Search results for 'Derivation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jacqueline Mariña (1998). Kant's Derivation of the Formula of the Categorical Imperative: How to Get It Right. Kant-Studien 89 (2):167-178.score: 24.0
    This paper explores the charge by Bruce Aune and Allen Wood that a gap exists in Kant's derivation of the Categorical Imperative. I show that properly understood, no such gap exists, and that the deduction of the Categorical Imperative is successful as it stands.
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  2. Edmund Wall (2011). Problems with Searle's Derivation? Philosophia 39 (3):571-580.score: 24.0
    In his paper, How to Derive ‘Ought’ From ‘Is,’ John R. Searle made a valiant attempt to derive an ought-statement from purely descriptive statements. In a recent issue of Philosophia, Scott Hill has offered criticisms of that proposed derivation. I argue that Hill has not established any errors in Searle's proposed derivation.
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  3. Jiří Raclavský & Petr Kuchyňka (2011). Conceptual and Derivation Systems. Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (1-2):159-174.score: 24.0
    Pavel Materna proposed valuable explications of concept and conceptual system. After their introduction, we contrast conceptual systems with (a novel notion of) derivation systems. Derivation systems differ from conceptual systems especially in including derivation rules. This enables us to show close connections among the realms of objects, their concepts, and reasoning with concepts.
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  4. Edmund Wall (2008). Searle's Derivation, Natural Law, and Moral Relativism. Philosophia 36 (2):237-249.score: 24.0
    Some philosophers have maintained that even if John R. Searle’s attempted derivation of an evaluative proposition from purely descriptive premises is successful, moral ought would not have been derived. Searle agrees. I will argue that if Searle has successfully derived “ought,” then, based on various approaches taken towards the content of “morality,” this is moral ought. I will also trace out some of the benefits of a successful derivation of moral ought in relation to natural law ethics. I (...)
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  5. Yde Venema (1993). Derivation Rules as Anti-Axioms in Modal Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (3):1003-1034.score: 24.0
    We discuss a `negative' way of defining frame classes in (multi)modal logic, and address the question of whether these classes can be axiomatized by derivation rules, the `non-ξ rules', styled after Gabbay's Irreflexivity Rule. The main result of this paper is a metatheorem on completeness, of the following kind: If Λ is a derivation system having a set of axioms that are special Sahlqvist formulas and Λ+ is the extension of Λ with a set of non-ξ rules, then (...)
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  6. Shan Gao, Derivation of the Schrödinger Equation.score: 18.0
    It is shown that the heuristic "derivation" of the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics textbooks can be turned into a real derivation by resorting to spacetime translation invariance and relativistic invariance.
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  7. Joel J. Kupperman (2002). A Messy Derivation of the Categorical Imperative. Philosophy 77 (4):485-502.score: 18.0
    Here are two widespread responses to Kant's categorical imperative. On one hand, one might note the absence of detailed rational derivation. On the other hand, even someone who maintains some skepticism is likely to have a sense that (nevertheless) there is something to Kant's central ideas. The recommended solution is analysis of elements of the categorical imperative. Their appeal turns out to have different sources. One aspect of the first formulation rests on the logic of normative utterances. But others (...)
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  8. R. K. Gupta (1997). Notes on Kant's Derivation of the Various Formulae of the Categorical Imperative. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (3):383 – 396.score: 18.0
    This article is concerned with examining Kant's derivation of the various formulae of his Categorical Imperative. It is in agreement with Paton in maintaining that Kant actually mentions five formulae. But it is not in agreement with him, and some others, in maintaining that they are ultimately reducible to three. Nor is it in agreement with those who maintain that they are ultimately reducible to just one. According to the present article, they are ultimately reducible to two: that about (...)
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  9. John P. Burgess (2013). On a Derivation of the Necessity of Identity. Synthese:1-19.score: 18.0
    The source, status, and significance of the derivation of the necessity of identity at the beginning of Kripke’s lecture “Identity and Necessity” is discussed from a logical, philosophical, and historical point of view.
