Search results for 'Degree of testability' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2013). Popper's Measure of Corroboration and P(H|B). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):axs029.score: 102.0
    This article shows that Popper’s measure of corroboration is inapplicable if, as Popper argued, the logical probability of synthetic universal statements is zero relative to any evidence that we might possess. It goes on to show that Popper’s definition of degree of testability, in terms of degree of logical content, suffers from a similar problem. 1 The Corroboration Function and P(h|b) 2 Degrees of Testability and P(h|b).
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  2. Robert Northcott (2013). Degree of Explanation. Synthese 190 (15):3087-3105.score: 84.0
    Partial explanations are everywhere. That is, explanations citing causes that explain some but not all of an effect are ubiquitous across science, and these in turn rely on the notion of degree of explanation. I argue that current accounts are seriously deficient. In particular, they do not incorporate adequately the way in which a cause’s explanatory importance varies with choice of explanandum. Using influential recent contrastive theories, I develop quantitative definitions that remedy this lacuna, and relate it to existing (...)
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  3. Tomoji Shogenji (2012). The Degree of Epistemic Justification and the Conjunction Fallacy. Synthese 184 (1):29-48.score: 84.0
    This paper describes a formal measure of epistemic justification motivated by the dual goal of cognition, which is to increase true beliefs and reduce false beliefs. From this perspective the degree of epistemic justification should not be the conditional probability of the proposition given the evidence, as it is commonly thought. It should be determined instead by the combination of the conditional probability and the prior probability. This is also true of the degree of incremental confirmation, and I (...)
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  4. Daniel Steel (2009). Testability and Ockham's Razor: How Formal and Statistical Learning Theory Converge in the New Riddle of Induction. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):471 - 489.score: 82.3
    Nelson Goodman’s new riddle of induction forcefully illustrates a challenge that must be confronted by any adequate theory of inductive inference: provide some basis for choosing among alternative hypotheses that fit past data but make divergent predictions. One response to this challenge is to distinguish among alternatives by means of some epistemically significant characteristic beyond fit with the data. Statistical learning theory takes this approach by showing how a concept similar to Popper’s notion of degrees of testability is linked (...)
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  5. Walker M. White & Denis R. Hirschfeldt (2002). Realizing Levels of the Hyperarithmetic Hierarchy as Degree Spectra of Relations on Computable Structures. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 43 (1):51-64.score: 75.0
    We construct a class of relations on computable structures whose degree spectra form natural classes of degrees. Given any computable ordinal and reducibility r stronger than or equal to m-reducibility, we show how to construct a structure with an intrinsically invariant relation whose degree spectrum consists of all nontrivial r-degrees. We extend this construction to show that can be replaced by either or.
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  6. James Fritzen (1974). Partial Repetition of Digit Strings with Increased Degree of Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (3):391.score: 73.0
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  7. Theresa S. Howe (1970). Joint Effects of Proactive and Retroactive Interference as a Function of Degree of Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):68.score: 73.0
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  8. Berndt Brehmer & Lars A. Lindberg (1973). Retention of Single-Cue Probability Learning Tasks as a Function of Cue Validity, Retention Interval, and Degree of Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):404.score: 73.0
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  9. Albert Erlebacher & E. James Archer (1961). Perseveration as a Function of Degree of Learning and Percentage of Reinforcement in Card Sorting. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (5):510.score: 73.0
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  10. Marjorie Powers & V. K. Kumar (1974). Scaling Words on Degree of Arousal and Short- and Long-Term Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):1039.score: 73.0
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  11. Keith A. Wollen, Robert A. Fox & Douglas H. Lowry (1970). Variations in Asymmetry as a Function of Degree of Forward Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):416.score: 73.0
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  12. G. K. Yacorzynski (1942). Degree of Effort: II. Quality of Work and Time of Completion of Performance Tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (4):342.score: 73.0
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  13. William L. Davis, Sam C. Brown & Elaine Ritchie (1968). Cue Selection as a Function of Degree of Learning and Response Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):323.score: 73.0
