong way at business, reinforcing a destructive obsession (...)
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  26. Kenny R. Coventry & John Clibbens (2002). Does Complex Behaviour Imply Complex Cognitive Abilities? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):406-406.score: 24.0
    In this commentary, we propose that the shifts in symmetry Wynn documents may be explained in terms of simpler mechanisms than he suggests. Furthermore, we argue that it is dangerous to draw definitive conclusions about the cognitive abilities of a species from the level of symmetry observed in the artefacts produced by that species.
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  27. Michael P. Coyne & Janice M. Traflet (2008). Ethical Issues Related to the Mass Marketing of Securities. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):193 - 198.score: 24.0
    This paper examines ethical issues involved in the mass marketing of securities to individuals. The marketing of products deemed “socially questionable” or “sinful” (like tobacco and alcohol) has long been recognized as posing special ethical challenges (Kotler, P. and S. Levy: 1971, Harvard Business Review 49, 74–80; Davidson, D. K: 1996, Selling Sin: The Marketing of Socially Unacceptable Products (Quorum Press, Westport). We contend that marketers should consider securities (i.e. common stock, options) in a similar vein, as a potentially (...) product. Given the inherent volatility of equity prices, responsible marketers need to exercise caution and restraint in promoting securities. We evaluate whether the NYSE’s current guidelines adequately encourage ethical marketing practices and deter unethical ones. Using recent examples of controversial brokerage advertisements, we expose weaknesses in the Exchange’s vague injunction that members not “mislead” reasonable people by making “exaggerated claims” in their communications. From a moral perspective, we find it troublesome that intentionality need not be present for a promotion to be considered misleading. Also problematic is the continued invocation of the reasonable person standard to judge the propriety of advertisements. We close with some thoughts on improving the quality of securities marketing. We suggest that the NYSE, in the interests of fostering higher ethical behavior among member marketers, may need to revive a marketing code of conduct prevalent on Wall Street in an earlier era. (shrink)
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  28. David Dawson & Craig Bartholomew (2003). Virtues, Managers and Business People: Finding a Place for MacIntyre in a Business Context. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 48 (2):127 - 138.score: 24.0
    Critics point to four issues as presenting barriers to the use of virtue in the context of business. They focus on the relationship between management and practice, the potential for virtuous behaviour in a competitive environment, the ability to develop a reflexive critique of management that can be acted on, and the differentiation between work and wider social roles and people's propensity to take responsibility for them. In this paper we propose a solution to criticisms levelled at the use of (...)
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  29. H. O. Fai & H. O. Hung (2008). Knowledge is a Dangerous Thing: Authority Relations, Ideological Conservatism, and Creativity in Confucian-Heritage Cultures. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38 (1):67–86.score: 24.0
  30. Robert J. MacCoun (2013). Moral Outrage and Opposition to Harm Reduction. Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (1):83-98.score: 24.0
    Three public opinion studies examined public attitudes toward prevalence reduction (PR; reducing the number of people engaging in an activity) and harm reduction (HR; reducing the harm associated with an activity) across a wide variety of domains. Studies 1 and 2 were telephone surveys of California adults’ views on PR and HR strategies for a wide range of risk domains (heroin, alcoholism, tobacco, skateboarding, teen sex, illegal immigration, air pollution, and fast food). “Moral outrage” items (immoral, disgusting, irresponsible, dangerous) (...)
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  31. Carmen Rotstein & Yoad Winter (2004). Total Adjectives Vs. Partial Adjectives: Scale Structure and Higher-Order Modifiers. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 12 (3):259-288.score: 24.0
    This paper studies a distinction that was proposed in previous works between total and partial adjectives. In pairs of adjectives such as safe–dangerous, clean–dirty and healthy–sick, the first (“total”) adjective describes lack of danger, dirt, malady, etc., while the second (“partial”) adjective describes the existence of such properties. It is shown that the semantics of adjective phrases with modifiers such as almost, slightly, and completely is sensitive to whether the adjective is total or partial. The interpretation of such modified (...)
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  32. Ken Cleaver (2012). The Practical and Ethical Considerations in Labeling a Religious Group as a 'Cult'. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 11 (33):164-181.score: 24.0
    In American, the terms “schism,” “heresy,” “sect,” and “cult” have been used to describe splinter groups as they distinguish themselves from the majority religion. The term cult has been used in two different senses. Within the Roman Catholic Church a group’s devotion to a particular saint may earn them the title “Cult of” that particular saint. However, among contemporary American Protestants the term cult has come to be applied to religious groups that split from mainstream Christianity with regard to their (...)
