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Profile: David Resnik (National Institutes of Health, North Carolina State University, National Institutes of Health)
  1. David B. Resnik (forthcoming). H5N1 Avian Flu ESEARCH. Hastings Center Report.
     
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  2.  2
    David B. Resnik (forthcoming). Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-9.
    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.
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  3.  50
    David B. Resnik (1998). The Ethics of Science: An Introduction. Routledge.
    During the past decade scientists, public policy analysts, politicians, and laypeople, have become increasingly aware of the importance of ethical conduct in scientific research. In this timely book, David B. Resnik introduces the reader to the ethical dilemmas and questions that arise in scientific research. Some of the issues addressed in the book include ethical decision-making, the goals and methods of science, and misconduct in science. The Ethics of Science also discusses significant case studies such as human and animal cloning, (...)
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  4.  28
    David B. Resnik (2007). The Price of Truth: How Money Affects the Norms of Science. OUP Usa.
    Modern science is big business. Governments, universities, and corporations have invested billions of dollars in scientific and technological research in the hope of obtaining power and profit. For the most part, this investment has benefited science and society, leading to new discoveries, inventions, disciplines, specialties, jobs, and career opportunities. However, there is a dark side to the influx of money into science. Unbridled pursuit of financial gain in science can undermine scientific norms, such as objectivity, honesty, openness, respect for research (...)
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  5.  9
    David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore (2016). Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a (...)
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  6. David B. Resnik (2012). Environmental Health Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    Environmental Health Ethics illuminates the conflicts between protecting the environment and promoting human health. In this study, David B. Resnik develops a method for making ethical decisions on environmental health issues. He applies this method to various issues, including pesticide use, antibiotic resistance, nutrition policy, vegetarianism, urban development, occupational safety, disaster preparedness and global climate change. Resnik provides readers with the scientific and technical background necessary to understand these issues. He explains that environmental health controversies cannot simply be reduced to (...)
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  7.  8
    David B. Resnik & Zubin Master (2011). Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):17 - 21.
    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing (...)
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  8.  24
    David B. Resnik (2001). Developing Drugs for the Developing World: An Economic, Legal, Moral, and Political Dilemma. Developing World Bioethics 1 (1):11-32.
    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, (...)
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  9.  21
    David B. Resnik (2012). Limits on Risks for Healthy Volunteers in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (2):137-149.
    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on (...)
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  10. David B. Resnik (2004). Owning the Genome: A Moral Analysis of Dna Patenting. State University of New York Press.
    A clear, introductory overview of the issues surrounding gene patenting.
     
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  11.  26
    Zubin Master & David B. Resnik (2013). Hype and Public Trust in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):321-335.
    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities (...)
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  12. David B. Resnik (2000). The Moral Significance of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in Human Genetics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):365-377.
    The therapy-enhancement distinction occupies a central place in contemporary discussions of human genetics and has been the subject of much debate. At a recent conference on gene therapy policy, scientists predicted that within a few years researchers will develop techniques that can be used to enhance human traits. In thinking about the morality of genetic interventions, many writers have defended somatic gene therapy, and some have defended germline gene therapy, but only a handful of writers defend genetic enhancement, or even (...)
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  13.  34
    David B. Resnik (2003). Is the Precautionary Principle Unscientific? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):329-344.
    The precautionary principle holds that we should not allow scientific uncertainty to prevent us from taking precautionary measures in response to potential threats that are irreversible and potentially disastrous. Critics of the principle claim that it deters progress and development, is excessively risk-aversive and is unscientific. This paper argues that the principle can be scientific provided that the threats addressed by the principle are plausible threats, and the precautionary measures adopted are reasonable. The paper also argues that one may use (...)
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  14.  19
    David B. Resnik (2004). The Distribution of Biomedical Research Resources and International Justice. Developing World Bioethics 4 (1):42–57.
