Search results for 'David A. Freedman' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. David A. Freedman & William Wang (1996). Language Polygenesis: A Probabilistic Model. .score: 1230.0
    Monogenesis of language is widely accepted, but the conventional argument seems to be mistaken; a simple probabilistic model shows that polygenesis is likely. Other prehistoric inventions are discussed, as are problems in tracing linguistic lineages. Language is a system of representations; within such a system, words can evoke complex and systematic responses. Along with its social functions, language is important to humans as a mental instrument. Indeed, the invention of language,that is the accumulation of symbols to represent emotions, objects, and (...)
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  2. David Freedman & Paul Humphreys (1999). Are There Algorithms That Discover Causal Structure? Synthese 121 (1-2):29-54.score: 720.0
    There have been many efforts to infer causation from association byusing statistical models. Algorithms for automating this processare a more recent innovation. In Humphreys and Freedman[(1996) British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47, 113–123] we showed that one such approach, by Spirtes et al., was fatally flawed. Here we put our arguments in a broader context and reply to Korb and Wallace [(1997) British Journal for thePhilosophy of Science 48, 543–553] and to Spirtes et al.[(1997) British Journal for (...)
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  3. David Freedman (1988). The Later Wittgenstein: The Emergence of a New Philosophical Method. Philosophical Books 29 (3):133-135.score: 630.0
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  4. David Freedman (1995). Some Issues in the Foundation of Statistics. Foundations of Science 1 (1):19-39.score: 450.0
    After sketching the conflict between objectivists and subjectivists on the foundations of statistics, this paper discusses an issue facing statisticians of both schools, namely, model validation. Statistical models originate in the study of games of chance, and have been successfully applied in the physical and life sciences. However, there are basic problems in applying the models to social phenomena; some of the difficulties will be pointed out. Hooke's law will be contrasted with regression models for salary discrimination, the latter being (...)
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  5. David Freedman (1995). Rejoinder. Foundations of Science 1 (1):69-83.score: 450.0
    My favorite opponent in this debate once made a remarkable concession, not that it interfered with business as usual:No sensible social scientist believes any particular specification, coefficient estimate, or standard error. Social science theories ... imply that specifications and parameters constant over situations do not exist ... One searches for qualitative theory ... not for quantitative specifications Achen (1987, p.149). . With Hooke's law and the like, we are estimating parameters in specifications that are constant across time—at least to a (...)
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  6. David Noel Freedman (1975). “Son of Man, Can These Bones Live?” The Exile. Interpretation 29 (2):171-186.score: 450.0
    The Bible as a literary entity is a product of the exile.. .. The record of the revolutions of the human spirit that took place during those years.
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  7. Jonathan L. Freedman & Sarnoff A. Mednick (1958). Ease of Attainment of Concepts as a Function of Response Dominance Variance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (5):463.score: 420.0
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  8. Robert A. Neimeyer, William R. Shadish Jr, Eric G. Freedman, Barry Gholson & Arthur C. Houts (1989). 16. A Preliminary Agenda for the Psychology of Science. In Barry Gholson (ed.), Psychology of Science: Contributions to Metascience. Cambridge University Press.score: 420.0
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  9. Karyn L. Freedman (2006). The Epistemological Significance of Psychic Trauma. Hypatia 21 (2):104-125.score: 300.0
    This essay explores the epistemological significance of the kinds of beliefs that grow out of traumatic experiences, such as the rape survivor's belief that she is never safe. On current theories of justification, beliefs like this one are generally dismissed due to either insufficient evidence or insufficient propositional content. Here, Freedman distinguishes two discrete sides of the aftermath of psychic trauma, the shattered self and the shattered worldview. This move enables us to see these beliefs as beliefs; in other (...)
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  10. Karyn L. Freedman (2010). The Limits of Internalism: A Case Study. Dialogue 49 (01):73-89.score: 300.0
    Looking at specific populations of knowers reveals that the presumption of sameness within knowledge communities can lead to a number of epistemological oversights. A good example of this is found in the case of survivors of sexual violence. In this paper I argue that this case study offers a new perspective on the debate between the epistemic internalist and externalist by providing us with a fresh insight into the complicated psychological dimensions of belief formation and the implications that this has (...)
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  11. Benjamin Freedman (1999). Duty and Healing: Foundations of a Jewish Bioethic. Routledge.score: 300.0
    Duty and Healing positions ethical issues commonly encountered in clinical situations within Jewish law. The concept of duty is significant in exploring bioethical issues, and this book presents an authentic and non-parochial Jewish approach to bioethics, while it includes critiques of both current secular and Jewish literatures. Among the issues the book explores are the role of family in medical decision-making, the question of informed consent as a personal religious duty, and the responsibilities of caretakers. The exploration of contemporary ethical (...)
