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David Degrazia [67]David Dion Degrazia [1]
  1.  171 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2002). Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
    This volume provides a general overview of the basic ethical and philosophical issues of animal rights. It asks questions such as: Do animals have moral rights? If so, what does this mean? What sorts of mental lives do animals have, and how should we understand welfare? By presenting models for understanding animals' moral status and rights, and examining their mental lives and welfare, David DeGrazia explores the implications for how we should treat animals in connection with our diet, zoos, and (...)
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  2.  120 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2009). Moral Vegetarianism From a Very Broad Basis. Journal of Moral Philosophy 6 (2):143-165.
    This paper defends a qualified version of moral vegetarianism. It defends a weak thesis and, more tentatively, a strong thesis, both from a very broad basis that assumes neither that animals have rights nor that they are entitled to equal consideration. The essay's only assumption about moral status, an assumption defended in the analysis of the wrongness of cruelty to animals, is that sentient animals have at least some moral status. One need not be a strong champion of animal protection, (...)
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  3.  95 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2010). Is It Wrong to Impose the Harms of Human Life? A Reply to Benatar. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (4):317-331.
    Might it be morally wrong to procreate? David Benatar answers affirmatively in Better Never to Have Been , arguing that coming into existence is always a great harm. I counter this view in several ways. First, I argue against Benatar’s asserted asymmetry between harm and benefit—which would support the claim that any amount of harm in a human life would make it not worth starting—while questioning the significance of his distinction between a life worth starting and one worth continuing. I (...)
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  4.  91 DLs
    David Degrazia (1999). The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (01):23-34.
    Few human uses of nonhuman animals (hereafter simply ) have incited as much controversy as the use of animals in biomedical research. The political exchanges over this issue tend to produce much more heat than light, as representatives of both biomedicine and the animal protection community accuse opponents of being and the like. However, a healthy number of individuals within these two communities offer the possibility of a more illuminating discussion of the ethics of animal research.
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  5.  79 DLs
    David DeGrazia & Andrew Rowan (1991). Pain, Suffering, and Anxiety in Animals and Humans. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (3).
    We attempt to bring the concepts of pain, suffering, and anxiety into sufficient focus to make them serviceable for empirical investigation. The common-sense view that many animals experience these phenomena is supported by empirical and philosophical arguments. We conclude, first, that pain, suffering, and anxiety are different conceptually and as phenomena, and should not be conflated. Second, suffering can be the result — or perhaps take the form — of a variety of states including pain, anxiety, fear, and boredom. Third, (...)
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  6.  78 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2008). Moral Status as a Matter of Degree? Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):181-198.
    Some people contend that fetuses have moral status but less than that of paradigm persons. Many people hold views implying that sentient animals have moral status but less than that of persons. These positions suggest that moral status admits of degrees. Does it? To address this question, we must first clarify what it means to speak of degrees of moral status. The paper begins by clarifying the more basic concept of moral status and presenting two models of degrees ofmoral status. (...)
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  7.  78 DLs
    David Degrazia (2005). Enhancement Technologies and Human Identity. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (3):261 – 283.
    As the President's Council on Bioethics emphasized in a recent report, rapid growth of biotechnologies creates increasingly many possibilities for enhancing human traits. This article addresses the claim that enhancement via biotechnology is inherently problematic for reasons pertaining to our identity. After clarifying the concept of enhancement, and providing a framework for understanding human identity, I examine the relationship between enhancement and identity. Then I investigate two identity-related challenges to biotechnological enhancements: (1) the charge of inauthenticity and (2) the charge (...)
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  8.  70 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2008). Single Payer Meets Managed Competition: The Case for Public Funding and Private Delivery. Hastings Center Report 38 (1):23-33.
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  9.  69 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1996). Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge University Press.
    This book distinguishes itself from much of the polemical literature on these issues by offering the most judicious and well-balanced account yet available of animals' moral standing, and related questions concerning their minds and welfare. Transcending jejune debates focused on utilitarianism versus rights, the book offers a fresh methodological approach with specific and constructive conclusions about our treatment of animals. David DeGrazia provides the most thorough discussion yet of whether equal consideration should be extended to animals' interests, and examines the (...)
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  10.  64 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2003). Common Morality, Coherence, and the Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (3):219-230.
    : The fifth edition of Beauchamp and Childress's Principles of Biomedical Ethics is distinguished by its emphatic embrace of common morality as the ultimate source of moral norms. This essay critically evaluates the fifth edition's discussion of common morality and, to a lesser extent, its treatment of coherence (both the model of ethical justification and the associated concept). It is argued that the book is overly accommodating of existing moral beliefs. The paper concludes with three suggestions for improving this leading (...)
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  11.  64 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2014). The Case for Moderate Gun Control. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (1).
    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call “moderate gun control.” The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this (...)
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  12.  59 DLs
    David Degrazia (2007). The Harm of Death, Time-Relative Interests, and Abortion. Philosophical Forum 38 (1):57–80.
    Regarding the sinking lifeboat scenario involving several human beings and a dog, nearly everyone agrees that it is right to sacrifice the dog. I suggest that the best explanation for this considered judgment, an explanation that appears to time-relative interests, contains a key insight about prudential value. This insight, I argue, also provides perhaps the most promising reply to the future-like-ours argument, which is widely regarded as the strongest moral argument against abortion. Providing a solution to a longstanding puzzle in (...)
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  13.  57 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2003). Carl Cohen and Tom Regan, The Animal Rights Debate:The Animal Rights Debate. Ethics 113 (3):692-695.
  14.  54 DLs
    David Degrazia (2007). Human-Animal Chimeras: Human Dignity, Moral Status, and Species Prejudice. Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):309–329.
  15.  53 DLs
    David Degrazia (1992). Moving Forward in Bioethical Theory: Theories, Cases, and Specified Principlism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (5):511-539.
    The field of bioethics has deployed different models of justification for particular moral judgments. The best known models are those of deductivism, casuistry, and principlism (under one, rather limited interpretation). Each of these models, however, has significant difficulties that are explored in this essay. An alternative model, suggested by the work of Henry Richardson, is presented. It is argued that specified principlism is the most promising model of justification in bioethics. Keywords: casuistry, deductivism, ethical theories, intuition principlism, specified principlism, specification (...)
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  16.  47 DLs
    David Degrazia (1999). Advance Directives, Dementia, and 'The Someone Else Problem'. Bioethics 13 (5):373-391.
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  17.  43 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2005). Human Identity and Bioethics. Cambridge University Press.
    When philosophers address personal identity, they usually explore numerical identity: what are the criteria for a person's continuing existence? When non-philosophers address personal identity, they often have in mind narrative identity: Which characteristics of a particular person are salient to her self-conception? This book develops accounts of both senses of identity, arguing that both are normatively important, and is unique in its exploration of a range of issues in bioethics through the lens of identity. Defending a biological view of our (...)
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  18.  40 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1997). Great Apes, Dolphins, and the Concept of Personhood. Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (3):301-320.
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  19.  38 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1993). Equal Consideration and Unequal Moral Status. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):17-31.
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  20.  36 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2007). Must We Have Full Moral Status Throughout Our Existence? A Reply to Alfonso Gomez-Lobo. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (4):297-310.
    : Those who are morally opposed to abortion generally make several pivotal assumptions. This paper focuses on the assumption that we have full moral status throughout our existence. Coupled with the assumption that we come into existence at conception, the assumption about moral status entails that all human fetuses have full moral status, including a right to life. Is the assumption about moral status correct? In addressing this question, I respond to several arguments advanced, in this journal and other venues, (...)
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  21.  35 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1996). Why the United States Should Adopt a Single-Payer System of Health Care Finance. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 6 (2):145-160.