    ABSTRACTAccording to some estimates, less than 10% of the world's biomedical research funds are dedicated to addressing problems that are responsible for 90% of the world's burden of disease. This paper explains why this disparity exists and what should be done about it. It argues that the disparity exists because: 1) multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies do not regard research and development investments on the health problems of developing nations to be economically lucrative; and 2) governmental agencies that sponsor biomedical (...)
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  15.  16
    David B. Resnik (2002). The Commercialization of Human Stem Cells: Ethical and Policy Issues. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 10 (2):127-154.
    The first stage of the human embryonic stem(ES) cell research debate revolved aroundfundamental questions, such as whether theresearch should be done at all, what types ofresearch may be done, who should do theresearch, and how the research should befunded. Now that some of these questions arebeing answered, we are beginning to see thenext stage of the debate: the battle forproperty rights relating to human ES cells. The reason why property rights will be a keyissue in this debate is simple and (...)
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  16.  17
    David B. Resnik (2005). Openness Versus Secrecy in Scientific Research. Episteme 2 (3):135-147.
    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientifi c inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for (...)
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  17.  35
    David B. Resnik (1998). The Ethics of HIV Research in Developing Nations. Bioethics 12 (4):286–306.
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  18.  5
    David B. Resnik, Ana M. Tyler, Jennifer R. Black & Grace Kissling (forthcoming). Authorship Policies of Scientific Journals: Table 1. Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2015-103171.
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  19.  24
    David B. Resnik (1991). How-Possibly Explanations in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (2):141-149.
    Biologists in many different fields of research give how-possibly explanations of the phenomena they study. Although such explanations lack empirical support, and might be regarded by some as unscientific, they play an important heuristic role in biology by helping biologists develop theories and concepts and suggesting new areas of research. How-possibly explanations serve as a useful framework for conducting research in the absence of adequate empiri cal data, and they can even become how-actually explanations if they gain enough empirical support.
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  20.  33
    David B. Resnik (2003). Exploitation in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the merits (...)
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  21.  3
    David B. Resnik (2016). Scientific Realism and the Patent System. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (1):69-77.
    The patent system appears to make three ontological assumptions often associated with scientific realism: there is a natural world that is independent of human knowledge and technology; invented products can be unobservable things; and invented products have causal powers. Although a straightforward reading of patent laws implies these ontological commitments, it is not at all clear that what the patent system has to say about the world has any bearing on issues of scientific realism. While realists might embrace the patent (...)
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  22.  4
    David B. Resnik & Kevin C. Elliott (2015). Bisphenol A and Risk Management Ethics. Bioethics 29 (3):182-189.
    It is widely recognized that endocrine disrupting compounds, such as Bisphenol A, pose challenges for traditional paradigms in toxicology, insofar as these substances appear to have a wider range of low-dose effects than previously recognized. These compounds also pose challenges for ethics and policymaking. When a chemical does not have significant low-dose effects, regulators can allow it to be introduced into commerce or the environment, provided that procedures and rules are in place to keep exposures below an acceptable level. This (...)
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  23.  14
    David B. Resnik (2009). Playing Politics with Science: Balancing Scientific Independence and Government Oversight. Oxford University Press.
    In Playing Politics with Science, David B. Resnik explores the philosophical, political, and ethical issues related to the politicalization of science and ...
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  24.  13
    David B. Resnik (1997). A Proposal for a New System of Credit Allocation in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):237-243.
    This essay discusses some of the problems with current authorship practices and puts forward a proposal for a new system of credit allocation: in published works, scientists should more clearly define the responsibilities and contributions of members of research teams and should distinguish between different roles, such as author, statistican, technician, grant writer, data collector, and so forth.
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  25.  6
    David B. Resnik (2014). Data Fabrication and Falsification and Empiricist Philosophy of Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):423-431.
    Scientists have rules pertaining to data fabrication and falsification that are enforced with significant punishments, such as loss of funding, termination of employment, or imprisonment. These rules pertain to data that describe observable and unobservable entities. In this commentary I argue that scientists would not adopt rules that impose harsh penalties on researchers for data fabrication or falsification unless they believed that an aim of scientific research is to develop true theories and hypotheses about entities that exist, including unobservable ones. (...)
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  26.  16
    David B. Resnik (2001). Setting Biomedical Research Priorities: Justice, Science, and Public Participation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (2):181-204.
  27.  14
    David B. Resnik (2010). Can Scientists Regulate the Publication of Dual Use Research? Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 4 (1).
    The growing threat of the misuse of science and technology for terrorist or criminal purposes has led scientists, institutions, professional organizations, funding agencies, journals, and governments to consider how best to control research that can be readily used to cause significant harm to public health, the economy, the environment, or national security, also known as dual use research. This commentary argues that scientists can regulate dual use research, provided that they are committed to developing effective dual use policies and a (...)
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  28.  3
    Zubin Master & David B. Resnik (2013). Incorporating Exclusion Clauses Into Informed Consent for Biobanking. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (2):203-212.
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  29.  5
    David B. Resnik (2001). Research Participation and Financial Inducements. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):54-56.
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  30.  19
    David B. Resnik (2009). What is “Dual Use” Research? A Response to Miller and Selgelid. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):3-5.
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  31.  21
    David B. Resnik (1998). Conflicts of Interest in Science. Perspectives on Science 6 (4):381-408.
    : This essay provides an analysis of conflicts of interest in science. It gives an overview of some current conflict of interest policies and distinguishes between real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest. The essay argues that scientists should disclose real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest and that they should avoid conflicts that threaten scientific objectivity or trustworthiness. The essay also uses several hypothetical scenarios to illustrate some of the key points made in the analysis and suggests some strategies (...)
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  32.  61
    David B. Resnik (1994). Hacking's Experimental Realism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):395 - 411.
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  33.  8
    David B. Resnik (2012). Responsible Conduct in Nanomedicine Research: Environmental Concerns Beyond the Common Rule. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (4):848-855.
    Nanomedicine research raises ethical concerns beyond those covered by the Common Rule. Investigators and research institutions should comply with environmental and occupational health laws protect research staff and the environment. Though the IRB should concentrate on risks to human research participants, it should also consider risks to identifiable third parties. Investigators should also address risks to identifiable third parties. Professional and governmental organizations should deal with the long-term social, ethical, and environmental consequences of nanomedicine.
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  34.  8
    David B. Resnik (2009). The Clinical Investigator-Subject Relationship: A Contextual Approach. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4 (1):16-.
    BackgroundThe nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol.Results and conclusionIn this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty (...)
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  35.  24
    David B. Resnik (2000). Financial Interests and Research Bias. Perspectives on Science 8 (3):255-285.
    : In the last two decades, scientists, government officials, and science policy experts have expressed concerns about the increasing role of financial interests in research. Many believe that these interests are undermining research by causing bias and error, suppression of results, and even outright fraud. This paper seeks to shed some light on this view by (1) explicating the concept research bias, (2) describing some ways that financial interests can cause research biases, and (3) discussing some strategies for mitigating or (...)
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  36.  24
    David B. Resnik, Paul L. Ranelli & Susan P. Resnik (2000). The Conflict Between Ethics and Business in Community Pharmacy: What About Patient Counseling? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 28 (2):179 - 186.
    Patient counseling is a cornerstone of ethical pharmacy practice and high quality pharmaceutical care. Counseling promotes patient compliance with prescription regimens and prevents dangerous drug interactions and medication errors. Counseling also promotes informed consent and protects pharmacists against legal risks. However, economic, social, and technological changes in pharmacy practice often force community pharmacists to choose between their professional obligations to counsel patients and business objectives. State and federal legislatures have enacted laws that require pharmacists to counsel patients, but these laws (...)
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  37.  39
    David B. Resnik (2000). A Pragmatic Approach to the Demarcation Problem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):249-267.
    The question of how to distinguish between science and non-science, the so-called ‘demarcation problem’, is one of the most high-profile, perennial, and intractable issues in the philosophy of science. It is not merely a philosophical issue, however, since it has a significant bearing on practical policy questions and practical decisions. This essay develops a pragmatic approach to the demarcation problem: it argues that while there are some core principles that we can use in distinguishing between science and non-science, particular judgments (...)
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  38.  12
    David B. Resnik (2005). Conflicts of Interest at the NIH: No Easy Solution. Hastings Center Report 35 (1):18-20.
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  39.  11
    David B. Resnik, Christina Gutierrez-Ford & Shyamal Peddada (2008). Perceptions of Ethical Problems with Scientific Journal Peer Review: An Exploratory Study. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):305-310.
    This article reports the results of an anonymous survey of researchers at a government research institution concerning their perceptions about ethical problems with journal peer review. Incompetent review was the most common ethical problem reported by the respondents, with 61.8% (SE = 3.3%) claiming to have experienced this at some point during peer review. Bias (50.5%, SE = 3.4%) was the next most common problem. About 22.7% (SE = 2.8%) of respondents said that a reviewer had required them to include (...)
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  40.  3
    David B. Resnik, Shyamal Peddada, Jason Altilio, Nancy Wang & Jerry Menikoff (2008). Oncology Consent Forms: Failure to Disclose Off-Site Treatment Availability. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 30 (6):7.
    The objective of this study was to determine whether consent forms in oncology clinical trials of commercially available treatments inform subjects that they may be able to obtain the treatments being investigated without participating in research. We acquired consent forms from a random sample of U.S. oncology clinical trials in the ClinicalTrials.gov database. We then examined a subgroup of the sample consisting of studies in which the treatments under investigations were commercially available. Less than 20% of the consent forms in (...)
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  41.  9
    David B. Resnik (2004). The Precautionary Principle and Medical Decision Making. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):281 – 299.
    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary principle, this (...)
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  42.  29
    David B. Resnik (2001). DNA Patents and Scientific Discovery and Innovation: Assessing Benefits and Risks. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):29-62.
    This paper focuses on the question of whether DNA patents help or hinder scientific discovery and innovation. While DNA patents create a wide variety of possible benefits and harms for science and technology, the evidence we have at this point in time supports the conclusion that they will probably promote rather than hamper scientific discovery and innovation. However, since DNA patenting is a relatively recent phenomena and the biotechnology industry is in its infancy, we should continue to gather evidence about (...)
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  43.  28
    David B. Resnik (1997). Genetic Engineering and Social Justice. Social Theory and Practice 23 (3):427-448.
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  44.  11
    David B. Resnik (2007). The New EPA Regulations for Protecting Human Subjects: Haste Makes Waste. Hastings Center Report 37 (1):17-21.
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  45.  17
    David B. Resnik (2001). DNA Patents and Human Dignity. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 29 (2):152-165.
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  46.  4
    David B. Resnik (2015). The Misregulation of Research? Hastings Center Report 45 (6):49-50.
    Very few people who read Carl Schneider's The Censor's Hand: The Misregulation of Human-Subject Research will have a neutral opinion of his book. Schneider defends the radical thesis that the system of regulating human subjects research is not just broken but deeply misguided and therefore needs to be abolished. While some researchers who are frustrated with the current regime will welcome Schneider's scathing critiques of institutional review boards and the regulations they enforce, those who view the status quo as a (...)
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  47.  1
    David B. Resnik (1998). Industry‐Sponsored Research: Secrecy Versus Corporate Responsibility. Business and Society Review 99 (1):31-34.
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  48.  10
    David B. Resnik (2011). Reopening Old Divisions. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):19 - 21.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 19-21, June 2011.
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  49.  9
    David B. Resnik (2009). Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4:16.
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  50.  13
    David B. Resnik & Daniel B. Vorhaus (2006). Genetic Modification and Genetic Determinism. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1 (1):9.
    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science (...)
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