Search results for 'Darwinism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Douglas H. Erwin, One Very Long Argument, Daniel W. Mcshea, A. Revised Darwinism, Theresa Ss Schilhab & What Mirror Self-Recognition (2004). Stephen Jay Gould: An Assessment. Biology and Philosophy 19:819-822.score: 30.0
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  2. Twentieth Century Darwinism (1960). Editorial Offlcts: The Eugenics Society-69 Eccleston Square• London-Swi• Victoria 209i. Eugenics Review 52:65.score: 30.0
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  3. Massimo Pigliucci (2012). Biology's Last Paradigm Shift. The Transition From Natural Theology to Darwinism. Paradigmi 2012 (3):45-58.score: 18.0
    The theory of evolution, which provides the conceptual framework for all modern research in organismal biology and informs research in molecular bi- ology, has gone through several stages of expansion and refinement. Darwin and Wallace (1858) of course proposed the original idea, centering on the twin concepts of natural selection and common descent. Shortly thereafter, Wallace and August Weismann worked toward the complete elimination of any Lamarckian vestiges from the theory, leaning in particular on Weismann’s (1893) concept of the separation (...)
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  4. Christine Clavien (forthcoming). Evolution, Society, and Ethics: Social Darwinism Versus Evolutionary Ethics. In Thomas Heams (ed.), Handbook of Evolutionary Biology (provis. Title). Springer.score: 18.0
    Evolutionary ethics (EE) is a branch of philosophy that arouses both fascination and deep suspicion. It claims that Darwinian mechanisms and evolutionary data on animal sociality are relevant to ethical reflection. This field of study is often misunderstood and rarely fails to conjure up images of Social Darwinism as a vector for nasty ideologies and policies. However, it is worth resisting the temptation to reduce EE to Social Darwinism and developing an objective analysis of whether it is appropriate (...)
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  5. Anil K. Seth & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Neural Darwinism and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):140-168.score: 18.0
    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the ‘dynamic core’). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely (...)
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  6. Yingjin Xu (2011). What Does Fodor's “Anti-Darwinism” Mean to Natural Theology? Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):465-479.score: 18.0
    In the current dialogue of “science and religion,” it is widely assumed that the thoughts of Darwinists and that of atheists overlap. However, Jerry Fodor, a full-fledged atheist, recently announced a war against Darwinism with his atheistic campaign. Prima facie, this “civil war” might offer a chance for theists: If Fodor is right, Darwinistic atheism will lose the cover of Darwinism and become less tenable. This paper provides a more pessimistic evaluation of the situation by explaining the following: (...)
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  7. Maria Kronfeldner (2007). Darwinism, Memes, and Creativity: A Critique of Darwinian Analogical Reasoning From Nature to Culture. Dissertation, University of Regensburgscore: 18.0
    The dissertation criticizes two analogical applications of Darwinism to the spheres of mind and culture: the Darwinian approach to creativity and memetics. These theories rely on three basic analogies: the ontological analogy states that the basic ontological units of culture are so-called memes, which are replicators like genes; the origination analogy states that novelty in human creativity emerges in a "blind" Darwinian manner; and the explanatory units of selection analogy states that memes are "egoistic" and that they can spread (...)
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  8. Matthew J. Brown, A Centennial Retrospective of John Dewey's "The Influence of Darwinism on Philosophy&Quot;.score: 18.0
    n 1909, the 50th anniversary of both the publication of Origin of the Species and his own birth, John Dewey published "The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy." This optimistic essay saw Darwin's advance not only as one of empirical or theoretical biology, but a logical and conceptual revolution that would shake every corner of philosophy. Dewey tells us less about the influence that Darwin exerted over philosophy over the past 50 years and instead prophesied the influence it would (or should) (...)
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  9. Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.score: 18.0
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions (...)
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  10. Nicolás F. Lori & Alex H. Blin (2010). Application of Quantum Darwinism to Cosmic Inflation: An Example of the Limits Imposed in Aristotelian Logic by Information-Based Approach to Gödel's Incompleteness. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 15 (2):199-211.score: 18.0
    Gödel’s incompleteness applies to any system with recursively enumerable axioms and rules of inference. Chaitin’s approach to Gödel’s incompleteness relates the incompleteness to the amount of information contained in the axioms. Zurek’s quantum Darwinism attempts the physical description of the universe using information as one of its major components. The capacity of quantum Darwinism to describe quantum measurement in great detail without requiring ad-hoc non-unitary evolution makes it a good candidate for describing the transition from quantum to classical. (...)