    : Although nothing could be less fashionable today than talk of comprehensive health care reform, the major problems of American health care have not gone away. Only a radical change in the way the U.S. finances health care--specifically, a single-payer system--will permit the achievement of universal coverage while keeping costs reasonably under control. Evidence from other countries, especially Canada, suggests the promise of this approach. In defending the single-payer approach, the author identifies several political and cultural factors that make it (...)
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  22.  31 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2006). Regarding Animals: Mental Life, Moral Status, and Use in Biomedical Research: An Introduction to the Special Issue. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):277-284.
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  23.  29 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1994). Autonomous Action and Autonomy-Subverting Psychiatric Conditions. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3):279-297.
    The following theses are defended in this paper: (1) The concept of autonomous action is centrally relevant to understanding numerous psychiatric conditions, namely, conditions that subvert autonomy; (2) The details of an analysis of autonomous action matter; a vague or rough characterization is less illuminating; (3) A promising analysis for this purpose (and generally) is a version of the "multi-tier model". After opening with five vignettes, I begin the discussion by highlighting strengths and weaknesses of contributions by other authors who (...)
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  24.  28 DLs
    David Degrazia (2003). Identity, Killing, and the Boundaries of Our Existence. Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (4):413–442.
  25.  26 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1999). Persons, Organisms, and Death: A Philosophical Critique of the Higher-Brain Approach. Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):419-440.
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  26.  21 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2014). Handguns, Moral Rights, and Physical Security. Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (1).
    Guns occupy a major—sometimes terrible—place in contemporary American life. Do Americans have not only a legal right, but also a moral right, to own handguns? After introducing the topic, this paper examines what a moral right to private handgun ownership would amount to. It then elucidates the logical structure of the strongest argument in favor of such a right, an argument that appeals to physical security, before assessing its cogency and identifying two questionable assumptions. In light of persisting reasonable disagreement (...)
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  27.  21 DLs
    David Degrazia (1995). Value Theory and the Best Interests Standard. Bioethics 9 (1):50–61.
    The idea of a patient's best interests raises issues in prudential value theory–the study of what makes up an individual's ultimate good or well‐being. While this connection may strike a philosopher as obvious, the literature on the best interests standard reveals almost no engagement of recent work in value theory. There seems to be a growing sentiment among bioethicists that their work is independent of philosophical theorizing. Is this sentiment wrong in the present case? Does value theory make a significant (...)
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  28.  17 DLs
    Joanne Lynn & David Degrazia (1991). An Outcomes Model of Medical Decision Making. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).
    In the traditional fix-it model of medical decision making, the identified problem is typically characterized by a diagnosis that indicates a deviation from normalcy. When a medical problem is multifaceted and the available interventions are only partially effective, a broader vision of the health care endeavor is needed. What matters to the patient, and what should matter to the practitioner, is the patient's future possibilities. More specifically, what is important is the character of the alternative futures that the patient could (...)
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  29.  14 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2009). Review of Jennifer S. Hawkins, Ezekiel J. Emanuel (Eds.), Exploitation and Developing Countries: The Ethics of Clinical Research. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (2).
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  30.  14 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2014). Persons, Dolphins, and Human–Nonhuman Chimeras. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):17-18.
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  31.  13 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1994). Wittgenstein and the Mental Life of Animals. History of Philosophy Quarterly 11 (1):121 - 137.
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  32.  11 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1991). The Moral Status of Animals and Their Use in Research: A Philosophical Review. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 1 (1):48-70.
    In this article I offer a philosophical review of (1) leading theories of the moral status of animals, (2) pivotal theoretical issues on which more progress needs to be made, and (3) applications to the setting of animal research. Such an examination demonstrates, I believe, that the practical implications of leading theories converge far more than might be expected. In addition, I hope this review helps to clarify particularly troubling issues that remain so they can be treated adequately.
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  33.  11 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2014). On the Moral Status of Infants and the Cognitively Disabled: A Reply to Jaworska and Tannenbaum. Ethics 124 (3):543-556.