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  10. K. Kong Wan & R. H. Fountain (1996). Quantization by Parts, Self-Adjoint Extensions, and a Novel Derivation of the Josephson Equation in Superconductivity. Foundations of Physics 26 (9):1165-1199.score: 18.0
    There has been a lot of interest in generalizing orthodox quantum mechanics to include POV measures as observables, namely as unsharp obserrables. Such POV measures are related to symmetric operators. We have argued recently that only maximal symmetric operators should describe observables.1 This generalization to maximal symmetric operators has many physical applications. One application is in the area of quantization. We shall discuss a scheme, to he called quantization by parts,which can systematically deal with what may be called quantum circuits. (...)
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  11. Gregg Osborne (2007). Does Kant Refute Hume's Derivation of the Concept of Cause? Journal of Philosophical Research 32:293-318.score: 18.0
    Kant has long been held in some quarters to undermine Hume’s derivation of the concept of cause. At least part of what Kant aims to show in his second analogy, according to adherents of this view, is that our putative awareness of objective succession—and thus of individual events—depends on our already having it. The aim of this paper is fourfold. First, to make clear that there are strong textual grounds for the claim that Kant aims to show this. Second, (...)
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  12. Andre Gsponer & Jean-Pierre Hurni (2005). Cornelius Lanczos's Derivation of the Usual Action Integral of Classical Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 35 (5):865-880.score: 18.0
    The usual action integral of classical electrodynamics is derived starting from Lanczos’s electrodynamics – a pure field theory in which charged particles are identified with singularities of the homogeneous Maxwell’s equations interpreted as a generalization of the Cauchy–Riemann regularity conditions from complex to biquaternion functions of four complex variables. It is shown that contrary to the usual theory based on the inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations, in which charged particles are identified with the sources, there is no divergence in the self-interaction so (...)
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  13. Francisco Flores (1998). Einstein's 1935 Derivation of E=Mc. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 29 (2):223-243.score: 18.0
    Einstein's 1935 derivation of mass-energy equivalence is philosophically important because it contains both a criticism of purported demonstrations that proceed by analogy and strong motivations for the definitions of the 'new' dynamical quantities (viz relativistic momentum, relativistic kinetic energy and relativistic energy). In this paper, I argue that Einstein's criticism and insights are still relevant today by showing how his derivation goes beyond Friedman's demonstration of this result in his Foundations of Spacetime Theories. Along the way, I isolate (...)
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  14. Enrico Santamato & Francesco De Martini (2013). Derivation of the Dirac Equation by Conformal Differential Geometry. Foundations of Physics 43 (5):631-641.score: 18.0
    A rigorous ab initio derivation of the (square of) Dirac’s equation for a particle with spin is presented. The Lagrangian of the classical relativistic spherical top is modified so to render it invariant with respect conformal changes of the metric of the top configuration space. The conformal invariance is achieved by replacing the particle mass in the Lagrangian with the conformal Weyl scalar curvature. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the particle is found to be linearized, exactly and in closed form, (...)
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  15. Harold Simmons (2000). Derivation and Computation: Taking the Curry-Howard Correspondence Seriously. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    Mathematics is about proofs, that is the derivation of correct statements; and calculations, that is the production of results according to well-defined sets of rules. The two notions are intimately related. Proofs can involve calculations, and the algorithm underlying a calculation should be proved correct. The aim of the author is to explore this relationship. The book itself forms an introduction to simple type theory. Starting from the familiar propositional calculus the author develops the central idea of an applied (...)
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  16. Edmund A. DiMarzio (1977). A Unified Theory of Matter. II. Derivation of the Fundamental Physical Law. Foundations of Physics 7 (11-12):885-905.score: 18.0
    The equation for the fundamental field quantity ϱ is obtained. It is Div $\rho ^\mu (\Omega _1 ) = \operatorname{h} \int {[\rho _\mu (\Omega _1 ),\rho ^\mu (\Omega _2 )]_ - \operatorname{d} \Omega _2 } $ ,where h is an arbitrary function oft andr, and [,]− is the commutator. The derivation requires the following hypotheses:(1) All of physical reality is completely described by the field ϱ.(2) Relativistic covariance of the equations governing ϱ.(3) Principle of continguous action.(4) Conservation of total (...)
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  17. Andreas Weiermann (1998). Bounding Derivation Lengths with Functions From the Slow Growing Hierarchy. Archive for Mathematical Logic 37 (5-6):427-441.score: 18.0
    Let $R$ be a (finite) rewrite system over a (finite) signature. Let $\succ$ be a strict well-founded termination ordering on the set of terms in question so that the rules of $R$ are reducing under $\succ$ . Then $R$ is terminating. In this article it is proved for a certain class of far reaching termination orderings (of order type reaching up to the first subrecursively inaccessible ordinal, i.e. the proof-theoretic ordinal of $ID_{<\omega}$ ) that – under some reasonable assumptions which (...)
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  18. Shan Gao, Derivation of the Meaning of the Wave Function.score: 16.0
    We show that the physical meaning of the wave function can be derived based on the established parts of quantum mechanics. It turns out that the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and its modulus square determines the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  19. T. M. Nieuwenhuizen (2011). Is the Contextuality Loophole Fatal for the Derivation of Bell Inequalities? Foundations of Physics 41 (3):580-591.score: 16.0
    It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism, because absence of contextuality prevents the Bell inequalities to be derived from local realistic models.
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  20. Michael Moehler (2012). A Hobbesian Derivation of the Principle of Universalization. Philosophical Studies 158 (1):83-107.score: 16.0
    In this article, I derive a weak version of Kant's categorical imperative within an informal game-theoretic framework. More specifically, I argue that Hobbesian agents would choose what I call the weak principle of universalization, if they had to decide on a rule of conflict resolution in an idealized but empirically defensible hypothetical decision situation. The discussion clarifies (i) the rationality requirements imposed on agents, (ii) the empirical conditions assumed to warrant the conclusion, and (iii) the political institutions that are necessary (...)
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  21. Harvey R. Brown & Adolfo Maia Jr (1993). Light-Speed Constancy Versus Light-Speed Invariance in the Derivation of Relativistic Kinematics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):381-407.score: 16.0
    It is still perhaps not widely appreciated that in 1905 Einstein used his postulate concerning the ‘constancy’ of the light-speed in the ‘resting’ frame, in conjunction with the principle of relativity, to derive numerical light-speed invariance. Now a ‘weak’ version of the relativity principle (or, alternatively, appeal to the Michelson—Morley experiment) leads from Einstein's light postulate to a condition that we call universal light-speed constancy. which is weaker than light-speed invariance. It follows from earlier independent investigations (Robertson [1949]; Steigler [1952]; (...)
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  22. P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden, C. Ciubotariu, W. T. Coffey, L. B. Crowell, G. J. Evans, M. W. Evans, R. Flower, A. Labounsky, B. Lehnert, P. R. Molnár, S. Roy & J. P. Vigier (2000). Operator Derivation of the Gauge-Invariant Proca and Lehnert Equations; Elimination of the Lorenz Condition. Foundations of Physics 30 (7):1123-1129.score: 16.0
    Using covariant derivatives and the operator definitions of quantum mechanics, gauge invariant Proca and Lehnert equations are derived and the Lorenz condition is eliminated in U(1) invariant electrodynamics. It is shown that the structure of the gauge invariant Lehnert equation is the same in an O(3) invariant theory of electrodynamics.
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  23. Simon Saunders, Derivation of the Born Rule From Operational Assumptions.score: 16.0
    The Born rule is derived from operational assumptions, together with assumptions of quantum mechanics that concern only the deterministic development of the state. Unlike Gleason’s theorem, the argument applies even if probabilities are de…ned for only a single resolution of the identity, so it applies to a variety of foundational approaches to quantum mechanics. It also provides a probability rule for state spaces that are not Hilbert spaces.