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  11. Bouchard Frédéric (2011). Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):106-114.score: 18.0
    Following Wallace’s suggestion, Darwin framed his theory using Spencer’s expression “survival of the fittest”. Since then, fitness occupies a significant place in the conventional understanding of Darwinism, even though the explicit meaning of the term ‘fitness’ is rarely stated. In this paper I examine some of the different roles that fitness has played in the development of the theory. Whereas the meaning of fitness was originally understood in ecological terms, it took a statistical turn in terms of reproductive success (...)
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  12. Kelly C. Smith (1992). Neo-Rationalism Versus Neo-Darwinism: Integrating Development and Evolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 7 (4):431-451.score: 18.0
    An increasing number of biologists are expressing discontent with the prevailing theory of neo-Darwinism. In particular, the tendency of neo-Darwinians to adopt genetic determinism and atomistic notions of both genes and organisms is seen as grossly unfair to the body of developmental theory. One faction of dissenteers, the Process Structuralists, take their inspiration from the rational morphologists who preceded Darwin. These neo-rationalists argue that a mature biology must possess universal laws and that these generative laws should be sought within (...)
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  13. Jorge M. Escobar (2012). Autopoiesis and Darwinism. Synthese 185 (1):53-72.score: 18.0
    The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical approach to the theory of autopoiesis in order to see how it challenges mainstream Darwinism. In the first part of the paper, I characterize Darwinism from the concepts of natural selection, heredity, reproduction, and evolution. This characterization is absolutely schematic, and I hope not controversial at all, since my aim is to provide a general background for the discussion of the rest of the paper. The second part presents (...)
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  14. Osamu Sakura (1998). Similarities and Varieties: A Brief Sketch on the Reception of Darwinism and Sociobiology in Japan. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):341-357.score: 18.0
    This paper discusses the reception of Darwinian evolutionary theory and sociobiology in Japan. Darwinism was introduced into Japan in the late 19th century and Japanese people readily accepted the concept of evolution because, lacking Christianity, there was no religious opposition. However, the theory of evolution was treated as a kind of social scientific tool, i.e., social Spencerism and eugenics. Although evolutionary biology was developed during the late 19th and the early 20th century, orthodox Darwinian theory was neglected for a (...)
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  15. Jyh-Shen Chiou & Lee-Yun Pan (2008). The Impact of Social Darwinism Perception, Status Anxiety, Perceived Trust of People, and Cultural Orientation on Consumer Ethical Beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):487 - 502.score: 18.0
    This study intends to explore the effects of political, social and cultural values on consumers’ ethical beliefs regarding questionable consumption behaviors. The variables examined include status anxiety, social Darwinism perception, perceived trust of people, and cultural orientation. Based on a field survey in Taiwan, the results showed that consumers with low ethical beliefs have higher perception of social Darwinism and status anxiety than consumers possess neutral and high ethical beliefs. The result also showed that the neutral ethics group (...)
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  16. Peter J. Bowler (2005). Revisiting the Eclipse of Darwinism. Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):19 - 32.score: 18.0
    The article sums up a number of points made by the author concerning the response to Darwinism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and repeats the claim that a proper understanding of the theory's impact must take account of the extent to which what are now regarded as the key aspects of Darwin's thinking were evaded by his immediate followers. Potential challenges to this position are described and responded to.
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  17. Alan Grafen (2014). The Formal Darwinism Project in Outline. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):155-174.score: 18.0
    The broader context for the formal darwinism project established by two of the commentators, in terms of reconciling the Modern Synthesis with Darwinian arguments over design and in terms of links to other types of selection and design, is discussed and welcomed. Some overselling of the project is admitted, in particular of whether it claims to consider all organic design. One important fundamental question raised in two commentaries is flagged but not answered of whether design is rightly represented by (...)
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  18. Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene's-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.score: 18.0
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations and arise in (...)
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  19. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.score: 18.0
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels (...)
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  20. Chris Buskes (2013). Darwinism Extended: A Survey of How the Idea of Cultural Evolution Evolved. Philosophia 41 (3):661-691.score: 15.0
    In the past 150 years there have been many attempts to draw parallels between cultural and biological evolution. Most of these attempts were flawed due to lack of knowledge and false ideas about evolution. In recent decades these shortcomings have been cleared away, thus triggering a renewed interest in the subject. This paper offers a critical survey of the main issues and arguments in that discussion. The paper starts with an explication of the Darwinian algorithm of evolution. It is argued (...)
