Search results for 'Darwinism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  4
    Douglas H. Erwin, One Very Long Argument, Daniel W. Mcshea, A. Revised Darwinism, Theresa Ss Schilhab & What Mirror Self-Recognition (2004). Stephen Jay Gould: An Assessment. Biology and Philosophy 19:819-822.
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  2. Twentieth Century Darwinism (1960). Editorial Offlcts: The Eugenics Society-69 Eccleston Square• London-Swi• Victoria 209i. Eugenics Review 52:65.
     
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  3.  17
    Alan Grafen (2014). The Formal Darwinism Project in Outline. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):155-174.
    The broader context for the formal darwinism project established by two of the commentators, in terms of reconciling the Modern Synthesis with Darwinian arguments over design and in terms of links to other types of selection and design, is discussed and welcomed. Some overselling of the project is admitted, in particular of whether it claims to consider all organic design. One important fundamental question raised in two commentaries is flagged but not answered of whether design is rightly represented (...)
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  4. Anil K. Seth & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Neural Darwinism and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):140-168.
    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the ‘dynamic core’). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely (...)
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  5.  36
    Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions (...)
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  6. Massimo Pigliucci (2012). Biology's Last Paradigm Shift. The Transition From Natural Theology to Darwinism. Paradigmi 2012 (3):45-58.
    The theory of evolution, which provides the conceptual framework for all modern research in organismal biology and informs research in molecular bi- ology, has gone through several stages of expansion and refinement. Darwin and Wallace (1858) of course proposed the original idea, centering on the twin concepts of natural selection and common descent. Shortly thereafter, Wallace and August Weismann worked toward the complete elimination of any Lamarckian vestiges from the theory, leaning in particular on Weismann’s (1893) concept of the separation (...)
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  7.  10
    Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (...)
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  8.  10
    Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene’s-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations and arise (...)
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  9.  23
    Jyh-Shen Chiou & Lee-Yun Pan (2008). The Impact of Social Darwinism Perception, Status Anxiety, Perceived Trust of People, and Cultural Orientation on Consumer Ethical Beliefs. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):487 - 502.
    This study intends to explore the effects of political, social and cultural values on consumers’ ethical beliefs regarding questionable consumption behaviors. The variables examined include status anxiety, social Darwinism perception, perceived trust of people, and cultural orientation. Based on a field survey in Taiwan, the results showed that consumers with low ethical beliefs have higher perception of social Darwinism and status anxiety than consumers possess neutral and high ethical beliefs. The result also showed that the neutral ethics group (...)
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  10. Christine Clavien (forthcoming). Evolution, Society, and Ethics: Social Darwinism Versus Evolutionary Ethics. In Thomas Heams (ed.), Handbook of Evolutionary Biology (provis. Title). Springer
    Evolutionary ethics (EE) is a branch of philosophy that arouses both fascination and deep suspicion. It claims that Darwinian mechanisms and evolutionary data on animal sociality are relevant to ethical reflection. This field of study is often misunderstood and rarely fails to conjure up images of Social Darwinism as a vector for nasty ideologies and policies. However, it is worth resisting the temptation to reduce EE to Social Darwinism and developing an objective analysis of whether it is appropriate (...)
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  11. Yingjin Xu (2011). What Does Fodor's “Anti-Darwinism” Mean to Natural Theology? Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):465-479.
    In the current dialogue of “science and religion,” it is widely assumed that the thoughts of Darwinists and that of atheists overlap. However, Jerry Fodor, a full-fledged atheist, recently announced a war against Darwinism with his atheistic campaign. Prima facie, this “civil war” might offer a chance for theists: If Fodor is right, Darwinistic atheism will lose the cover of Darwinism and become less tenable. This paper provides a more pessimistic evaluation of the situation by explaining the following: (...)
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  12.  3
    Geoffrey M. Hodgson & Thorbjørn Knudsen (2011). Generalized Darwinism and Evolutionary Economics: From Ontology to Theory. Biological Theory 6 (4):326-337.
