Search results for 'Dcwtd S. Oderberg' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  73
    Dcwtd S. Oderberg, A Brief History of Cosmological Arguments.
    There is no such thing as the cosmological argument. Rather, there are several arguments that all proceed from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or Hnitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it. From them, and from general principles said to govern them, one is led to deduce or infer as highly probable the existence of a cause of the universe (as opposed, say, to a designer or a source of value). Such (...))
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  2.  22
    David S. Oderberg (2012). Disembodied Communication and Religious Experience: The Online Model. Philosophy and Technology 25 (3):381-397.
    Abstract The idea of disembodied communication has received widespread discussion in the context of the various kinds of online interaction. Electronic mail is probably the purest form of text-based communication where interlocutors are present in mind rather than body. I argue that this online model provides a way of understanding and defending the possibility of a certain kind of public religious experience, contra the many critics of the very coherence of genuine religious experience. I introduce the concept of ‘telic possibility’, (...)
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  3. David S. Oderberg (ed.) (2005). The Old New Logic: Essays on the Philosophy of Fred Sommers. A Bradford Book.
    Over the course of a career that has spanned more than fifty years, philosopher Fred Sommers has taken on the monumental task of reviving the development of Aristotelian logic after it was supplanted by the predicate logic of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell. The enormousness of Sommers's undertaking can be gauged by the fact that most philosophers had come to believe -- as David S. Oderberg writes in his preface -- that "Aristotelian logic was good but is now as (...)
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  4.  44
    David S. Oderberg (1987). Kripke and "Quus". Theoria 53 (2-3):115-20.
  5. David S. Oderberg (2011). Essence and Properties. Erkenntnis 75 (1):85-111.
    The distinction between the essence of an object and its properties has been obscured in contemporary discussion of essentialism. Locke held that the properties of an object are exclusively those features that ‘flow’ from its essence. Here he follows the Aristotelian theory, leaving aside Locke’s own scepticism about the knowability of essence. I defend the need to distinguish sharply between essence and properties, arguing that essence must be given by form and that properties flow from form. I give a precise (...)
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  6.  4
    David S. Oderberg (2015). All for the Good. Philosophical Investigations 38 (1-2):72-95.
    The Guise of the Good thesis has received much attention since Anscombe's brief defence in her book Intention. I approach it here from a less common perspective - indirectly, via a theory explaining how it is that moral behaviour is even possible. After setting out how morality requires the employment of a fundamental test, I argue that moral behaviour involves orientation toward the good. Immoral behaviour cannot, however, involve orientation to evil as such, given the theory of evil as privation. (...)
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  7.  93
    David S. Oderberg (2005). Hylemorphic Dualism. Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (2):70-99.
    To the extent that dualism is even taken to be a serious option in contemporary discussions of personal identity and the philosophy of mind, it is almost exclusively either Cartesian dualism or property dualism that is considered. The more traditional dualism defended by Aristotelians and Thomists, what I call hylemorphic dualism, has only received scattered attention. In this essay I set out the main lines of the hylemorphic dualist position, with particular reference to personal identity. First I argue that overemphasis (...)
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  8.  68
    David S. Oderberg (2009). The Non-Identity of the Categorical and the Dispositional. Analysis 69 (4):677-684.
    1. Consider a circle. It has both a radius and a circumference. There is obviously a real distinction between the properties having a radius and having a circumference. This is not because, when confining ourselves to circles,1 having a radius can ever exist apart from having a circumference. A real distinction does not depend on that. Descartes thought that a real distinction between x and y meant that x could exist without y or vice versa, if only by the power (...)
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  9. David S. Oderberg (2011). Morality, Religion, and Cosmic Justice. Philosophical Investigations 34 (2):189-213.