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  33. Anup Doshi, Cuong Tran, Matthew H. Wilder, Michael C. Mozer & Mohan M. Trivedi (2012). Sequential Dependencies in Driving. Cognitive Science 36 (5):948-963.score: 24.0
    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find significant sequential effects in pedal-press response times that depend on the history of recent stimuli and responses. Response times are slowed up to 100 ms in particular cases, (...)
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  34. Leslie Pickering Francis & John G. Francis (2012). Criminalizing Health-Related Behaviors Dangerous to Others? Disease Transmission, Transmission-Facilitation, and the Importance of Trust. Criminal Law and Philosophy 6 (1):47-63.score: 24.0
    Statutes criminalizing behavior that risks transmission of HIV/AIDS exemplify use of the criminal law against individuals who are victims of infectious disease. These statutes, despite their frequency, are misguided in terms of the goals of the criminal law and the public health aim of reducing overall burdens of disease, for at least three important reasons. First, they identify individual offenders for punishment, a paradigm that is misplaced in the most typical contexts of transmission of infectious disease and even for (...)
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  35. Marianne Benard, Tjerk Jan Schuitmaker & Tjard de Cock Buning (2014). Scientists and Dutch Pig Farmers in Dialogue About Tail Biting: Unravelling the Mechanism of Multi-Stakeholder Learning. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (3):431-452.score: 24.0
    Pig farmers and scientists appear to have different perspectives and underlying framing on animal welfare issues as tail biting and natural behaviour of pigs. Literature proposes a joint learning process in which a shared vision is developed. Using two different settings, a symposium and one-to-one dialogues, we aimed to investigate what elements affected joint learning between scientists and pig farmers. Although both groups agreed that more interaction was important, the process of joint learning appeared to be rather potentially dangerous (...)
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  36. Jeremy Fernando (2011). Bang Bang - A Response to Vincent W.J. Van Gerven Oei. Continent 1 (3):224-228.score: 24.0
    On 22 July, 2011, we were confronted with the horror of the actions of Anders Behring Breivik. The instant reaction, as we have seen with similar incidents in the past—such as the Oklahoma City bombings—was to attempt to explain the incident. Whether the reasons given were true or not were irrelevant: the fact that there was a reason was better than if there were none. We should not dismiss those that continue to cling on to the initial claims of a (...)
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  37. Federico Di Trocchio (1991). Mendel's Experiments: A Reinterpretation. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 24 (3):485-519.score: 24.0
    My conclusion is that Mendel deliberately, though without any real falsification, tried to suggest to his audience and readers an unlikely and substantially wrong reconstruction of the first and most important phase of his research. In my book I offer many reasons for this strange and surprising behavior,53 but the main argument rests on the fact of linkage. Mendelian genetics cannot account for linkage because it was based on the idea of applying probability theory to the problem of species (...)
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  38. Lisa Aronson Fontes (2004). Ethics in Violence Against Women Research: The Sensitive, the Dangerous, and the Overlooked. Ethics and Behavior 14 (2):141-174.score: 24.0
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  39. David Yau Fai Ho & Rainbow Tin Hung Ho (2008). Knowledge is a Dangerous Thing: Authority Relations, Ideological Conservatism, and Creativity in Confucian‐Heritage Cultures. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38 (1):67-86.score: 24.0
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  40. Robert C. Solomon (1999). Game Theory as a Model for Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 9:11-29.score: 24.0
    Fifty years ago, two Princeton professors established game theory as an important new branch of applied mathematics. Game theory has become a celebrated discipline in its own right, and it npw plays a prestigues role in many disciplines, including ethics, due in particular to the neo-Hobbesian thinking of David Gauthier and others. Now it is perched at the edge of business ethics. I believe that it is dangerous and demeaning. It makes us look the wrong way at business, reinforcing (...)
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  41. Wenqing Zhao (forthcoming). Is Contemporary Chinese Society Inhumane? What Mencius and Empirical Psychology Have to Say. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-18.score: 24.0
    This essay discusses the tragic news story of a Chinese toddler, Xiao Yueyue 小悅悅, in light of Mencius’ ethical philosophy and modern studies of moral psychology, which help in understanding the problem of passive bystanders that has long vexed the Chinese public. Mencius never said that every person would act to help when a child is in danger; he did not even say that people would feel sympathetic for every child in a real life dangerous situation. He simply asserted (...)
