19 found
Sort by:
  1. Gennaro Chierchia & Danny Fox, The Grammatical View of Scalar Implicatures and the Relationship Between Semantics and Pragmatics.
    Recently there has been a lively revival of interest in implicatures, particularly scalar implicatures. Building on the resulting literature, our main goal in the present paper is to establish an empirical generalization, namely that SIs can occur systematically and freely in arbitrarily embedded positions. We are not so much concerned with the question whether drawing implicatures is a costly option (in terms of semantic processing, or of some other markedness measure). Nor are we specifically concerned with how implicatures come about (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Danny Fox, Cyclic Linearization and its Interaction with Other Aspects of Grammar: A Reply.
    Our proposal is concerned with the relation between an aspect of phonology (linearization) and syntax.1 In the picture that we had in mind, the syntax is autonomous — "it does what it does" — but sometimes the result maps to an unusable phonological representation. In this sense, linearization acts logically as a filter on derivations. We know of no evidence that the syntax can predict which syntactic objects will be usable by the phonology, and we know of no clear evidence (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Danny Fox, Cyclic Linearization and the Typology of Movement.
    • Why does wh-movement proceed through the left edge of CP? • Logic of a common answer: Things would go wrong otherwise.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Danny Fox, Extraposition and Scope: A Case for Overt QR.
    This paper argues that “covert” operations like Quantifier Raising (QR) can precede “overt” operations. Specifically we argue that there are overt operations that must take the output of QR as their input. If this argument is successful there are two interesting consequences for the theory of grammar. First, there cannot be a “covert” (i.e. post-spellout) component of the grammar. That is, what distinguishes operations that affect phonology from those that do not cannot be an arbitrary point in the derivation (“spellout”) (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Danny Fox, Focus, Parallelism and Accommodation.
    It is well-known that constructions involving ellipsis (i.e. construction in which semantically interpreted material is not realized phonologically, henceforth ECs) share many properties with constructions that involve phonological reduction (in which semantically interpreted material is realized phonologically but in a reduced form, henceforth PRCs). (See, among others, Lasnik 1972, Chomsky and Lasnik 1993, Rooth 1992 and Tancredi 1992.) The similarity between ECs and PRCs is semantic: the interpretation of both is constrained by the interpretation of an antecedent (Parallelism). (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Danny Fox, Implicature Calculation, Only, and Lumping: Another Look at the Puzzle of Disjunction.
    Principles of communication allow the listener to infer (upon hearing (1) that unless the speaker believed that (1alt) were false, the speaker would have uttered (1alt).
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Danny Fox, Implicature Calculation, Pragmatics or Syntax, or Both?
    The neo-Gricean account: the source of these scalar implicatures is a reasoning process (undertaken by the hearer), which culminates in an inference about the belief state of the speaker.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Danny Fox, On Logical Form.
    A Logical Form (LF) is a syntactic structure that is interpreted by the semantic component. For a particular structure to be a possible LF it has to be possible for syntax to generate it and for semantics to interpret it. The study of LF must therefore take into account both assumptions about syntax and about semantics, and since there is much disagreement in both areas, disagreements on LF have been plentiful. This makes the task of writing a survey article in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Danny Fox, Successive Cyclic Movement and Island Repair: The Difference Between Sluicing and VP.
    It is well known that in Sluicing constructions wh-dependencies can cross certain projections that are otherwise barriers to movement (Ross (1969), Chomsky (1972)). This fact would follow under the assumption that the relevant barriers are somehow deactivated when phonologically deleted ('island repair'). The problem, however, is that another form of phonological deletion (VP Ellipsis, VPE) seems to be impossible in certain contexts where Sluicing allows for island repair (Chung et al. (1995), Merchant (1999)).
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Danny Fox, The Interpretation of Quantificational Structures: Evidence for the Copy Theory of Traces.
    Claims: A. Shared assumption (1) needs to be modified. The argument of a restrictive quantifier phrase, QP, (at least when there is Inverse Scope) is a partial function defined only for individuals that satisfy the restrictor: (3'a) a. λP.[[book]] ⊆ P b.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Danny Fox, Too Many Alternatives: Density, Symmetry and Other Predicaments.
    In a recent paper, Martin Hackl and I identified a variety of circumstances where scalar implicatures, questions, definite descriptions, and sentences with the focus particle only are absent or unacceptable (Fox and Hackl 2006, henceforth F&H). We argued that the relevant effect is one of maximization failure (MF): an application of a maximization operator to a set that cannot have the required maximal member. We derived MF from our hypothesis that the set of degrees relevant for the semantics of degree (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Danny Fox, Cyclic Linearization of Syntactic Structure.