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  21. Massimo Pigliucci (2007). Darwinism & Philosophy. [REVIEW] Quarterly Review of Biology 82 (1):33-35.score: 15.0
    The relationship between science and philosophy has always been a complex one, almost as much as the one that either discipline has with religion. Of course, science historically originated as a branch of philosophy, but ever since the split became per- manent during the 17th and 18th centuries, sci- entists have felt increasingly contemptuous of “armchair speculation,” and philosophers have progressively been fearful of cultural colonization on the part of science. It would be hard to find a better exemplification of (...)
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  22. Thomas Durt (2010). Anthropomorphic Quantum Darwinism as an Explanation for Classicality. Foundations of Science 15 (2):177-197.score: 15.0
    According to Zurek, the emergence of a classical world from a quantum substrate could result from a long selection process that privileges the classical bases according to a principle of optimal information. We investigate the consequences of this principle in a simple case, when the system and the environment are two interacting scalar particles supposedly in a pure state. We show that then the classical regime corresponds to a situation for which the entanglement between the particles (the system and the (...)
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  23. Alexander Rosenberg (2000). Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science, and Policy. Cambridge University Press.score: 15.0
    A collection of essays by Alexander Rosenberg, the distinguished philosopher of science. The essays cover three broad areas related to Darwinian thought and naturalism: the first deals with the solution of philosophical problems such as reductionism, the second with the development of social theories, and the third with the intersection of evolutionary biology with economics, political philosophy, and public policy. Specific papers deal with naturalistic epistemology, the limits of reductionism, the biological justification of ethics, the so-called 'trolley problem' in moral (...)
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  24. Robert T. Pennock (1995). Moral Darwinism: Ethical Evidence for the Descent of Man. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 10 (3):287-307.score: 15.0
    Could an ethical theory ever play a substantial evidential role in a scientific argument for an empirical hypothesis? InThe Descent of Man, Darwin includes an extended discussion of the nature of human morality, and the ethical theory which he sketches is not simply developed as an interesting ramification of his theory of evolution, but is used as a key part of his evidence for human descent from animal ancestors. Darwin must rebut the argument that, because of our moral nature, humans (...)
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  25. James Maclaurin (2012). Universal Darwinism: Its Scope and Limits. In , Defensor Rationes: Essays in Honour of Colin Cheyne. Springer.score: 15.0
    Many things evolve: species, languages, sports, tools, biological niches, and theories. But are these real instances of natural selection? Current assessments of the proper scope of Darwinian theory focus on the broad similarity of cultural or non-organic processes to familiar central instances of natural selection. That similarity is analysed in terms of abstract functional descriptions of evolving entities (e.g. replicators, interactors, developmental systems etc). These strategies have produced a proliferation of competing evolutionary analyses. I argue that such reasoning ought not (...)
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  26. David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber (2011). The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis. Biological Theory 6 (1):89-102.score: 15.0
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  27. Robin Blume-Kohout & Wojciech H. Zurek (2005). A Simple Example of “Quantum Darwinism”: Redundant Information Storage in Many-Spin Environments. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1857-1876.score: 15.0
  28. James Maclaurin (2006). Review of "The Evolution of Darwinism" by Timothy Shanahan. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 47 (2):191-192.score: 15.0
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  29. Werner Callebaut (2011). Beyond Generalized Darwinism. I. Evolutionary Economics From the Perspective of Naturalistic Philosophy of Biology. Biological Theory 6 (4):338-350.score: 15.0
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  30. Mark A. Largent (1999). Bionomics: Vernon Lyman Kellogg and the Defense of Darwinism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):465 - 488.score: 15.0
    Bionomics was a research approach invented by British biological scientists in the late nineteenth century and adopted by the American entomologist and evolutionist Vernon Lyman Kellogg in the early twentieth century. Kellogg hoped to use bionomics, which was the controlled observation and experimentation of organisms within settings that approximated their natural environments, to overcome the percieved weaknesses in the Darwinian natural selection theory. To this end, he established a bionomics laboratory at Stanford University, widely published results from his bionomic investigations, (...)
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  31. Patrick McNamara (1999). Mind and Variability: Mental Darwinism, Memory, and Self. Westport: Praeger.score: 15.0
    McNamara challenges the instructivist view that memories occur when information from the environment is transferred into the mind.
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  32. Werner Callebaut (2011). Beyond Generalized Darwinism. II. More Things in Heaven and Earth. Biological Theory 6 (4):351-365.score: 15.0
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  33. Igor Popov (2008). Orthogenesis versus Darwinism : The Russian case. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 2:367-397.score: 15.0
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  34. Geoffrey M. Hodgson & Thorbjørn Knudsen (2011). Generalized Darwinism and Evolutionary Economics: From Ontology to Theory. Biological Theory 6 (4):326-337.score: 15.0
  35. X. U. Yingjin (2011). What Does Fodor's “Anti-Darwinism” Mean to Natural Theology? Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):465-479.score: 15.0
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  36. Jerry Fodor (2008). Against Darwinism. Mind and Language 23 (1):1–24.score: 12.0
    Darwinism consists of two parts: a phylogenesis of biological species (ours included) and the claim that the primary mechanism of the evolution of phenotypes is natural selection. I assume that Darwin’s account of phylogeny is essentially correct; attention is directed to the theory of natural selection. I claim that Darwin’s account of evolution by natural selection cannot be sustained. The basic problem is that, according to the consensus view, evolution consists in changes of the distribution of phenotypic traits in (...)
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  37. Robin Attfield (2010). Darwin's Doubt, Non-Deterministic Darwinism and the Cognitive Science of Religion. Philosophy 85 (4):465-483.score: 12.0
    Alvin Plantinga, echoing a worry of Charles Darwin which he calls 'Darwin's doubt', argues that given Darwinian evolutionary theory our beliefs are unreliable, since they are determined to be what they are by evolutionary pressures and could have had no other content. This papers surveys in turn deterministic and non-deterministic interpretations of Darwinism, and concludes that Plantinga's argument poses a problem for the former alone and not for the latter. Some parallel problems arise for the Cognitive Science of Religion, (...)
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  38. James Rachels (1990/1991). Created From Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism. Oxford University Press.score: 12.0
    From Bishop Wilberforce in the 1860s to the advocates of "creation science" today, defenders of traditional mores have condemned Darwin's theory of evolution as a threat to society's values. Darwin's defenders, like Stephen Jay Gould, have usually replied that there is no conflict between science and religion--that values and biological facts occupy separate realms. But as James Rachels points out in this thought-provoking study, Darwin himself would disagree with Gould. Darwin, who had once planned on being a clergyman, was convinced (...)
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  39. Peter Munz (1993). Philosophical Darwinism: On the Origin of Knowledge by Means of Natural Selection. Routledge.score: 12.0
    Philosophers have not taken the evolution of human beings seriously enough. If they did, argues Peter Munz, many long-standing philosophical problems would be resolved. One of the philosophical consequences of biology is that all the knowledge produced in evolution is a priori established hypothetically by chance mutation and selective retention rather than by observation and intelligent induction. For organisms as embodied theories, selection is natural. For theories as disembodied organisms, it is artificial. Following Karl Popper, the growth of knowledge is (...)
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  40. Alex Rosenberg, Darwinism in Contemporary Moral Philosophy and Social Theory.score: 12.0
    Philosophical Darwinism is a species of naturalism. Among philosophers, naturalism is widely treated as the view that contemporary scientific theory is the source of solutions to philosophical problems. Thus, naturalists look to the theory of natural selection as the primary source in coming to solve philosophical problems raised by human affairs. For it combines more strongly than any other theory relevance to human affairs and scientific warrant. Other theories, especially in physics and chemistry, are more strongly confirmed, especially because (...)
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  41. John Cartwright (2010). Naturalising Ethics: The Implications of Darwinism for the Study of Moral Philosophy. [REVIEW] Science and Education 19 (4-5):407-443.score: 12.0
    The nature of moral values has occupied philosophers and educationalists for centuries and a variety of claims have been made about their origin and status. One tradition suggests they may be thoughts in the mind of God; another that they are eternal truths to be reached by rational reflection (much like the truths of mathematics) or alternatively through intuition; another that they are social conventions; and another (from the logical positivists) that they are not verifiable facts but simply the expression (...)
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  42. James Franklin (1997). Stove's Anti-Darwinism. Philosophy 72 (279):133-136.score: 12.0
    Stove's article, 'So you think you are a Darwinian?'[ 1] was essentially an advertisement for his book, Darwinian Fairytales.[ 2] The central argument of the book is that Darwin's theory, in both Darwin's and recent sociobiological versions, asserts many things about the human and other species that are known to be false, but protects itself from refutation by its logical complexity. A great number of ad hoc devices, he claims, are used to protect the theory. If co operation is observed (...)
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  43. Richard R. Nelson (2007). Universal Darwinism and Evolutionary Social Science. Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):73-94.score: 12.0
    Save for Anthropologists, few social scientists have been among the participants in the discussions about the appropriate structure of a ‘Universal Darwinism’. Yet evolutionary theorizing about cultural, social, and economic phenomena has a long tradition, going back well before Darwin. And over the past quarter century significant literatures have grown up concerned with the processes of change operating on science, technology, business organization and practice, and economic change more broadly, that are explicitly evolutionary in theoretical orientation. In each of (...)
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  44. Christopher Southgate (2011). Re-Reading Genesis, John, and Job: A Christian Response to Darwinism. Zygon 46 (2):370-395.score: 12.0
    Abstract. This article offers one response from within Christianity to the theological challenges of Darwinism. It identifies evolutionary theory as a key aspect of the context of contemporary Christian hermeneutics. Examples of the need for re-reading of scripture, and reassessment of key doctrines, in the light of Darwinism include the reading of the creation and fall accounts of Genesis 1–3, the reformulation of the Christian doctrine of humanity as created in the image of God, and the possibility of (...)
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  45. Arthur B. Cody (2000). Informational Darwinism. Inquiry 43 (2):167 – 179.score: 12.0
    The Theory of Evolution has, since Darwin, been sustained by contributions from many sciences, most especially from molecular biology. Philosophers, like biologists and the man in the street, have accepted the idea that the contemporary form of evolutionary theory has arrived at a convincing and final structure. As it now stands, natural selection is thought to work through the information-handling mechanism of the DNA molecule. Variation in the genome?s constructive message is achieved through random errors of processing called mutations. How (...)
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  46. James Lennox, Darwinism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 12.0
    Darwinism designates a distinctive form of evolutionary explanation for the history and diversity of life on earth. Its original formulation is provided in the first edition of On the Origin of Species in 1859. This entry first formulates ‘Darwin's Darwinism’ in terms of five philosophically distinctive themes: (i) probability and chance, (ii) the nature, power and scope of selection, (iii) adaptation and teleology, (iv) nominalism vs. essentialism about species and (v) the tempo and mode of evolutionary change. Both (...)
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  47. Dirk Robert Johnson (2010). Nietzsche's Anti-Darwinism. Cambridge University Press.score: 12.0
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction; Part I. Early Darwinism to the 'Anti-Darwin': 1. Towards the 'Anti-Darwin': Darwinian meditations in the middle period; 2. Overcoming the 'Man' in Man: Zarathustra's Transvaluation of Darwinian categories; 3. Nietzsche Agonistes: a personal challenge to Darwin; Part II. Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals: 4. Nietzsche's 'Nature'; Or, whose playing field is it anyway?; 5. The birth of morality out of the spirit of the 'Bad Conscience'; 6. Darwin's 'Science': or, how to beat the shell game; (...)
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  48. Elias L. Khalil & Alain Marciano (2010). The Equivalence of Neo-Darwinism and Walrasian Equilibrium: In Defense of Organismus Economicus. Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):229-248.score: 12.0
    Neo-Darwinism is based on the same principles as the Walrasian analysis of equilibrium. This may be surprising for evolutionary economists who resort to neo-Darwinism as a result of their dissatisfaction with Walrasian economics. As it is well-known, the principle of rationality does not play a role in neo-Darwinism. In fact, the whole (neo-)Darwinian agenda became popular exactly because it expunged the idea of rationality from nature, and hence, from equilibrium. It is less known, however, that the rationality (...)
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  49. Lonnie W. Aarssen (2010). Darwinism and Meaning. Biological Theory 5 (4):296-311.score: 12.0
    Darwinism presents a paradox. It discredits the notion that one’s life has any intrinsic meaning, yet it predicts that we are designed by Darwinian natural selection to generally insist that it must—and so necessarily designed to misunderstand and doubt Darwinism. The implications of this paradox are explored here, including the question of where then does the Darwinist find meaning in life? The main source, it is proposed, is from cognitive domains for meaning inherited from sentient ancestors—domains that reveal (...)
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  50. Matthew Crippen (2010). William James on Belief: Turning Darwinism Against Empiricistic Skepticism. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 46 (3):477-502.score: 12.0
    William James is remembered for challenging empiricistic skepticism by expounding a more encompassing "radical empiricism." Strangely, he is not much noted for applying the same strategy to Darwinism, yet this is what he does. He extends the thinking by which Darwinism holds that independent factors are responsible for generating and selecting variations. He assimilates it into his investigations of mind. With its aid, he brokers a concept of consciousness as a "selecting agency" that forms a cornerstone in his (...)
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