    There is a famous saying, whose origin is uncertain, that no good deed goes unpunished. Although not cited by him, this was no doubt the thought that inspired George Mavrodes’s (1986) well-known article “Religion and the Queerness of Morality.” In it he argued that although not logically incoherent, a certain sort of world in which moral obligations existed would be “absurd . . . a crazy world” (Mavrodes 1986, 581). The world he had in mind was what he called “Russellian,” (...)
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  10. David S. Oderberg, The Doctrine of Double Effect.
    Few moral theorists would disagree that the fundamental principle of morality – perhaps of practical rationality itself – is “ Do good and avoid evil. ” Yet along with such an uncontroversial principle comes a major question: Can you fulfi l both halves satisfactorily across your life as a moral agent? We all have opportunities to perform acts that do good with no accompanying evil, but these are not as common as we might think. We can avoid evil by doing (...)
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  11. David S. Oderberg (2003). The Beginning of Existence. International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):145-157.
    Central to recent debate over the Kalam Cosmological Argument, and over the origin of the universe in general, has been the issue of whether the universe began to exist and, if so, how this is to be understood. Adolf Grünbaum has used two cosmological models as a basis for arguing that the universe did not begin to exist according to either of them. Concentrating in this paper on the second (“open interval”) model, I argue that he is wrong on both (...)
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  12.  20
    David S. Oderberg (2013). The Morality of Reputation and the Judgment of Others. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (2):3-33.
    There is a tension between the reasonable desire not to be judgmental of other people’s behaviour or character, and the moral necessity of making negative judgments in some cases. I sketch a way in which we might accommodate both, via an evaluation of the good of reputation and the ethics of judgment of other people’s character and behaviour. I argue that a good reputation is a highly valuable good for its bearer, akin to a property right, and not to be (...)
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  13.  44
    D. S. Oderberg (2012). Graph Structuralism and its Discontents: Rejoinder to Shackel. Analysis 72 (1):94-98.
    Nicholas Shackel (2011) has proposed a number of arguments to save the Dipert–Bird model of physical reality from the sorts of unpalatable consequence I identified in Oderberg 2011. Some consequences, he thinks, are only apparent; others are real but palatable. In neither case does he seem to me to have deflected the concerns I raised, leaving graph structuralism on Dipert–Bird lines as problematic as ever.
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  14.  31
    David S. Oderberg (2012). Hume, the Occult, and the Substance of the School. Metaphysica 13 (2):155-174.
    I have not been able to locate any critique of Hume on substance by a Schoolman, at least in English, dating from Hume's period or shortly thereafter. I have, therefore, constructed my own critique as an exercise in ‘post facto history’. This is what a late eighteenth-century/early nineteenth-century Scholastic could, would, and should have said in response to Hume's attack on substance should they have been minded to do so. That no one did is somewhat mysterious. My critique is precisely (...)
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  15.  48
    David S. Oderberg, Bioethics Today.
    There can be no doubt that the public face of contemporary philosophy is the professional who goes by the name of “bioethicist.” Since the bioethics industry—which is what it is—sprang up in the 1970s, large numbers of professional philosophers have found it a congenial and remunerative way in which to make a reputation for themselves. A few general observations can be made about bioethicists. Some of them are well-meaning. For example, they are dedicated to the laudable notion that philosophy should (...)
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  16.  20
    David S. Oderberg (1986). Perceptual Relativism. Philosophia 16 (1):1-9.
    What follows axe the provisional conclusions reached in my thoughts about a frequently encountered, established argument for perceptual relativism. Rather than attempting the misleading task of dcfming in a sentence this doctrine - for it is so widely espoused by philosophers and Iaymcn alike that it deserves to bc called a doctrine — I shall instead elucidate it by thc common argu— ment for it that I wish to deal with, which Ishall call thc argument from differing perceptual apparatus, or (...)
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  17.  17
    David S. Oderberg, The Origination of a Human Being: Rejoinder to Persson.
    I rejoinder to Ingmar Persson’s reply to my paper ‘The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Some Arguments Revisited’. I argue that Persson, having conceded a large part of my case, has still misunderstood or not fully appreciated the force of that case when he claims the arguments I criticize still make it reasonable to think that a human being does not come into existence at fertilization. In addition, his appeal to the totipotency argument as remaining unscathed by my critique does (...)
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  18.  17
    David S. Oderberg, Science. Stem Cells. And Fraud.
    The world of science was stunned, and the hopes of many people dashed, when Professor Hwang Woo Suk of Seoul National University was recently found guilty of massive scientific fraud. Until January 2006 he was considered one of the world’s leading experts in cloning and stem cell research. Yet he was found by his own university to have fabricated all of the cell lines he claimed, in articles published in Science in 2004 and 2005, to have derived from cloned human (...)
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  19.  19
    David S. Oderberg (1989). Reply to Sprigge on Personal and Impersonal Identity. Mind 98 (January):129-133.
    In "personal and impersonal identity" ("mind", 1988) timothy sprigge discusses reasons for a general suspicion of trans-temporal identity, and rejects what he says are the usual grounds given against the suspicion, providing instead his own reasons for rejecting it. he concludes that trans-temporal identity, including personal identity, is as genuine a case of identity as what he considers to be the paradigmatic case of identity. in this brief note i take issue with some of the basic elements of sprigge's argument.
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  20.  8
    David S. Oderberg (2004). The Ethics of Co-Operation in Wrongdoing. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 54:203-227.
    There are a number of ways in which a person can share the guilt of another's wrongdoing. He might advise it, command it or consent to it. He might provoke it, praise it, flatter the wrongdoer, or conceal the wrong. He might stay silent when there is a clear duty to denounce the wrong or its perpetrator; or he might positively defend the wrong done. Finally, he might actively participate or cooperate in the wrongdoing. These various activities, apart from cooperation, (...)
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  21. David S. Oderberg (2007). Real Essentialism. Routledge.
    Contemporary essentialism and real essentialism -- Against modalism -- Reductionism : the illusory search for inner constitution -- Why real essentialism? -- Some varieties of anti-essentialism -- Empiricist anti-essentialism -- Quinean animadversions -- Popper : avoiding what-is questions -- Wittgenstein : the shadow of grammar -- The reality and knowability of essence -- Why essences are real -- The problem of the universal accidental -- An empirical test for essence? -- Coming to know essence -- Paradigms, stereotypes, and classification -- (...)
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  22.  9
    David S. Oderberg (forthcoming). Finality Revived: Powers and Intentionality. Synthese:1-39.
    Proponents of physical intentionality argue that the classic hallmarks of intentionality highlighted by Brentano are also found in purely physical powers. Critics worry that this idea is metaphysically obscure at best, and at worst leads to panpsychism or animism. I examine the debate in detail, finding both confusion and illumination in the physical intentionalist thesis. Analysing a number of the canonical features of intentionality, I show that they all point to one overarching phenomenon of which both the mental (...)
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  23.  85
    David S. Oderberg (2000). Applied Ethics: A Non-Consequentialist Approach. Blackwell.
    Most of these books, however, defend approaches that are consequentialist or specifically utilitarian in nature.
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  24.  85
    David S. Oderberg (2000). Moral Theory: A Non-Consequentialist Approach. Blackwell.
    While this is a welcome development, it is also true that the discipline has been dominated by one particular ethical theory, namely consequentialism.
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  25. David S. Oderberg (2009). Real Essentialism. Routledge.
    _Real Essentialism_ presents a comprehensive defence of neo-Aristotelian essentialism. Do objects have essences? Must they be the kinds of things they are in spite of the changes they undergo? Can we know what things are really like – can we define and classify reality? Many, if not most, philosophers doubt this, influenced by centuries of empiricism, and by the anti-essentialism of Wittgenstein, Quine, Popper, and other thinkers. _Real Essentialism_ reinvigorates the tradition of realist, essentialist metaphysics, defending the reality and knowability (...)