    This paper proposes an architecture for the mapping between syntax and phonology — in particular, that aspect of phonology that determines ordering. In Fox and Pesetsky (in prep.), we will argue that this architecture, when combined with a general theory of syntactic domains ("phases"), provides a new understanding of a variety of phenomena that have received diverse accounts in the literature. This shorter paper focuses on two processes, both drawn from Scandinavian: the familiar process of Object Shift and the less (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Danny Fox, Free Choice and the Theory of Scalar Implicatures* MIT,.
    This paper will be concerned with the conjunctive interpretation of a family of disjunctive constructions. The relevant conjunctive interpretation, sometimes referred to as a “free choice effect,” (FC) is attested when a disjunctive sentence is embedded under an existential modal operator. I will provide evidence that the relevant generalization extends (with some caveats) to all constructions in which a disjunctive sentence appears under the scope of an existential quantifier, as well as to seemingly unrelated constructions in which conjunction appears under (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Danny Fox & Roni Katzir (2011). On the Characterization of Alternatives. Natural Language Semantics 19 (1):87-107.
    We present an argument for revising the theory of alternatives for Scalar Implicatures and for Association with Focus. We argue that in both cases the alternatives are determined in the same way, as a contextual restriction of the focus value of the sentence, which, in turn, is defined in structure-sensitive terms. We provide evidence that contextual restriction is subject to a constraint that prevents it from discriminating between alternatives when they stand in a particular logical relationship with the assertion or (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Andrea Gualmini, Sarah Hulsey, Valentine Hacquard & Danny Fox (2008). The Question–Answer Requirement for Scope Assignment. Natural Language Semantics 16 (3):205-237.
    This paper focuses on children’s interpretation of sentences containing negation and a quantifier (e.g., The detective didn’t find some guys). Recent studies suggest that, although children are capable of accessing inverse scope interpretations of such sentences, they resort to surface scope to a larger extent than adults. To account for children’s behavioral pattern, we propose a new factor at play in Truth Value Judgment tasks: the Question–Answer Requirement (QAR). According to the QAR, children (and adults) must interpret the target sentence (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Danny Fox & Martin Hackl (2006). The Universal Density of Measurement. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):537 - 586.
    The notion of measurement plays a central role in human cognition. We measure people’s height, the weight of physical objects, the length of stretches of time, or the size of various collections of individuals. Measurements of height, weight, and the like are commonly thought of as mappings between objects and dense scales, while measurements of collections of individuals, as implemented for instance in counting, are assumed to involve discrete scales. It is also commonly assumed that natural language makes use of (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Danny Fox & Uli Sauerland (1997). Illusive Scope of Universal Quantifiers. In Jill Beckman (ed.), Proceedings of NELS 26. GLSA, UMass Amhert.
    It is widely believed that existential quantifiers can bring about the semantic effects of a scope which is wider than their actual syntactic scope (See Fodor & Sag (1982), Cresti (1995), Kratzer (1995), Reinhart (1995) and Winter (1995), among many others.) On the other hand, it is assumed that the syntactic scope of universal quantifiers can be determined unequivocally by the semantics. This paper shows that this second assumption is wrong; universal quantifiers can also bring about scope illusions, though in (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Danny Fox (1995). Economy and Scope. Natural Language Semantics 3 (3):283-341.
    This paper argues in favor of two claims: (a) that Scope Shifting Operations (Quantifier Raising and Quantifier Lowering) are restricted by economy considerations, and (b) that the relevant economy considerations compare syntactic derivations that end up interpretively identical. These ideas are shown to solve several puzzles having to do with the interaction of scope with VP ellipsis, coordination, and the interpretation of bare plurals. Further, the paper suggests a way of dealing with the otherwise puzzling clause-boundedness of Quantifier Raising.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Danny Fox, Condition a and Scope Reconstruction.
    It is well known that in certain environments the scope of a moved quantifier phrase can be determined at either its pre-movement position (“scope reconstruction”) or its postmovement position (“surface scope”). Thus the familiar ambiguity of (1) results from two choices for the scope of the moved QP. Under scope reconstruction, the scope of the moved existential QP is the sister of the pre-movement position (i.e. the sister of t, [to win the lottery]), while under surface scope it is the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation