Search results for 'Definition' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Riccardo Strobino (2010). Avicenna on the Indemonstrability of Definition. Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 21:113-163.score: 24.0
    The paper provides some introductory comments and a preliminary translation of Avicenna’s Burhān, IV, 2. I shall first set the stage by outlining the structure of the book (sec. 1). I will then briefly introduce (sec. 2) a number of notions that are dealt with in the first treatise of the Burhān (e.g. definition, description). Burhān, IV, 2 is split into two parts: the first focuses mainly on Aristotle’s An. Post., B, 4, whereas the second covers some of the (...)
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  2. Thomas Kroedel (2012). Implicit Definition and the Application of Logic. Philosophical Studies 158 (1):131-148.score: 24.0
    The paper argues that the theory of Implicit Definition cannot give an account of knowledge of logical principles. According to this theory, the meanings of certain expressions are determined such that they make certain principles containing them true; this is supposed to explain our knowledge of the principles as derived from our knowledge of what the expressions mean. The paper argues that this explanation succeeds only if Implicit Definition can account for our understanding of the logical constants, and (...)
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  3. Ben Baker (2012). Boghossian's Implicit Definition Template. In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Philosophical and Formal Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Ontos-Verlag. 15.score: 24.0
    In Boghossian's 1997 paper, 'Analyticity' he presented an account of a prioriknowledge of basic logical principles as available by inference from knowledge of their role in determining the meaning of the logical constants by implicit definitiontogether with knowledge of the meanings so-determined that we possess through ourprivileged access to meaning. Some commentators (e.g. BonJour (1998), Glüer (2003),Jenkins (2008)) have objected that if the thesis of implicit definition on which he relieswere true, knowledge of the meaning of the constants would (...)
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  4. Adaeze Okoye (2009). Theorising Corporate Social Responsibility as an Essentially Contested Concept: Is a Definition Necessary? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):613 - 627.score: 24.0
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become indispensable in modern business discourse; yet identifying and defining what CSR means is open to contest. Although such contestation is not uncommon with concepts found in the social sciences, for CSR it presents some difficulty for theoretical and empirical analysis, especially with regards to verifying that diverse application of the concept is consistent or concomitant. On the other hand, it seems unfeasible that the diversity of issues addressed under the CSR umbrella would yield to (...)
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  5. David Charles (ed.) (2010). Definition in Greek Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Socrates' greatest philosophical contribution was to have initiated the search for definitions. In Definition in Greek Philosophy his views on definition are examined, together with those of his successors, including Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Galen, the Sceptics and Plotinus. Although definition was a major pre-occupation for many Greek philosophers, it has rarely been treated as a separate topic in its own right in recent years. This volume, which contains fourteen new essays by leading scholars, aims to reawaken (...)
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  6. Jorn Sonderholm (2008). Having Fun with the Periodic Table: A Counterexample to Rea's Definition of Pornography. Philosophia 36 (2):233-236.score: 24.0
    In a paper from 2001, Michael C. Rea considers the question of what pornography is. First, he examines a number of existing definitions of ‘pornography’ and after having rejected them all, he goes on to present his own preferred definition. In this short paper, I suggest a counterexample to Rea’s definition. In particular, I suggest that there is something that, on the one hand, is pornography according to Rea’s definition, but, on the other hand, is not something (...)
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  7. Richard Robinson (1950). Definition. Clarendon Press.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this book is to clarify the concept of definition and improve defining activities.
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  8. Alexander Matthews (1998). A Diagram of Definition: The Defining of Definition. Van Gorcum.score: 24.0
    Chapter I: The Problem Stated Section: The Paradox of Definition i) Here is the problem which is the main concern of this book. ...
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  9. James Robert Brown (1998). What is a Definition? Foundations of Science 3 (1):111-132.score: 24.0
    According to the standard view of definition, all defined terms are mere stipulations, based on a small set of primitive terms. After a brief review of the Hilbert-Frege debate, this paper goes on to challenge the standard view in a number of ways. Examples from graph theory, for example, suggest that some key definitions stem from the way graphs are presented diagramatically and do not fit the standard view. Lakatos's account is also discussed, since he provides further examples that (...)
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  10. Boudewijn de Bruin (2008). Wittgenstein on Circularity in the Frege-Russell Definition of Cardinal Number. Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):354-373.score: 24.0
    Several scholars have argued that Wittgenstein held the view that the notion of number is presupposed by the notion of one-one correlation, and that therefore Hume's principle is not a sound basis for a definition of number. I offer a new interpretation of the relevant fragments on philosophy of mathematics from Wittgenstein's Nachlass, showing that if different uses of ‘presupposition’ are understood in terms of de re and de dicto knowledge, Wittgenstein's argument against the Frege-Russell definition of number (...)
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  11. Simon Fokt (2013). Solving Wollheim's Dilemma: A Fix for the Institutional Definition of Art. Metaphilosophy 44 (5):640-654.score: 24.0
    Richard Wollheim threatened George Dickie's institutional definition of art with a dilemma which entailed that the theory is either redundant or incomprehensible and useless. This article modifies the definition to avoid such criticism. First, it shows that the definition's concept of the artworld is not vague when understood as a conventional system of beliefs and practices. Then, based on Gaut's cluster theory, it provides an account of reasons artworld members have to confer the status of a candidate (...)
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  12. Eric Reitan (2010). Defining Terrorism for Public Policy Purposes: The Group-Target Definition. Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (2):253-278.score: 24.0
    For the sake of developing and evaluating public policy decisions aimed at combating terrorism, we need a precise public definition of terrorism that distinguishes terrorism from other forms of violence. Ordinary usage does not provide a basis for such a definition, and so it must be stipulative. I propose essentially pragmatic criteria for developing such a stipulative public definition. After noting that definitions previously proposed in the philosophical literature are inadequate based on these criteria, I propose an (...)
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  13. John R. Sparks & Yue Pan (2010). Ethical Judgments in Business Ethics Research: Definition, and Research Agenda. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (3):405 - 418.score: 24.0
    Decades of empirical and theoretical research has produced an extensive literature on the ethical judgments construct. Given its importance to understanding people’s ethical choices, future research should explore the psychological processes that produce ethical judgments. In this paper, the authors discuss two steps needed to advance this effort. First, they note that the business ethics literature lacks a single, generally accepted definition of ethical judgments. After reviewing several extant definitions, the authors offer a definition of the construct and (...)
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  14. Marguerite Deslauriers (2007). Aristotle on Definition. Brill.score: 24.0
    This work examines Aristotle's discussions of definition in his logical works and the Metaphysics, and argues for the importance of definitions of simple ...
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  15. Seahwa Kim (2011). On Gilmore's Definition of 'Dead'. Philosophia 39 (1):105-110.score: 24.0
    Gilmore proposes a new definition of ‘dead’ in response to Fred Feldman’s earlier definition in terms of ‘lives’ and ‘dies.’ In this paper, I critically examine Gilmore’s new definition. First, I explain what his definition is and how it is an improvement upon Feldman’s definition. Second, I raise an objection to it by noting that it fails to rule out the possibility of a thing that dies without becoming dead.
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  16. Markus Heinimaa (2002). Incomprehensibility: The Role of the Concept in DSM-IV Definition of Schizophrenic Delusions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (3):291-295.score: 24.0
    In this paper the role of incomprehensibility in the conceptualization of the DSM-IV definition of delusion is discussed. According to the analysis, the conceptual dependence of DSM-IV definition of delusion on incomprehensibility is manifested in several ways and infested with ambiguity. Definition of bizarre delusions is contradictory and gives room for two incompatible readings. Also the definition of delusion manifests internal inconsistencies and its tendency to account for delusions in terms of misinterpretation is bound to miss (...)
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  17. Gerard Jagers op Akkerhuis (2011). Explaining the Origin of Life is Not Enough for a Definition of Life. Foundations of Science 16 (4):327-329.score: 24.0
    The comments focus on a presumed circular reasoning in the operator hierarchy and the necessity of understanding life’s origin for defining life. Below it is shown that its layered structure prevents the operator hierarchy from circular definitions. It is argued that the origin of life is an insufficient basis for a definition of life that includes multicellular and neural network organisms.
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  18. Abel Schejter & Joseph Agassi (1994). On the Definition of Life. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 25 (1):97 - 106.score: 24.0
    Schrödinger's definition of life needs a slight modification to absorb the criticism of it. It is the comparison of the entropy level of a system before and after a process which makes one view it as living: we consider the stability of the deviation from the probable a sign of life. This explains why we do not hesitate to consider as remnants of living systems skeletons and fossils anywhere and physical culture on any archeological site.
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  19. Ningzhong Shi (2010). Proposition, Definition and Inference in Ancient Chinese Philosophy. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):414-431.score: 24.0
    This article attempts to explore ancient Chinese philosophical thought by analyzing how pioneering Chinese thinkers made judgments and inferences, and compares it to ancient Greek philosophy. It first addresses the starting-point and the object of cognition in Chinese ancient philosophy, then analyses how early thinkers construed definition and proposition, and finally discusses how they made inferences on the basis of definition and proposition. It points out that categorization is an important methodology in ancient Chinese philosophy, and that rectification (...)
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  20. Dirk Greimann (1997). Die Idee Hinter Tarskis Definition Von Wahrheit. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 28 (1):121-158.score: 24.0
    The Idea behind Tarski's Definition of Truth. In Tarski's presentations of his truth-definition, the steps of the construction are not sufficiently explained. It is not clear, on what general strategy the construction is based, what the fundamental ideas are, how some crucial steps work, and especially how the transition from the definition of satisfaction to the definition of truth should be understood. The paper shows that the account given in the model-theoretic literature, which is supported by (...)
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  21. Robert T. Pennock (2012). Negotiating Boundaries in the Definition of Life: Wittgensteinian and Darwinian Insights on Resolving Conceptual Border Conflicts. [REVIEW] Synthese 185 (1):5-20.score: 24.0
    What is the definition of life? Artificial life environments provide an interesting test case for this classical question. Understanding what such systems can tell us about biological life requires negotiating the tricky conceptual boundary between virtual and real life forms. Drawing from Wittgenstein’s analysis of the concept of a game and a Darwinian insight about classification, I argue that classifying life involves both causal and pragmatic elements. Rather than searching for a single, sharp definition, these considerations suggest that (...)
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  22. Henry C. Theriault (2010). Genocidal Mutation and the Challenge of Definition. Metaphilosophy 41 (4):481-524.score: 24.0
    Abstract: The optimum definition of the term "genocide" has been hotly contested almost since the term was coined. Definitional boundaries determine which acts are covered and excluded and thus to a great extent which cases will benefit from international attention, intervention, prosecution, and reparation. The extensive legal, political, and scholarly discussions prior to this article have typically (1) assumed "genocide" to be a fixed social object and attempted to define it as precisely as possible or (2) assumed the need (...)
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  23. Douglas Walton (2008). Arguing From Definition to Verbal Classification: The Case of Redefining 'Planet' to Exclude Pluto. Informal Logic 28 (2):129-154.score: 24.0
    The recent redefinition of 'planet' that excludes Pluto as a planet led to controversy that provides a case study of how competing scientific definitions can be supported by characteristic types of evidence. An argumentation scheme from Hastings is used to analyze argument from verbal classification as a form of inference used in rational argumentation. The Toulmin-style format is compared to more recently developed ways of modeling such cases that stem from advances in argumentation technology in artificial intelligence. Using these tools, (...)
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  24. Håkan Salwén (forthcoming). The Swedish Research Council's Definition of 'Scientific Misconduct': A Critique. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-12.score: 24.0
    There is no consensus over the proper definition of ‘scientific misconduct.’ There are differences in opinion not only between countries but also between research institutions in the same country. This is unfortunate. Without a widely accepted definition it is difficult for scientists to adjust to new research milieux. This might hamper scientific innovation and make cooperation difficult. Furthermore, due to the potentially damaging consequences it is important to combat misconduct. But how frequent is it and what measures are (...)
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  25. Lisa M. Rasmussen (2014). The Case of Vipul Bhrigu and the Federal Definition of Research Misconduct. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):411-421.score: 24.0
    The Office of Research Integrity found in 2011 that Vipul Bhrigu, a postdoctoral researcher who sabotaged a colleague’s research materials, was guilty of misconduct. However, I argue that this judgment is ill-considered and sets a problematic precedent for future cases. I first discuss the current federal definition of research misconduct and representative cases of research misconduct. Then, because this case recalls a debate from the 1990s over what the definition of “research misconduct” ought to be, I briefly recapitulate (...)
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  26. Bhuvanesh Awasthi (2012). Issues and Perspectives in Meditation Research: In Search for a Definition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Despite the growing interest in the neurobiological correlates of meditation, most research has omitted to take into account the underlying philosophical aspects of meditation and its wider implications. This, in turn, is reflected in issues surrounding definition, study design and outcomes. Here, I highlight the often ignored but important aspect of definition in the existing scholarship on neuroscience and meditation practice. For a satisfactory account of a neuroscience of meditation, we must aim to retrieve an operational definition (...)
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  27. Laurynas Biekša (2009). Influence of the European Union Directive 2004/83/EC on the Interpretation of Definition of Refugee. Jurisprudence 117 (3):251-261.score: 24.0
    The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees embody fundamental provisions of refugee law. However, since the adoption of these documents the world has changed dramatically and the laws are not developing fast enough in order to catch up with dynamically changing contemporary situations. The application and interpretation of definition of a refugee was developed through traditional practice of Western states, which was influenced by two world wars and (...)
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  28. Laurynas Biekša (2011). Regulating Internal Protection Alternative as the Element of Refugee Definition in the EU Directive 2004/83/EC and its Recast Proposal (article in Lithuanian). [REVIEW] Jurisprudence 18 (3):871-882.score: 24.0
    Internal protection alternative (further—IPA) as the element of refugee definition is interpreted very differently in the practice of the State Parties to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (further—Geneva Convention). Thus it is important to regulate this concept clearly in the EC directive 2004/83/EB (further—Qualification directive) and its coming amendments. The definition of the IPA concept does not contain adequate criteria for assessing the level and effectiveness of protection required, in line (...)
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  29. Edward W. Averill (1958). Perception and Definition. Journal of Philosophy 55 (July):690-698.score: 21.0
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  30. Edouard Machery (2012). Why I Stopped Worrying About the Definition of Life... And Why You Should as Well. Synthese 185 (1):145-164.score: 21.0
    In several disciplines within science—evolutionary biology, molecular biology, astrobiology, synthetic biology, artificial life—and outside science—primarily ethics—efforts to define life have recently multiplied. However, no consensus has emerged. In this article, I argue that this is no accident. I propose a dilemma showing that the project of defining life is either impossible or pointless. The notion of life at stake in this project is either the folk concept of life or a scientific concept. In the former case, empirical evidence shows that (...)
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  31. Gail Fine (2010). Signification, Essence, and Meno's Paradox: A Reply to David Charles's 'Types of Definition in the Meno'. Phronesis 55 (2):125-152.score: 21.0
    According to David Charles, in the Meno Socrates fleetingly distinguishes the signification from the essence question, but, in the end, he conflates them. Doing so, Charles thinks, both leads to Meno's paradox and prevents Socrates from answering it satisfactorily. I argue that Socrates doesn't conflate the two questions, and that his reply to Meno's paradox is more satisfactory than Charles allows.
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  32. C. H. Whiteley (1956). Meaning and Ostensive Definition. Mind 65 (July):332-335.score: 21.0
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  33. Colin Allen & Marc Bekoff (1994). Intentionality, Social Play, and Definition. Biology and Philosophy 9 (1):63-74.score: 21.0
    Social play is naturally characterized in intentional terms. An evolutionary account of social play could help scientists to understand the evolution of cognition and intentionality. Alexander Rosenberg (1990) has argued that if play is characterized intentionally or functionally, it is not a behavioral phenotype suitable for evolutionary explanation. If he is right, his arguments would threaten many projects in cognitive ethology. We argue that Rosenberg's arguments are unsound and that intentionally and functionally characterized phenotypes are a proper domain for ethological (...)