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  12. Benjamin Freedman (1991). Violating Confidentiality to Warn of a Risk of HIV Infection: Ethical Work in Progress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).score: 300.0
    The old literature on whether medical confidentiality may be breached to warn a spouse of a risk of contracting syphilis from his/her partner — a deep and rich literature — has become relevant once again in the context of HIV infection and AIDS. This paper examines the reasoning and method employed in: the Catholic approach centered around the patient's (property) right to the secret; a (generic) model of justice, utilizing minimal principles of non-aggression and restitution; and an approach involving the (...)
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  13. Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Stanley Shapiro, Abraham Fuks, Myriam Skrutkowska & Maria Sigurjonsdottir, Assessing the Interpretation of Criteria for Clinical Trial Eligibility: A Survey of Oncology Investigators.score: 300.0
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eligibility criteria that exclude the elderly, persons with psychiatric disease, and persons with substance abuse problems from participation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are subjective and hence a source of variability in enrolment decisions and investigator uncertainty. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Cancer investigators from the United States and Canada. INTERVENTIONS: Investigators were presented with clinical vignettes from 3 patient categories--eligible, ineligible and uncertain--for each of 5 eligibility criteria--3 subjective and 2 objective--and were asked whether they would (...)
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  14. Monroe H. Freedman (1984). Lawyer‐Client Confidences Under the A.B.A. Model Rules: Ethical Rules Without Ethical Reason. Criminal Justice Ethics 3 (2):3-8.score: 300.0
    (1984). Lawyer‐client confidences under the A.B.A. model rules: Ethical rules without ethical reason. Criminal Justice Ethics: Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 3-8.
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  15. Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks, James Robbins, Stanley Shapiro & Myriam Skrutkowska, What Difference Does It Make to Be Treated in a Clinical Trial? A Pilot Study.score: 300.0
    OBJECTIVE: Pilot study to characterize treatment differences between patients treated in clinical trials and those treated in a clinical setting. Previous studies have shown higher survival rates for participants in trials of cancer therapy. This difference is observed even after rates are adjusted for important covariates such as age and stage of disease. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Oncology outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Ninety women 18 to 70 years of age with early-stage breast cancer who were (...)
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  16. Martin Freedman & A. J. Stagliano (2007). Accountability and Emissions Allowance Trading. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:312-313.score: 300.0
    This research concerns accountability by the U.S. electric utility industry for the financial impacts of cap-and-trade emissions allowance activity. We report findings from an extensive examination of disclosure practices for more than 100 facilities that were required to curb pollutant discharges and participate in a government-mandated program of emission allowance distribution and trading.
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  17. Craig Freedman (1995). Animal Spirits in His Soup: A Look at the Methodology and Rhetoric of The General Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (1):79-104.score: 300.0
    Part of Keynes? 'struggle of escape from habitual modes of thought and expression' (Keynes 1960: viii) involves an implicit attempt to break with the methodology as well as the theory of the past. Unfortunately the rhetorical strategy Keynes adopted in The General Theoryblurred this attempt. As a result, it is only by examining both the methodology and rhetoric embedded in this work that it becomes possible to understand the book as a coherent whole. This paper demonstrates the validity of taking (...)
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  18. Abraham Fuks, Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Stanley Shapiro, Myriam Skrutkowska & Amina Riaz, A Study in Contrasts: Eligibility Criteria in a Twenty-Year Sample of NSABP and POG Clinical Trials.score: 300.0
    We studied changes in eligibility criteria--the largest impediment to patient accrual--in two samples of clinical trials. Trials from the NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Program) and POG (Pediatric Oncology Group) were analyzed. After eliminating duplications, the criteria in each protocol were enumerated and classified according to a novel schema. NSABP trials contained significantly more criteria than POG trials, and added precision criteria (making study populations homogeneous) at a faster rate than POG studies. The difference between NSABP studies (explanatory (...)
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  19. Monroe H. Freedman (1984). The Problem of Writing, Enforcing, and Teaching Ethical Rules: A Reply to Professor Goldman. Criminal Justice Ethics 3 (2):14-16.score: 300.0
    (1984). The problem of writing, enforcing, and teaching ethical rules: A reply to professor Goldman. Criminal Justice Ethics: Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 14-16.
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  20. Benjamin Freedman (1980). Leviticus and DNA: A Very Old Look at a Very New Problem. Journal of Religious Ethics 8 (1):105 - 113.score: 300.0
    This paper is an attempt to achieve a moral understanding of recombinant DNA technology through an examination of the Biblical ban on the cross-breeding of species, as that ban was understood by traditional Jewish commentators. By paying close attention to the concept of natural law which some of those commentators employed in this connection, a nuanced response to the modern moral problem can be developed, which is immune to the standard arguments employed against those who rely upon natural law.
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  21. Darryl Macer, Roger A. Balk, Benjamin Freedman & Marie-Claude Goulet (forthcoming). Case Studies: New Creations? Hastings Center Report.score: 280.0
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  22. Sarnoff A. Mednick & Jonathan L. Freedman (1960). Facilitation of Concept Formation Through Mediated Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (5):278.score: 280.0
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  23. Benjamin Freedman (1978). A Meta-Ethics for Professional Morality. Ethics 89 (1):1-19.score: 240.0
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  24. Paul Humphreys & David Freedman (1996). The Grand Leap. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):113-123.score: 240.0
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  25. Carl Freedman (2002). A Note on Marxism and Fantasy. Historical Materialism 10 (4):261-271.score: 240.0
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  26. Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer, Demarcating Research and Treatment: A Systematic Approach for the Analysis of the Ethics of Clinical Research.score: 240.0
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  27. Benjamin Freedman (1994). Multicenter Trials and Subject Eligibility: Should Local IRBs Play a Role? Irb 16 (1-2):1.score: 240.0
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  28. Paul Humphreys & David Freedman (1996). Review: The Grand Leap. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):113 - 123.score: 240.0
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  29. Sanford Freedman (1983). Character in a Coherent Fiction: On Putting King Lear Back Together Again. Philosophy and Literature 7 (2):196-212.score: 240.0
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  30. Benjamin Freedman & Charles Weijer, [Demarcating Research and Treatment Interventions: A Case Illustration]: Commentary.score: 240.0
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  31. Benjamin Freedman (1992). A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (3):231.score: 240.0
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  32. Benjamin Freedman (1981). The Entity-Restriction of Rights: Notes on a Fashion in Ethics. Metaphilosophy 12 (2):159–168.score: 240.0
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  33. Leonard Freedman (2012). Wit as a Political Weapon: Satirists and Censors. Social Research: An International Quarterly 79 (1):87-112.score: 240.0
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  34. Francoise Baylis, Jeanne DesBrisay, Benjamin Freedman, Larry Lowenstein & Susan Sherwin (1994). A Reply to Giles R. Scofield, J.D. HEC Forum 6 (6):371-376.score: 240.0
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  35. Benjamin Freedman (1975). A Moral Theory of Informed Consent. Hastings Center Report 5 (4):32-39.score: 240.0
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  36. Benjamin Freedman (1987). The Ethics of Using Human Fetal Tissue--A Response to Burtchaell: I. Irb 10 (6):1-4.score: 240.0
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  37. Benjamin Freedman (2000). The Roles and Responsibilities of the Ethics Consultant: A Retrospective Analysis of Cases. University Publishing.score: 240.0
  38. Benjamin Freedman & Kathleen Cranley Glass (1990). Weiss V. Solomon: A Case Study in Institutional Responsibility for Clinical Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 18 (4):395-403.score: 240.0
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  39. Persi Diaconis & David Freedman (1981). The Persistence of Cognitive Illusions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):333-334.score: 240.0
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  40. Paul Freedman (2002). David Abulafia, Ed., The New Cambridge Medieval History, 5: C. 1198–C. 1300. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. Xxiii, 1045 Plus Color Frontispiece and 18 Black-and-White Plates; 14 Maps and 6 Genealogical Tables. $120. [REVIEW] Speculum 77 (1):122-124.score: 240.0
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  41. Paul Freedman (1984). J. N. Hillgarth and Giulio Silano, The Register “Notule Communium” 14 of the Diocese of Barcelona (1345–1348): A Calendar with Selected Documents. (Subsidia Mediaevalia, 13.) Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1983. Paper. Pp. Ix, 365; 1 Plate. $30. [REVIEW] Speculum 59 (3):720-721.score: 240.0
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  42. Jonathan L. Freedman (forthcoming). Psychology as a Science. Social Research.score: 240.0
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  43. Daniel G. Freedman (1980). The Social and the Biological: A Necessary Unity. Zygon 15 (2):117-131.score: 240.0
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  44. Zulfigar H. Gilani, Wilma Bucci & Norbert Freedman (1985). The Structure and Language of a Silence. Semiotica 56 (1-2):99-114.score: 240.0
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  45. Lawrence G. Koranda & P. E. Freedman (1976). Effects of Generalization of Fear on Incubation in a Response Suppression Paradigm. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 8 (2):97-100.score: 240.0
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  46. Susan Blank, Michael Brady, Ellen Buerk, Waldemar Carlo, Douglas Diekema, Andrew Freedman, Lynne Maxwell, Steven Wegner, Charles LeBaron, Lesley Atwood & Sabrina Craigo (2013). The AAP Task Force on Neonatal Circumcision: A Call for Respectful Dialogue. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):442-443.score: 240.0
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  47. Persi Diaconis & David Freedman (1980). De Finetti's Generalizations of Exchangeability. In Richard C. Jeffrey (ed.), Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2--233.score: 240.0
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  48. Benjamin Fondane & Eric Freedman (1994). Philoctetes: A Dramatic Poem. Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature 6 (1):1-50.score: 240.0
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  49. David Freedman (1988). Abstract Objects. Philosophical Books 29 (4):214-217.score: 240.0
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