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  24. Helmut Tributsch (2006). Quantum Paradoxes, Time, and Derivation of Thermodynamic Law: Opportunities From Change of Energy Paradigm. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (2):287 - 306.score: 16.0
    Well known quantum and time paradoxes, and the difficulty to derive the second law of thermodynamics, are proposed to be the result of our historically grown paradigm for energy: it is just there, the capacity to do work, not directly related to change. When the asymmetric nature of energy is considered, as well as the involvement of energy turnover in any change, so that energy can be understood as fundamentally "dynamic", and time-oriented (new paradigm), these paradoxes and problems dissolve. The (...)
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  25. Daniel I. Fivel (2012). Derivation of the Rules of Quantum Mechanics From Information-Theoretic Axioms. Foundations of Physics 42 (2):291-318.score: 16.0
    Conventional quantum mechanics with a complex Hilbert space and the Born Rule is derived from five axioms describing experimentally observable properties of probability distributions for the outcome of measurements. Axioms I, II, III are common to quantum mechanics and hidden variable theories. Axiom IV recognizes a phenomenon, first noted by von Neumann (in Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1955) and independently by Turing (Teuscher and Hofstadter, Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker, Springer, Berlin, (...)
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  26. Gerd Graßhoff, Samuel Portmann & and Adrian Wüthrich (2005). Minimal Assumption Derivation of a Bell-Type Inequality. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):663 - 680.score: 16.0
    Institute of Theoretical Physics, Exact Sciences Sidlerstrasse 5, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern Switzerland portmann{at}itp.unibe.ch' + u + '@' + d + ''//--> awuethr{at}itp.unibe.ch' + u + '@' + d + ''//--> John Bell showed that a big class of local hidden-variable models stands in conflict with quantum mechanics and experiment. Recently, there were suggestions that empirically adequate hidden-variable models might exist which presuppose a weaker notion of local causality. We will show that a Bell-type inequality can be derived also (...)
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  27. Markus Michelbrink (2006). A Buchholz Derivation System for the Ordinal Analysis of KP + Π₃-Reflection. Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (4):1237 - 1283.score: 16.0
    In this paper we introduce a notation system for the infinitary derivations occurring in the ordinal analysis of KP + Π₃-Reflection due to Michael Rathjen. This allows a finitary ordinal analysis of KP + Π₃-Reflection. The method used is an extension of techniques developed by Wilfried Buchholz, namely operator controlled notation systems for RS∞-derivations. Similarly to Buchholz we obtain a characterisation of the provably recursive functions of KP + Π₃-Reflection as <-recursive functions where < is the ordering on Rathjen's ordinal (...)
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  28. Danny Frederick (2013). Hoppe’s Derivation of Self-Ownership From Argumentation: Analysis and Critique. Reason Papers 35 (1):92-106.score: 16.0
    Hans-Hermann Hoppe contends that the fact that a person has the capacity to argue entails that she has the moral right of exclusive control over her own body. Critics of Hoppe’s argument do not appear to have pinpointed its flaws. I expose the logical structure of Hoppe’s argument, distinguishing its pragmatic-contradiction and its mutual-recognition components. I provide three counterexamples to show that Hoppe’s mutual-recognition argument is invalid and I argue that the truth that appears to motivate the argument is simply (...)
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  29. Bartosz Więckowski (2011). Rules for Subatomic Derivation. Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (2):219-236.score: 16.0
    In proof-theoretic semantics the meaning of an atomic sentence is usually determined by a set of derivations in an atomic system which contain that sentence as a conclusion (see, in particular, Prawitz, 1971, 1973). The paper critically discusses this standard approach and suggests an alternative account which proceeds in terms of subatomic introduction and elimination rules for atomic sentences. A simple subatomic normal form theorem by which this account of the semantics of atomic sentences and the terms from which they (...)
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  30. G. J. Boender, A. A. De Koeijer & E. A. J. Fischer (2012). Derivation of a Floquet Formalism Within a Natural Framework. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (3):303-317.score: 16.0
    Many biological systems experience a periodic environment. Floquet theory is a mathematical tool to deal with such time periodic systems. It is not often applied in biology, because linkage between the mathematics and the biology is not available. To create this linkage, we derive the Floquet theory for natural systems. We construct a framework, where the rotation of the Earth is causing the periodicity. Within this framework the angular momentum operator is introduced to describe the Earth’s rotation. The Fourier operators (...)