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  26.  34
    David S. Oderberg (1996). Coincidence Under a Sortal. Philosophical Review 105 (2):145-171.
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  27.  9
    Friedrich Beck, Carl Johnson, Franz von Kutschera, E. Jonathan Lowe, Uwe Meixner, David S. Oderberg, Ian J. Thompson & Henry Wellman (2008). Psycho-Physical Dualism Today: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Lexington Books.
    Until quite recently, mind-body dualism has been regarded with deep suspicion by both philosophers and scientists. This has largely been due to the widespread identification of dualism in general with one particular version of it: the interactionist substance dualism of Réné Descartes. This traditional form of dualism has, ever since its first formulation in the seventeenth century, attracted numerous philosophical objections and is now almost universally rejected in scientific circles as empirically inadequate. During the last few years, however, renewed attention (...)
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  28.  15
    David S. Oderberg (forthcoming). Divine Premotion. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-16.
    According to divine premotionism, God does not merely create and sustain the universe. He also moves all secondary causes to action as instruments without undermining their intrinsic causal efficacy. I explain and uphold the premotionist theory, which is the theory of St Thomas Aquinas and his most prominent exponents. I defend the premotionist interpretation of Aquinas in some textual detail, with particular reference to Suarez and to a recent paper by Louis Mancha. Critics, including Molinists and Suarezians, raise various objections (...)
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  29. David S. Oderberg (1989). Johnston on Human Beings. Journal of Philosophy 86 (March):137-41.
  30.  74
    David S. Oderberg (2004). Temporal Parts and the Possibility of Change. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (3):686–708.
    Things change. If anything counts as a datum of metaphysics, that does. Change occurs in many ways: it can be accidental or substantial; essential or non-essential; intrinsic or extrinsic; subjective (a change in the knower) or objective (a change in the known). Changes can be physical, spatial, quantitative, qualitative, natural, artefactual, conceptual, linguistic. Events are arguably best defined as changes in an object or objects. All change is from something and into something, and hence is at least a two-term relation, (...)
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  31.  80
    David S. Oderberg (2010). The World is Not an Asymmetric Graph. Analysis 71 (1):3-10.
    mix of the concrete and the abstract (if we include universals, laws, propositions and the like), but whichever of these is the case, the world is not purely abstract, as a formal structure is. One might claim, however, that the world is a structure1 in the sense that it instantiates a structure and is nothing else. In other words, all there is to the..
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  32.  74
    David S. Oderberg (2013). Editorial Introduction. Ratio 26 (1):1-2.
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  33. David S. Oderberg, The Illusion of Animal Rights.
    You might be wondering what an article 0n animal rights is doing in a journal devoted to the defence of human life. It turns out that the connections are closer than you may think. Grasping them is crucial to a proper understanding of just why innocent human life must be defended, of why the killing of even the tiniest, youngest member of the human species is an unspeakable crime. For it is by analysing the issue of whether animals have rights (...)
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  34. David S. Oderberg & T. D. J. Chappell (eds.) (2004). Human Values: New Essays on Ethics and Natural Law. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In recent decades, the revival of natural law theory in modern moral philosophy has been an exciting and important development. Human Values brings together an international group of moral philosophers who in various respects share the aims and ideals of natural law ethics. In their diverse ways, these authors make distinctive and original contributions to the continuing project of developing natural law ethics as a comprehensive treatment of modern ethical theory and practice.
     
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  35.  26
    David S. Oderberg (1997). Modal Properties, Moral Status, and Identity. Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (3):259–276.
  36.  4
    D. S. Oderberg (2011). The World is Not an Asymmetric Graph. Analysis 71 (1):3-10.
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  37.  10
    David S. Oderberg (1993). The Metaphysics of Identity Over Time. St. Martin's Press.
  38. David S. Oderberg (2000). Moral Theory: A Non-Consequentialist Approach. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Moral Theory_ sets out the basic system used to solve moral problems, the system that consequentialists deride as 'traditional morality'. The central concepts, principles and distinctions of traditional morality are explained and defended: rights; justice; the good; virtue; the intention/foresight distinction; the acts/omissions distinction; and, centrally, the fundamental value of human life.
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  39.  32
    David S. Oderberg (1999). On the Cardinality of the Cardinal Virtues. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 7 (3):305 – 322.
    This paper is a detailed study of what are traditionally called the cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, temperance and fortitude. I defend what I call the Cardinality Thesis, that the traditional four and no others are cardinal. I define cardinality in terms of three sub-theses, the first being that the cardinal virtues are jointly necessary for the possession of every other virtue, the second that each of the other virtues is a species of one of the four cardinals, and the third (...)
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  40.  24
    David S. Oderberg (2008). The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Some Arguments Revisited. Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (4):263-276.
    abstract This paper re-examines some well-known and commonly accepted arguments for the non-individuality of the embryo, due mainly to the work of John Harris. The first concerns the alleged non-differentiation of the embryoblast from the trophoblast. The second concerns monozygotic twinning and the relevance of the primitive streak. The third concerns the totipotency of the cells of the early embryo. I argue that on a proper analysis of both the empirical facts of embryological development, and the metaphysical importance or otherwise (...)
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  41.  74
    David S. Oderberg, Hylomorphism and Individuation.
    in J. Haldane (ed.), Mind, Metaphysics, and Value in the Thomistic and Analytical Traditions (University of Notre Dame Press, 2002: 125-42).
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  42.  59
    David S. Oderberg, Why I Am Not a Consequentialist.
    This is an introductory talk on why I am not a consequentialist. I am not going to go into the details of consequentialist theory, or to compare and contrast different versions of consequentialism. Nor am I going to present all the reasons I am not a consequentialist, let alone all the reasons why you should not be one. All I want to do is focus on some key problems that in my view, and the view of many others, make consequentialism (...)
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  43.  69
    David S. Oderberg, Instantaneous Change Without Instants.
    In this essay, I first set out the principles of change, paying particular attention to the need for a support for all changes and to the need for prime matter. I then discuss the nature of time, arguing that time is not actually composed of durationless instants but that instants can be understood as limits to an infinite process of potential division. I then give a definition of instants in terms of intervals and propose a way of modeling them. In (...)
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  44.  17
    David S. Oderberg (2014). Could There Be a Superhuman Species? Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (2):206-226.
    Transhumanism is the school of thought that advocates the use of technology to enhance the human species, to the point where some supporters consider that a new species altogether could arise. Even some critics think this at least a technological possibility. Some supporters also believe the emergence of a new, improved, superhuman species raises no special ethical questions. Through an examination of the metaphysics of species, and an analysis of the essence of the human species, I argue that the existence (...)
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  45.  33
    David S. Oderberg (1991). A Paradox About Authority. Analysis 51 (3):153 - 160.
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  46.  59
    David S. Oderberg, The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Oxford, Uk.
    This paper re-examines some well-known and commonly accepted arguments for the non-individuality of the embryo, due mainly to the work of John Harris. The first concerns the alleged non-differentiation of the embryoblast from the trophoblast. The second concerns monozygotic twinning and the relevance of the primitive streak. The third concerns the totipotency of the cells of the early embryo. I argue that on a proper analysis of both the empirical facts of embryological development, and the metaphysical importance or otherwise of (...)
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  47.  55
    David S. Oderberg (2008). Self-Love, Love of Neighbour, and Impartiality. In Samantha Vice & Nafsika Athanassoulis (eds.), The Moral Life. Palgrave Macmillan 58.
  48. David S. Oderberg (1997). Modal Properties, Moral Status, and Identity. Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (3):259-276.
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  49.  30
    David S. Oderberg (2001). J'accuse Peter Singer. The Philosophers' Magazine (13):48-49.
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  50.  29
    David S. Oderberg (2004). Conceivability and Possibility. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (4):587-589.
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