    Agnieszka Jaworska and Julie Tannenbaum address a central problem confronting efforts to understand moral status: the Problem of Nonparadigm Humans. The authors contend that human infants and cognitively disabled human beings whose capacities are comparable to those of dogs nevertheless have higher moral status. In this discussion, I will first reconstruct the authors’ assumptions and argumentative goals. In the article’s two major sections, I will examine the authors’ reasoning in pursuit of those goals and contend that the chain of argumentation (...)
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  34.  9 DLs
    David DeGrazia & Richard E. Thompson (2008). Debating Health Care Reform. Hastings Center Report 38 (4):8-9.
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  35.  9 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2011). Kaczor , Christopher . The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice .New York: Routledge, 2011. Pp. 246. $39.95 (Paper). [REVIEW] Ethics 121 (3):665-669.
  36.  9 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2009). Self-Awareness in Animals. In Robert W. Lurz (ed.), The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press 201--217.
  37.  8 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1991). Created From Animals. Review of Metaphysics 45 (2):428-430.
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  38.  7 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2006). Moral Status, Human Identity, and Early Embryos: A Critique of the President's Approach. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (1):49-57.
    Underlying President Bush's view regarding stemcell research and cloning are two assumptions: we originate at conception, and we have full moral status as soon as we originate. I will challenge both assumptions, argue that at least the second is mistaken, and conclude that the President's approach is unsustainable.
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  39.  6 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2012). Creation Ethics: Reproduction, Genetics, and Quality of Life. OUP Usa.
    Creation Ethics illuminates an array of issues in "reprogenetics" through the lens of moral philosophy. With novel frameworks for understanding prenatal moral status and human identity, David DeGrazia tackles the ethics of abortion and embryo research, genetic enhancement and prenatal genetic interventions, procreation and parenting, and obligations to future generations.
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  40.  6 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2015). Jeremy R. Garrett , The Ethics of Animal Research. Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (3):485-490.
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  41.  5 DLs
    David DeGrazia, Antole Anton, Diana C. Fabiano, Predrag Finci, Igor Primoratz, Oskar Gruenwald, Heather Johnson, Tibor R. Machan & Gerald Dworkin (1994). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 68 (2):79 - 93.
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  42.  5 DLs
    Tom L. Beauchamp, Baruch Brody, Marion Danis, Samia A. See Hurst, David Degrazia, Must We Have, Alber W. Dzur, Daniel Levin, Daniel M. Fox & Diane Gianelli (2007). By Author. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (4):405-407.
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  43.  5 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2012). Persons, Organisms, and Death. Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):419-440.
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  44.  5 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1991). Grounding a Right to Health Care in Self-Respect and Self-Esteem. Public Affairs Quarterly 5 (4):301-318.
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  45.  4 DLs
    David DeGrazia (forthcoming). The Definition of Death. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  46.  3 DLs
    David Degrazia (2000). Prozac, Enhancement, and Self‐Creation. Hastings Center Report 30 (2):34-40.
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  47.  3 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1991). The Distinction Between Equality in Moral Status and Deserving Equal Consideration. Between the Species 7 (2):4.
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  48.  3 DLs
    David DeGrazia (1997). Review Essay. Bioethics 11 (1):67–74.
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  49.  3 DLs
    David A. Buehler, Paul Carrick, David DeGrazia, Alan M. Goldberg, Richard N. Hill, Kenneth V. Iserson & Andrew Jameton (1999). Kenneth M. Boyd, MA, BD, Ph. D., is Senior Lecturer in Medical Ethics, Edinburgh University Medical School, Research Director of the Institute of Medical Ethics, and Associate Minister of the Church of St. John the Evangelist, Princes Street, Edinburgh, Scotland. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8:6-7.
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  50.  2 DLs
    David DeGrazia (2008). Meets: Managed Competition. Hastings Center Report 38 (1):23-33.
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1 — 50 / 67