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  31. A. Kovach (1997). Discussion. Deflationism and the Derivation Game. Mind 106 (423):575-579.score: 16.0
    The deflationary theory of truth for propositions aims to explain everything that needs to be explained about truth of propositions by reference to the propositional truth schema, _it is true that p, _if and only if p. Previous formulations of the theory, e.g., Horwich's _minimalism, have failed to provide adequate explanatory derivations of general facts about truth. Matthew McGrath's _weak deflationism attempts to correct this failure. It is shown that weak deflationism does not provide adequate derivations of general facts about (...)
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  32. B. H. Lavenda (1987). Classical Variational Derivation and Physical Interpretation of Dirac's Equation. Foundations of Physics 17 (3):221-237.score: 16.0
    A simple random walk model has been shown by Gaveauet al. to give rise to the Klein-Gordon equation under analytic continuation. This absolutely most probable path implies that the components of the Dirac wave function have a common phase; the influence of spin on the motion is neglected. There is a nonclassical path of relative maximum likelihood which satisfies the constraint that the probability density coincide with the quantum mechanical definition. In three space dimensions, and in the presence of electromagnetic (...)
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  33. W. M. De Muynck & J. P. H. W. Van den Eijnde (1984). A Derivation of Local Commutativity From Macrocausality Using a Quantum Mechanical Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 14 (2):111-146.score: 16.0
    A theory of the joint measurement of quantum mechanical observables is generalized in order to make it applicable to the measurement of the local observables of field theory. Subsequently, the property of local commutativity, which is usually introduced as a postulate, is derived by means of the theory of measurement from a requirement of mutual nondisturbance, which, for local observables performed at a spacelike distance from each other, is interpreted as a requirement of macrocausality. Alternative attempts at establishing a deductive (...)
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  34. G. Grasshoff (2005). Minimal Assumption Derivation of a Bell-Type Inequality. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):663-680.score: 16.0
    John Bell showed that a big class of local hidden-variable models stands in conflict with quantum mechanics and experiment. Recently, there were suggestions that empirically adequate hidden-variable models might exist which presuppose a weaker notion of local causality. We will show that a Bell-type inequality can be derived also from these weaker assumptions. IntroductionThe EPR-Bohm experimentLocal causalityBell's inequality from separate common causes4.1 A weak screening-off principle4.2 Perfect correlation and ‘determinism’4.3 A minimal theory for spins4.4 No conspiracyDiscussion.
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  35. Gerd Graßhoff, Samuel Portmann & Adrian Wüthrich (2005). Minimal Assumption Derivation of a Bell-Type Inequality. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):663 - 680.score: 16.0
    John Bell showed that a big class of local hidden-variable models stands in conflict with quantum mechanics and experiment. Recently, there were suggestions that empirically adequate hidden-variable models might exist which presuppose a weaker notion of local causality. We will show that a Bell-type inequality can be derived also from these weaker assumptions.
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  36. David Copp (2008). 'Ought' Implies 'Can' and the Derivation of the Principle of Alternate Possibilities. Analysis 68 (297):67–75.score: 15.0
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  37. H. Dehnen & D. Ebner (1996). Derivation of the Principle of Equivalence for Antimatter. Foundations of Physics 26 (1):105-115.score: 15.0
    In view of the announcement of some experiments testing the principle of equivalence for antimatter, we give here stringent arguments, based on elementary and well-established physical principles, that these experiments will turn out negative. The question is important because disproving the principle of equivalence (equality of inertial and gravitating mass) would entail a breakdown of general relativity. (There is only one type of geodesics and there are no antigeodesics for antimatter).
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  38. James L. Park & William Band (1977). Rigorous Information-Theoretic Derivation of Quantum-Statistical Thermodynamics. I. Foundations of Physics 7 (3-4):233-244.score: 15.0
    In previous publications we have criticized the usual application of information theory to quantal situations and proposed a new version of information-theoretic quantum statistics. This paper is the first in a two-part series in which our new approach is applied to the fundamental problem of thermodynamic equilibrium. Part I deals in particular with informational definitions of equilibrium and the identification of thermodynamic analogs in our modified quantum statistics formalism.