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  14. William Epstein & Cynthia A. Morgan-Paap (1974). The Effect of Level of Depth Processing and Degree of Informational Discrepancy on Adaptation to Uniocular Image Magnification. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):585.score: 73.0
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  15. John C. Jahnke (1961). Postrest Motor Learning Performance as a Function of Degree of Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (6):605.score: 73.0
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  16. Seong S. Lee & Robert M. Gagne (1970). Effects of Degree of Component Learnings on the Acquisition of a Complex Conceptual Rule. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):13.score: 73.0
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  17. C. Michael Levy & Dorothy D. Nevill (1974). B-A Learning as a Function of Degree of A-B Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (2):327.score: 73.0
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  18. Ronald H. Nowaczyk, John J. Shaughnessy & Joel Zimmerman (1974). Proactive Interference in Short-Term Retention and the Measurement of Degree of Learning: A New Technique. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (1):45.score: 73.0
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  19. Judith A. Petrich (1971). R-S Unlearning as a Function of Degree of S-R Unlearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):125.score: 73.0
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  20. Jack Richardson (1973). Effect of Speed of Learning and Degree of Learning on Cue Selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (2):396.score: 73.0
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  21. Benton J. Underwood, John J. Shaughnessy & Joel Zimmerman (1974). The Locus of the Retention Differences Associated with Degree of Hierarchical Conceptual Structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):850.score: 73.0
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  22. E. J. Gibson (1941). Retroactive Inhibition as a Function of Degree of Generalization Between Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (2):93.score: 69.0
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  23. James Youniss & Hans G. Furth (1965). Discrimination Shifts as a Function of Degree of Training in Children. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (4):424.score: 69.0
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  24. Gregor Betz (2013). Degrees of Justification, Bayes’ Rule, and Rationality. In Frank Zenker (ed.), Bayesian Argumentation – The Practical Side of Probability. Springer.score: 65.0
    Based on the theory of dialectical structures, I review the concept of degree of justification of a partial position a proponent may hold in a controversial debate. The formal concept of degree of justification dovetails with our pre-theoretic intuitions about a thesis' strength of justification. The central claim I'm going to defend in this paper maintains that degrees of justification, as defined within the theory of dialectical structures, correlate with a proponent position's verisimilitude. I vindicate this thesis with (...)
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  25. Brooke M. Andersen & Marcia J. Groszek (2009). Grigorieff Forcing on Uncountable Cardinals Does Not Add a Generic of Minimal Degree. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 50 (2):195-200.score: 64.3
    Grigorieff showed that forcing to add a subset of ω using partial functions with suitably chosen domains can add a generic real of minimal degree. We show that forcing with partial functions to add a subset of an uncountable κ without adding a real never adds a generic of minimal degree. This is in contrast to forcing using branching conditions, as shown by Brown and Groszek.
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  26. Douglas L. Nelson (1968). Paired-Associate Acquisition as a Function of Association Value, Degree, and Location of Similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):364.score: 63.0
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  27. Kris McDaniel (2013). Degrees of Being. Philosophers' Imprint 13 (19).score: 62.0
    Let us agree that everything that there is exists, and that to be, to be real, and to exist are one and the same. Does everything that there is exist to the same degree? Or do some things exist more than others? Are there gradations of being? I argue that some entities exist more than others. Moreover, many of the notions in play in contemporary metaphysical discourse, such as fundamentality, perfect naturalness, and grounding ought to be cashed out in (...)
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  28. Ekaterina B. Fokina, Iskander Kalimullin & Russell Miller (2010). Degrees of Categoricity of Computable Structures. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (1):51-67.score: 62.0
    Defining the degree of categoricity of a computable structure ${\mathcal{M}}$ to be the least degree d for which ${\mathcal{M}}$ is d-computably categorical, we investigate which Turing degrees can be realized as degrees of categoricity. We show that for all n, degrees d.c.e. in and above 0 (n) can be so realized, as can the degree 0 (ω).
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  29. Anne L. Buchanan (1995). The Doctor of Philosophy Degree: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press.score: 60.0
  30. James Richard Connor (1963). A Study of University of Virginia Doctor of Philosophy Degree Recipients, 1957-1963. [Charlottesville]Office of Institutional Analysis, University of Virginia.score: 60.0
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  31. John Angelidis & Nabil Ibrahim (2004). An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Degree of Religiousness Upon an Individual's Corporate Social Responsiveness Orientation. Journal of Business Ethics 51 (2):119-128.score: 59.0
    The recent failures and scandals involving many large businesses have highlighted the importance of corporate social responsibility as a fundamental factor in the soundness of the free market system. The corporate social responsiveness orientation of business executives plays an important role in corporate decision making since managers make important decisions on behalf of their corporations. This paper explores whether there is a relationship between an individual's degree of religiousness and his or her corporate social responsiveness (CSR) orientation. The results (...)
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  32. L. H. A. Bonnie, M. van Den Akker, B. van Steenkiste & R. Vos (2010). Degree of Solidarity with Lifestyle and Old Age Among Citizens in the Netherlands: Cross-Sectional Results From the Longitudinal SMILE Study. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):784-790.score: 59.0
    Background and aim With the increasing interest in lifestyle, health and consequences of unhealthy lifestyles for the healthcare system, a new kind of solidarity is gaining importance: lifestyle solidarity. While it might not seem fair to let other people pay for the costs arising from an unhealthy lifestyle, it does not seem fair either to punish people for their lifestyle. However, it is not clear how solidarity is assessed by people, when considering disease risks or lifestyle risks. The aim of (...)
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  33. Haim Judah & Saharon Shelah (1991). Forcing Minimal Degree of Constructibility. Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):769-782.score: 59.0
    In this paper we will study four forcing notions, two of them giving a minimal degree of constructibility. These constructions give answers to questions in [Ih].
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  34. Jeff Foss (1984). Reflections on Peirce's Concepts of Testability and the Economy of Research. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:28 - 39.score: 59.0
    Peirce measures the testability of scientific hypotheses by these oft-repeated standards: "money, time, energy, thought". His concept of testability is outlined and developed. It is found to be strikingly different, but not incompatible with, the positivist-empiricist concept of testability- in-principle. Peirce's concept of testability is, however, much richer than the received positivist-empiricist concept, and plays a larger, more central role in the logic of science, as Peirce sees it. In particular, Peirce's concept, in its role in (...)
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  35. Nicholas J. J. Smith (2009). Degree of Belief is Expected Truth Value. In Sebastiano Moruzzi & Richard Dietz (eds.), Cuts and Clouds. Vaguenesss, its Nature and its Logic. Oxford University Press.score: 56.0
    A number of authors have noted that vagueness engenders degrees of belief, but that these degrees of belief do not behave like subjective probabilities. So should we countenance two different kinds of degree of belief: the kind arising from vagueness, and the familiar kind arising from uncertainty, which obey the laws of probability? I argue that we cannot coherently countenance two different kinds of degree of belief. Instead, I present a framework in which there is a single notion (...)
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  36. James Hawthorne (2005). Degree-of-Belief and Degree-of-Support: Why Bayesians Need Both Notions. Mind 114 (454):277-320.score: 56.0
    I argue that Bayesians need two distinct notions of probability. We need the usual degree-of-belief notion that is central to the Bayesian account of rational decision. But Bayesians also need a separate notion of probability that represents the degree to which evidence supports hypotheses. Although degree-of-belief is well suited to the theory of rational decision, Bayesians have tried to apply it to the realm of hypothesis confirmation as well. This double duty leads to the problem of old (...)
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  37. C. Franklin Boyle (2001). Transduction and Degree of Grounding. Psycoloquy 12 (36).score: 56.0
    While I agree in general with Stevan Harnad's symbol grounding proposal, I do not believe "transduction" (or "analog process") PER SE is useful in distinguishing between what might best be described as different "degrees" of grounding and, hence, for determining whether a particular system might be capable of cognition. By 'degrees of grounding' I mean whether the effects of grounding go "all the way through" or not. Why is transduction limited in this regard? Because transduction is a physical process which (...)
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  38. Jacek Hawranek & Jan Zygmunt (1984). On the Degree of Complexity of Sentential Logics.II. An Example of the Logic with Semi-Negation. Studia Logica 43 (4):405 - 413.score: 56.0
    In this paper being a sequel to our [1] the logic with semi-negation is chosen as an example to elucidate some basic notions of the semantics for sentential calculi. E.g., there are shown some links between the Post number and the degree of complexity of a sentential logic, and it is proved that the degree of complexity of the sentential logic with semi-negation is 20. This is the first known example of a logic with such a degree (...)
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  39. Jacek Hawranek & Jan Zygmunt (1981). On the Degree of Complexity of Sentential Logics. A Couple of Examples. Studia Logica 40 (2):141 - 153.score: 56.0
    The first part of the paper is a reminder of fundamental results connected with the adequacy problem for sentential logics with respect to matrix semantics. One of the main notions associated with the problem, namely that of the degree of complexity of a sentential logic, is elucidated by a couple of examples in the second part of the paper. E.g., it is shown that the minimal logic of Johansson and some of its extensions have degree of complexity 2. (...)
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  40. P. R. Holland, Kochen–Specker -Obstruction for Position and Momentum Using a Single Degree of Freedom.score: 56.0
    The Bell–Kochen–Specker theorem shows that, in any Hilbert space of dimension of at least 3, it is impossible to assign noncontextual definite values to all observables in such a way that the quantum-mechanical predictions are reproduced. This leaves open the issue of what subsets of observables may be assigned definite values. Clifton has shown that, for a system of at least two continuous degrees of freedom, it is not possible to assign simultaneous noncontextual values to two coordinates and their conjugate (...)
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  41. Takashi Nakao, Tomoya Matsumoto, Machiko Morita, Daisuke Shimizu, Shinpei Yoshimura, Georg Northoff, Shigeru Morinobu, Yasumasa Okamoto & Shigeto Yamawaki (2013). The Degree of Early Life Stress Predicts Decreased Medial Prefrontal Activations and the Shift From Internally to Externally Guided Decision Making: An Exploratory NIRS Study During Resting State and Self-Oriented Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 56.0
    Early life stress (ELS), an important risk factor for psychopathology in mental disorders, is associated neuronally with decreased functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in the resting state. Moreover, it is linked with greater deactivation in DMN during a working memory task. Although DMN shows large amplitudes of very-low-frequency oscillations (VLFO) and strong involvement during self-oriented tasks, these features’ relation to ELS remains unclear. Therefore, our preliminary study investigated the relationship between ELS and the degree of frontal (...)
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  42. Daniel Steel, Mind Changes and Testability: How Formal and Statistical Learning Theory Converge in the New Riddle of Induction.score: 55.3
    This essay demonstrates a previously unnoticed connection between formal and statistical learning theory with regard to Nelson Goodman’s new riddle of induction. Discussions of Goodman’s riddle in formal learning theory explain how conjecturing “all green” before “all grue” can enhance efficient convergence to the truth, where efficiency is understood in terms of minimizing the maximum number of retractions or “mind changes.” Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) dimension is a central concept in statistical learning theory and is similar to Popper’s notion of degrees of (...)
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  43. Wei Xiong (2011). Implications of the Dutch Book: Following Ramsey's Axioms. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (2):334-344.score: 54.0
    The Dutch Book Argument shows that an agent will lose surely in a gamble (a Dutch Book is made) if his degrees of belief do not satisfy the laws of the probability. Yet a question arises here: What does the Dutch Book imply? This paper firstly argues that there exists a utility function following Ramsey’s axioms. And then, it explicates the properties of the utility function and degree of belief respectively. The properties show that coherence in partial beliefs for (...)