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  42. H. Bruch (1978). Dangers of Behavior Modification in Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. In John Paul Brady & H. Keith H. Brodie (eds.), Controversy in Psychiatry. Saunders. 645--654.score: 24.0
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  43. Tim LeBon (2001). Wise Therapy: Philosophy for Counsellors. Continuum.score: 24.0
    Independent on Sunday October 2nd One of the country's lead­ing philosophical counsellers, and chairman of the Society for Philosophy in Practice (SPP), Tim LeBon, said it typically took around six 50 ­minute sessions for a client to move from confusion to resolution. Mr LeBon, who has 'published a book on the subject, Wise Therapy, said philoso­phy was perfectly suited to this type of therapy, dealing as it does with timeless human issues such as love, purpose, happiness and emo­tional challenges. `Wise (...)
     
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  44. Elizabethe Payne (2010). Sluts: Heteronormative Policing in the Stories of Lesbian Youth. Educational Studies 46 (3):317-336.score: 24.0
    The power of compulsory heterosexuality regulates the sexuality of adolescent lesbians as strongly as it does their heterosexual peers. Marked with a sexual(ized) identity, young Southern lesbians in this life history study made claim to moral high ground by consistently identifying with the hegemonic good girl construct and by participating in the naming of women whose sexual behavior demonstrated a disregard for the ?rules.? The good girl/bad girl, the virgin/slut binaries, played significant roles in their identity claims, in their (...)
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  45. Zdzisława Piątek (1999). Czy koty wymagają naturalizacji? Kilka uwag polemicznych na marginesie eseju T. Skalskiego „Koty, demon, zaklęcia i naturalizacja”. Filozofia Nauki 1.score: 24.0
    The reason for my disagreement with Tadeusz Skalski is my objection to his attempts at demonizing the problems connected with the functioning of mind as presented in his essay. In my opinion, the inclination of the author towards demonization stems from the fact that he accepts an extremely limited „natural picture of the world”, a picture which is both reductionistic and mechanistic. It is no wonder then that neither intentionality nor the usage of language fits into this picture and - (...)
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  46. Pascal Boyer & Pierre Liénard (2006). Precaution Systems and Ritualized Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):635-641.score: 22.0
    In reply to commentary on our target article, we supply further evidence and hypotheses in the description of ritualized behaviors in humans. Reactions to indirect fitness threats probably activate specialized precaution systems rather than a unified form of danger-avoidance or causal reasoning. Impairment of precaution systems may be present in pathologies other than obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), autism in particular. Ritualized behavior is attention-grabbing enough to be culturally transmitted whether or not it is associated with group identity, cohesion, or with (...)
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  47. Pascal Boyer & Pierre Liénard (2006). Why Ritualized Behavior? Precaution Systems and Action Parsing in Developmental, Pathological and Cultural Rituals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):595-613.score: 22.0
    Ritualized behavior, intuitively recognizable by its stereotypy, rigidity, repetition, and apparent lack of rational motivation, is found in a variety of life conditions, customs, and everyday practices: in cultural rituals, whether religious or non-religious; in many children's complicated routines; in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD); in normal adults around certain stages of the life-cycle, birthing in particular. Combining evidence from evolutionary anthropology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging, we propose an explanation of ritualized behavior in terms of an evolved Precaution (...)
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  48. Roger Straughan (1983). Values, Behaviour and the Problem of Assessment. Journal of Moral Education 12 (3):187-191.score: 22.0
    Abstract This paper, which is intended as a brief and provocative discussion piece rather than a fully developed argument, discusses the nature of the logical relationship between children's moral values and their behaviour. I suggest that this relationship is less tight than is often supposed, and that there are no necessary behavioural or motivational criteria to determine whether or not a particular value is held, for there must always remain the possibility of a gap existing between the holding and the (...)
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  49. Constantine Sandis (2008). Dretske on the Causation of Behavior. Behavior and Philosophy 36:71-86.score: 21.0
    In two recent articles and an earlier book Fred Dretske appeals to a distinction between triggering and structuring causes with the aim of establishing that psychological explanations of behavior differ from non-psychological ones. He concludes that intentional human behavior is triggered by electro-chemical events but structured by representational facts. In this paper I argue that while this underrated causalist position is considerably more persuasive than the standard causalist alternative, Dretske’s account fails to provide us with a coherent analysis (...)
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