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  39. William Band & James L. Park (1977). Rigorous Information-Theoretic Derivation of Quantum-Statistical Thermodynamics. II. Foundations of Physics 7 (9-10):705-721.score: 15.0
    Part I of the present work outlined the rigorous application of information theory to a quantum mechanical system in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. The general formula developed there for the best-guess density operator $\hat \rho$ was indeterminate because it involved in an essential way an unspecified prior probability distribution over the continuumD H of strong equilibrium density operators. In Part II mathematical evaluation of $\hat \rho$ is completed after an epistemological analysis which leads first to the discretization ofD H and (...)
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  40. R. H. Hobart (1976). A Cosmological Derivation of Planck's Constant. Foundations of Physics 6 (4):473-476.score: 15.0
    Neoclassical accounts of some supposedly quantum phenomena can be given provided one assumes a classical analog of the zero-point electromagnetic fluctuations. The present work shows that such will arise from Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics in a steady-state universe provided the coherence cancelling advanced effects breaks down over cosmic distances.
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  41. Jody Azzouni (2004). The Derivation-Indicator View of Mathematical Practice. Philosophia Mathematica 12 (2):81-106.score: 15.0
    The form of nominalism known as 'mathematical fictionalism' is examined and found wanting, mainly on grounds that go back to an early antinominalist work of Rudolf Carnap that has unfortunately not been paid sufficient attention by more recent writers.
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  42. Mathias Risse (2009). Common Ownership of the Earth as a Non-Parochial Standpoint: A Contingent Derivation of Human Rights. European Journal of Philosophy 17 (2):277-304.score: 15.0
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  43. A. Garuccio & F. Selleri (1980). Systematic Derivation of All the Inequalities of Einstein Locality. Foundations of Physics 10 (3-4):209-216.score: 15.0
    We show that a method exists for deducing from Einstein locality all the possible inequalities for linear combinations of correlation functions. This allows us to show also that there is a complete observational equivalence of deterministic local theories and probabilistic local theories.
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  44. Henry E. Allison (1991). On a Presumed Gap in the Derivation of the Categorical Imperative. Philosophical Topics 19 (1):1-15.score: 15.0
  45. Richard Mccarty (2010). Kant's Derivation of the Formula of Universal Law. Dialogue 49 (01):113-133.score: 15.0
  46. Merrie Bergmann (2008). An Introduction to Many-Valued and Fuzzy Logic: Semantics, Algebras, and Derivation Systems. Cambridge University Press.score: 15.0
    This volume is an accessible introduction to the subject of many-valued and fuzzy logic suitable for use in relevant advanced undergraduate and graduate courses. The text opens with a discussion of the philosophical issues that give rise to fuzzy logic – problems arising from vague language – and returns to those issues as logical systems are presented. For historical and pedagogical reasons, three-valued logical systems are presented as useful intermediate systems for studying the principles and theory behind fuzzy logic.
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  47. John F. Wippel (1987). Thomas Aquinas's Derivation of the Aristotelian Categories (Predicaments). Journal of the History of Philosophy 25 (1):13-34.score: 15.0
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  48. Katrien Devolder & Christopher M. Ward (2007). Rescuing Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: The Possibility of Embryo Reconstitution After Stem Cell Derivation. Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):245–263.score: 15.0
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  49. John S. Briggs & Jan M. Rost (2001). On the Derivation of the Time-Dependent Equation of Schrödinger. Foundations of Physics 31 (4):693-712.score: 15.0
    Few have done more than Martin Gutzwiller to clarify the connection between classical time-dependent motion and the time-independent states of quantum systems. Hence it seems appropriate to include the following discussion of the origins of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in this volume dedicated to him.
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  50. Steven Strasnick (1976). Social Choice and the Derivation of Rawls's Difference Principle. Journal of Philosophy 73 (4):85-99.score: 15.0
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