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  44. Robert Sullivan (2007). First Degree Murder and Complicity—Conditions for Parity of Culpability Between Principal and Accomplice. Criminal Law and Philosophy 1 (3):271-288.score: 54.0
    The Law Commission for England and Wales has published for consultation a proposal for an offence of first degree murder. A person found guilty of this offence whether as a principal or an accomplice will receive a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment. It is argued that the conditions for liability as an accomplice put forward by the Commission do not fulfil the Commission's aspiration for a "parity of culpability" between principals and accomplices. The discussion has general implications for the (...)
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  45. Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Sara Jahfari, Vanessa A. van Ast, Merel Kindt & Birte U. Forstmann (2011). Individual Differences in Heart Rate Variability Predict the Degree of Slowing During Response Inhibition and Initiation in the Presence of Emotional Stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 54.0
    Response inhibition is a hallmark of executive control and crucial to support flexible behaviour in a constantly changing environment. Recently, it has been shown that response inhibition is influenced by the presentation of emotional stimuli (Verbruggen and De Houwer, 2007). Healthy individuals typically differ in the degree to which they are able to regulate their emotional state, but it remains unknown whether individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) may alter the interplay between emotion and response inhibition. Here we address (...)
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  46. Marcin Morzycki (2009). Degree Modification of Gradable Nouns: Size Adjectives and Adnominal Degree Morphemes. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 17 (2):175-203.score: 54.0
    Degree readings of size adjectives, as in big stamp-collector, cannot be explained away as merely the consequence of some extragrammatical phenomenon. Rather, this paper proposes that they actually reflect the grammatical architecture of nominal gradability. Such readings are available only for size adjectives in attributive positions, and systematically only for adjectives that predicate bigness. These restrictions can be understood as part of a broader picture of gradable NPs in which adnominal degree morphemes—often overt—play a key role, analogous to (...)
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  47. René Van Den Brink, Peter Borm, Ruud Hendrickx & Guillermo Owen (2008). Characterizations of the Β- and the Degree Network Power Measure. Theory and Decision 64 (4):519-536.score: 54.0
    A symmetric network consists of a set of positions and a set of bilateral links between these positions. For every symmetric network we define a cooperative transferable utility game that measures the “power” of each coalition of positions in the network. Applying the Shapley value to this game yields a network power measure, the β-measure, which reflects the power of the individual positions in the network. Applying this power distribution method iteratively yields a limit distribution, which turns out to be (...)
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  48. Harold T. Hodes (1981). Upper Bounds on Locally Countable Admissible Initial Segments of a Turing Degree Hierarchy. Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (4):753-760.score: 53.0
    Where AR is the set of arithmetic Turing degrees, 0 (ω ) is the least member of { $\mathbf{\alpha}^{(2)}|\mathbf{a}$ is an upper bound on AR}. This situation is quite different if we examine HYP, the set of hyperarithmetic degrees. We shall prove (Corollary 1) that there is an a, an upper bound on HYP, whose hyperjump is the degree of Kleene's O. This paper generalizes this example, using an iteration of the jump operation into the transfinite which is based (...)
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  49. Rachel Epstein (2008). Prime Models of Computably Enumerable Degree. Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (4):1373-1388.score: 53.0
    We examine the computably enumerable (c.e.) degrees of prime models of complete atomic decidable (CAD) theories. A structure has degree d if d is the degree of its elementary diagram. We show that if a CAD theory T has a prime model of c.e. degree c, then T has a prime model of strictly lower c.e. degree b, where, in addition, b is low (b' = 0'). This extends Csima's result that every CAD theory has a (...)
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  50. Barbara F. Csima (2004). Degree Spectra of Prime Models. Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (2):430 - 442.score: 51.7
    We consider the Turing degrees of prime models of complete decidable theories. In particular we show that every complete decidable atomic theory has a prime model whose elementary diagram is low. We combine the construction used in the proof with other constructions to show that complete decidable atomic theories have low prime models with added properties. If we have a complete decidable atomic theory with all types of the theory computable, we show that for every degree d with 0 (...)
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