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  34. Stirling A. Colgate & Hans Ziock (2011). A Definition of Information, the Arrow of Information, and its Relationship to Life. Complexity 16 (5):54-62.score: 21.0
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  35. Jonathan D. Nash & Andrew Newberg (2013). Toward a Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
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  36. Shi Ningzhong (2010). Proposition, Definition and Inference in Ancient Chinese Philosophy. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):414-431.score: 21.0
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  37. Simon Fokt (2014). Andina, Tiziana: The Philosophy of Art: The Question of Definition: From Hegel to Post-Dantian Theories, 2013. [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 54 (2):ayu018.score: 21.0
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  38. Kevin De Queiroz (1995). The Definition of Species and Clade Names: A Reply to Ghiselin. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):223-8.score: 21.0
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  39. Vera T. Kanareff & John T. Lanzetta (1960). Effects of Task Definition and Probability of Reinforcement Upon the Acquisition and Extinction of Imitative Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (6):340.score: 21.0
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  40. Zainal Abidin Baqir (1998). The Problem of Definition in Islamic Logic: A Study of Abū Al-Najā Al-Farīd's Kasr Al-Mantiq in Comparison with Ibn Taimiyyah's Kitāb Al-Radd Alā Al-Manṭiqiyyīn. International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization.score: 21.0
  41. Stephanie J. Bird & Alicia K. Dustira (2000). New Common Federal Definition of Research Misconduct in the United States. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):123-130.score: 21.0
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  42. S. Buetow & T. Kenealy (2000). Evidence‐Based Medicine: The Need for a New Definition. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (2):85-92.score: 21.0
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  43. Austen Clark (1983). Functionalism and the Definition of Theoretical Terms. Journal of Mind and Behavior 4:339-352.score: 21.0
  44. D. P. Gorskiĭ (1981). Definition: Logico-Methodological Problems. Progress.score: 21.0
     
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  45. C. C. Lienau (1934). Singer's Definition and the Generalized Law of the Geometric Mean in Numerical Estimation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 17 (2):189.score: 21.0
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  46. Catherine Rowett (2013). Plato, Wittgenstein and the Definition of Games. In Luigi Perissinotto & Begoña Ramón Cámara (eds.), Wittgenstein and Plato: connections, comparisons and contrasts. Palgrave. 196-219.score: 21.0
    In this paper I argue, controversially, that Plato's Meno anticipates Wittgenstein's critique of essentialism. Plato is usually read as an essentialist of the very kind that Wittgenstein was challenging, and the Meno in particular is usually taken as evidence that Plato thought that to know something you must be able to define it, and that if you can't define it you can't investigate any other questions on the topic. I suggest instead that Plato shows Socrates proposing such a position (much (...)
     
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  47. Alberto Vanzo (2010). Kant on the Nominal Definition of Truth. Kant-Studien 101 (2):147-166.score: 20.0
    Kant claims that the nominal definition of truth is: “Truth is the agreement of cognition with its object”. In this paper, I analyse the relevant features of Kant's theory of definition in order to explain the meaning of that claim and its consequences for the vexed question of whether Kant endorses or rejects a correspondence theory of truth. I conclude that Kant's claim implies neither that he holds, nor that he rejects, a correspondence theory of truth. Kant's claim (...)
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  48. Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter (2007). Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.score: 20.0
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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  49. Neil A. Manson (2000). There is No Adequate Definition of ?Fine-Tuned for Life? Inquiry 43 (3):341 – 351.score: 18.0
    The discovery that the universe is fine-tuned for life ? a discovery to which the phrase ?the anthropic principle? is often applied ? has prompted much extra-cosmic speculation by philosophers, theologians, and theoretical physicists. Such speculation is referred to as extra-cosmic because an inference is made to the existence either of one unobservable entity that is distinct from the cosmos and any of its parts (God) or of many such entities (multiple universes). In this article a case is mounted for (...)
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  50. S. Marc Cohen (1971). Socrates on the Definition of Piety. Journal of the History of Philosophy 9 (1):1-13.score: 18.0
    The central argument in the Euthyphro is the one Socrates advances against the definition of piety as "what all the gods love." The argument turns on establishing that a loved thing (philoumenon) is 1) a loved thing because it is loved (phileitai), not 2) loved because it is a loved thing. I suggest that this claim can be understood and found acceptable if we take "because" to be used equivocally in it. Despite the equivocation, Socrates' argument is valid, showing (...)
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