    Despite growing interest in evolutionary economics since the 1980s, a unified theoretical approach has so far been lacking. Methodological and ontological discussions within evolutionary economics have attempted to understand and help rectify this failure, but have revealed in turn further differences of perspective. One aim of this article is to show how different approaches relate to different levels of abstraction. A second purpose is to show that generalized Darwinism is some way from the most abstract level, and illustrates how (...)
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  13.  33
    Kelly C. Smith (1992). Neo-Rationalism Versus Neo-Darwinism: Integrating Development and Evolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 7 (4):431-451.
    An increasing number of biologists are expressing discontent with the prevailing theory of neo-Darwinism. In particular, the tendency of neo-Darwinians to adopt genetic determinism and atomistic notions of both genes and organisms is seen as grossly unfair to the body of developmental theory. One faction of dissenteers, the Process Structuralists, take their inspiration from the rational morphologists who preceded Darwin. These neo-rationalists argue that a mature biology must possess universal laws and that these generative laws should be sought within (...)
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  14. Nicolás F. Lori & Alex H. Blin (2010). Application of Quantum Darwinism to Cosmic Inflation: An Example of the Limits Imposed in Aristotelian Logic by Information-Based Approach to Gödel's Incompleteness. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 15 (2):199-211.
    Gödel’s incompleteness applies to any system with recursively enumerable axioms and rules of inference. Chaitin’s approach to Gödel’s incompleteness relates the incompleteness to the amount of information contained in the axioms. Zurek’s quantum Darwinism attempts the physical description of the universe using information as one of its major components. The capacity of quantum Darwinism to describe quantum measurement in great detail without requiring ad-hoc non-unitary evolution makes it a good candidate for describing the transition from quantum to classical. (...)
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  15.  17
    Peter J. Bowler (2005). Revisiting the Eclipse of Darwinism. Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):19 - 32.
    The article sums up a number of points made by the author concerning the response to Darwinism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and repeats the claim that a proper understanding of the theory's impact must take account of the extent to which what are now regarded as the key aspects of Darwin's thinking were evaded by his immediate followers. Potential challenges to this position are described and responded to.
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  16.  59
    Matthew J. Brown, A Centennial Retrospective of John Dewey's "The Influence of Darwinism on Philosophy".
    n 1909, the 50th anniversary of both the publication of Origin of the Species and his own birth, John Dewey published "The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy." This optimistic essay saw Darwin's advance not only as one of empirical or theoretical biology, but a logical and conceptual revolution that would shake every corner of philosophy. Dewey tells us less about the influence that Darwin exerted over philosophy over the past 50 years and instead prophesied the influence it would take in (...)
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  17.  44
    Bouchard Frédéric (2011). Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):106-114.
    Following Wallace’s suggestion, Darwin framed his theory using Spencer’s expression “survival of the fittest”. Since then, fitness occupies a significant place in the conventional understanding of Darwinism, even though the explicit meaning of the term ‘fitness’ is rarely stated. In this paper I examine some of the different roles that fitness has played in the development of the theory. Whereas the meaning of fitness was originally understood in ecological terms, it took a statistical turn in terms of reproductive success (...)
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  18.  22
    Osamu Sakura (1998). Similarities and Varieties: A Brief Sketch on the Reception of Darwinism and Sociobiology in Japan. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):341-357.
    This paper discusses the reception of Darwinian evolutionary theory and sociobiology in Japan. Darwinism was introduced into Japan in the late 19th century and Japanese people readily accepted the concept of evolution because, lacking Christianity, there was no religious opposition. However, the theory of evolution was treated as a kind of social scientific tool, i.e., social Spencerism and eugenics. Although evolutionary biology was developed during the late 19th and the early 20th century, orthodox Darwinian theory was neglected for (...)
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  19.  29
    Jorge M. Escobar (2012). Autopoiesis and Darwinism. Synthese 185 (1):53-72.
    The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical approach to the theory of autopoiesis in order to see how it challenges mainstream Darwinism. In the first part of the paper, I characterize Darwinism from the concepts of natural selection, heredity, reproduction, and evolution. This characterization is absolutely schematic, and I hope not controversial at all, since my aim is to provide a general background for the discussion of the rest of the paper. The second part presents (...)
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  20.  63
    Maria Kronfeldner (2007). Darwinism, Memes, and Creativity: A Critique of Darwinian Analogical Reasoning From Nature to Culture. Dissertation, University of Regensburg
    The dissertation criticizes two analogical applications of Darwinism to the spheres of mind and culture: the Darwinian approach to creativity and memetics. These theories rely on three basic analogies: the ontological analogy states that the basic ontological units of culture are so-called memes, which are replicators like genes; the origination analogy states that novelty in human creativity emerges in a "blind" Darwinian manner; and the explanatory units of selection analogy states that memes are "egoistic" and that they can spread (...)
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  21. Thomas Durt (2010). Anthropomorphic Quantum Darwinism as an Explanation for Classicality. Foundations of Science 15 (2):177-197.
    According to Zurek, the emergence of a classical world from a quantum substrate could result from a long selection process that privileges the classical bases according to a principle of optimal information. We investigate the consequences of this principle in a simple case, when the system and the environment are two interacting scalar particles supposedly in a pure state. We show that then the classical regime corresponds to a situation for which the entanglement between the particles (the system and the (...)
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  22.  10
    Werner Callebaut (2011). Beyond Generalized Darwinism. I. Evolutionary Economics From the Perspective of Naturalistic Philosophy of Biology. Biological Theory 6 (4):338-350.
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  23.  70
    Michael Ruse (2004). Darwinism and Atheism: A Marriage Made in Heaven? Think 2 (6):51.
    This chapter contains sections titled: * Biblical Literalism * Miracles * Design * Morality * Original Sin * Natural Evil * Contingency * Conclusion * References * Further Reading.
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  24. Chris Buskes (2013). Darwinism Extended: A Survey of How the Idea of Cultural Evolution Evolved. Philosophia 41 (3):661-691.
    In the past 150 years there have been many attempts to draw parallels between cultural and biological evolution. Most of these attempts were flawed due to lack of knowledge and false ideas about evolution. In recent decades these shortcomings have been cleared away, thus triggering a renewed interest in the subject. This paper offers a critical survey of the main issues and arguments in that discussion. The paper starts with an explication of the Darwinian algorithm of evolution. It is argued (...)
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  25.  67
    Logan Paul Gage (2010). Can a Thomist Be a Darwinist? In Jay W. Richards (ed.), God and Evolution. 187-202.
  26.  44
    Peter van Inwagen (2010). Darwinism and Design. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell 825--834.
    This chapter contains sections titled: * Note * Bibliography.
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  27.  39
    Peter van Inwagen (2010). A Kind of Darwinism. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell 811--824.
    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * 1 The Word “Evolution” Is Ambiguous * 2 Certain Aspects of the Theory of Evolution Are Problematic * Notes * Bibliography.
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  28.  17
    David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber (2011). The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis. Biological Theory 6 (1):89-102.
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  29.  68
    Massimo Pigliucci (2007). Darwinism & Philosophy. [REVIEW] Quarterly Review of Biology 82 (1):33-35.
    The relationship between science and philosophy has always been a complex one, almost as much as the one that either discipline has with religion. Of course, science historically originated as a branch of philosophy, but ever since the split became per- manent during the 17th and 18th centuries, sci- entists have felt increasingly contemptuous of “armchair speculation,” and philosophers have progressively been fearful of cultural colonization on the part of science. It would be hard to find a better exemplification of (...)
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  30.  24
    Alexander Rosenberg (2000). Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science, and Policy. Cambridge University Press.
    A collection of essays by Alexander Rosenberg, the distinguished philosopher of science. The essays cover three broad areas related to Darwinian thought and naturalism: the first deals with the solution of philosophical problems such as reductionism, the second with the development of social theories, and the third with the intersection of evolutionary biology with economics, political philosophy, and public policy. Specific papers deal with naturalistic epistemology, the limits of reductionism, the biological justification of ethics, the so-called 'trolley problem' in moral (...)
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  31.  2
    Mark A. Largent (1999). Bionomics: Vernon Lyman Kellogg and the Defense of Darwinism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):465 - 488.
    Bionomics was a research approach invented by British biological scientists in the late nineteenth century and adopted by the American entomologist and evolutionist Vernon Lyman Kellogg in the early twentieth century. Kellogg hoped to use bionomics, which was the controlled observation and experimentation of organisms within settings that approximated their natural environments, to overcome the percieved weaknesses in the Darwinian natural selection theory. To this end, he established a bionomics laboratory at Stanford University, widely published results from his bionomic investigations, (...)
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  32.  21
    Robin Blume-Kohout & Wojciech H. Zurek (2005). A Simple Example of “Quantum Darwinism”: Redundant Information Storage in Many-Spin Environments. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1857-1876.
  33.  15
    Larry Arnhart (2001). The Truth, Goodness, and Beauty of Darwinism. Zygon 36 (1):77-92.
  34.  36
    Robert T. Pennock (1995). Moral Darwinism: Ethical Evidence for the Descent of Man. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 10 (3):287-307.
    Could an ethical theory ever play a substantial evidential role in a scientific argument for an empirical hypothesis? InThe Descent of Man, Darwin includes an extended discussion of the nature of human morality, and the ethical theory which he sketches is not simply developed as an interesting ramification of his theory of evolution, but is used as a key part of his evidence for human descent from animal ancestors. Darwin must rebut the argument that, because of our moral nature, humans (...)
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  35.  18
    James Maclaurin (2012). Universal Darwinism: Its Scope and Limits. In Defensor Rationes: Essays in Honour of Colin Cheyne. Springer
    Many things evolve: species, languages, sports, tools, biological niches, and theories. But are these real instances of natural selection? Current assessments of the proper scope of Darwinian theory focus on the broad similarity of cultural or non-organic processes to familiar central instances of natural selection. That similarity is analysed in terms of abstract functional descriptions of evolving entities (e.g. replicators, interactors, developmental systems etc). These strategies have produced a proliferation of competing evolutionary analyses. I argue that such reasoning ought not (...)
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  36.  6
    Werner Callebaut (2011). Beyond Generalized Darwinism. II. More Things in Heaven and Earth. Biological Theory 6 (4):351-365.
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  37.  2
    X. U. Yingjin (2011). What Does Fodor's “Anti-Darwinism” Mean to Natural Theology? Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):465-479.
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  38.  3
    Igor Popov (2008). Orthogenesis versus Darwinism : The Russian case. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 2 (2):367-397.
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  39.  8
    James Maclaurin (2006). Review of "The Evolution of Darwinism" by Timothy Shanahan. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 47 (2):191-192.
  40. Paul E. Griffiths & Russell D. Gray (2001). Darwinism and Developmental Systems. In Susan Oyama, Paul Griffiths, Gray E. & D. Russell (eds.), Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution. MIT Press 195--218.
     
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  41.  2
    Patrick McNamara (1999). Mind and Variability: Mental Darwinism, Memory, and Self. Westport: Praeger.
    McNamara challenges the instructivist view that memories occur when information from the environment is transferred into the mind.
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  42.  98
    Fabio Sterpetti (2015). Formalizing Darwinism, Naturalizing Mathematics. Paradigmi. Rivista di Critica Filosofica 33 (2):133-160.
    In the last decades two different and apparently unrelated lines of research have increasingly connected mathematics and evolutionism. Indeed, on the one hand different attempts to formalize darwinism have been made, while, on the other hand, different attempts to naturalize logic and mathematics have been put forward. Those researches may appear either to be completely distinct or at least in some way convergent. They may in fact both be seen as supporting a naturalistic stance. Evolutionism is indeed crucial for (...)
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  43. James Rachels (1990/1991). Created From Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism. Oxford University Press.
    From Bishop Wilberforce in the 1860s to the advocates of "creation science" today, defenders of traditional mores have condemned Darwin's theory of evolution as a threat to society's values. Darwin's defenders, like Stephen Jay Gould, have usually replied that there is no conflict between science and religion--that values and biological facts occupy separate realms. But as James Rachels points out in this thought-provoking study, Darwin himself would disagree with Gould. Darwin, who had once planned on being a clergyman, was convinced (...)
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  44. Jerry Fodor (2008). Against Darwinism. Mind and Language 23 (1):1–24.
    Darwinism consists of two parts: a phylogenesis of biological species (ours included) and the claim that the primary mechanism of the evolution of phenotypes is natural selection. I assume that Darwin’s account of phylogeny is essentially correct; attention is directed to the theory of natural selection. I claim that Darwin’s account of evolution by natural selection cannot be sustained. The basic problem is that, according to the consensus view, evolution consists in changes of the distribution of phenotypic traits in (...)
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  45.  5
    P. Huneman (2014). Formal Darwinism as a Tool for Understanding the Status of Organisms in Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):271-279.
    This paper uses the framework of Formal Darwinism (FD) to evaluate organism-centric critiques of the Modern Synthesis (MS). The first section argues that the FD project reconciles two kinds of selective explanations in biology. Thus it is not correct to say that the MS neglects organisms—instead, it explains organisms’ design, as argued in the second section. In the third section I employ a concept of the organism derived from Kant that has two aspects: the parts presupposing the whole, and (...)
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  46.  14
    Frédéric Bouchard (2011). Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):106-114.
    Following Wallace’s suggestion, Darwin framed his theory using Spencer’s expression “survival of the fittest”. Since then, fitness occupies a significant place in the conventional understanding of Darwinism, even though the explicit meaning of the term ‘fitness’ is rarely stated. In this paper I examine some of the different roles that fitness has played in the development of the theory. Whereas the meaning of fitness was originally understood in ecological terms, it took a statistical turn in terms of reproductive success (...)
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  47. John Cottingham (2011). Reply to Holland... The Meaning of Life and Darwinism. Environmental Values 20 (3):299 - 308.
    While finding no fault with Darwinism as a scientific theory, this paper argues that there are serious problems for the scientistic construal of Darwinism that interprets the universe as nothing but a purely random and contingent flow of events. Life in a godless impersonal universe is beset by contingency, alienation, despair, failure and fragility. Notwithstanding Alan Holland's claim that we can evade these problems though self-affirmation, I argue that human beings can achieve meaningful lives only by acknowledging our (...)
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  48.  21
    John Richardson (2004/2008). Nietzsche's New Darwinism. Oxford University Press.
    Nietzsche wrote in a scientific culture transformed by Darwin. He read extensively in German and British Darwinists, and his own works dealt often with such obvious Darwinian themes as struggle and evolution. Yet most of what Nietzsche said about Darwin was hostile: he sharply attacked many of his ideas, and often slurred Darwin himself as mediocre. So most readers of Nietzsche have inferred that he must have cast Darwin quite aside. But in fact, John Richardson argues, Nietzsche was deeply (...)
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  49.  9
    Sahotra Sarkar (2014). Formal Darwinism. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):249-257.
    Two questions are raised for Grafen’s formal darwinism project of aligning evolutionary dynamics under natural selection with the optimization of phenotypes for individuals of a population. The first question concerns mean fitness maximization during frequency-dependent selection; in such selection regimes, not only is mean fitness typically not maximized but it is implausible that any parameter closely related to fitness is being maximized. The second question concerns whether natural selection on inclusive fitness differences can be regarded as individual selection or (...)
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  50. Michael Ruse (2007). Darwinism and Its Discontents. Journal of the History of Biology 40 (3):592-594.
    Presenting an ardent defence of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, this book offers a clear and comprehensive exposition of Darwin's thinking. Michael Ruse brings the story up to date, examining the origins of life, the fossil record, and the mechanism of natural selection. Rival theories are explored, from punctuated equilibrium to human evolution . The philosophical and religious implications of Darwinism are discussed, including a discussion of Creationism and its modern day offshoot, Intelligent Design Theory. Ruse draws upon the (...)
     
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