Search results for 'Derogatory Terms' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lynne Tirrell (1999). Derogatory Terms: Racism, Sexism and the Inferential Role Theory of Meaning. In Kelly Oliver & Christina Hendricks (eds.), Language and Liberation: Feminism, Philosophy and Language,. SUNY Press
    Derogatory terms (racist, sexist, ethnic, and homophobic epithets) are bully words with ontological force: they serve to establish and maintain a corrupt social system fuelled by distinctions designed to justify relations of dominance and subordination. No wonder they have occasioned public outcry and legal response. The inferential role analysis developed here helps move us away from thinking of the harms as being located in connotation (representing mere speaker bias) or denotation (holding that the terms fail to refer (...)
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  2.  61
    Lynne Tirrell (2012). Genocidal Language Games. In Ishani Maitra & Mary Kate McGowan (eds.), Speech and Harm: Controversies Over Free Speech. Oxford University Press 174--221.
    This chapter examines the role played by derogatory terms (e.g., ‘inyenzi’ or cockroach, ‘inzoka’ or snake) in laying the social groundwork for the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994. The genocide was preceded by an increase in the use of anti-Tutsi derogatory terms among the Hutu. As these linguistic practices evolved, the terms became more openly and directly aimed at Tutsi. Then, during the 100 days of the genocide, derogatory terms and (...)
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  3. Lynne Tirrell (2013). Studying Genocide: A Pragmatist Approach to Action-Engendering Discourse. In Graham Hubbs & Douglas Lind (eds.), Pragmatism, Law, and Language. Routledge
    Drawing on my recent work using inferential role semantics and elements of speech act theory to analyze the role of derogatory terms (a.k.a. ‘hate speech’, or ‘slurs’) in the 1994 genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda, as well as the role of certain kinds of reparative speech acts in post-genocide Rwanda, this paper highlights key pragmatist commitments that inform the methods and goals of this practical analysis of real world events. In “Genocidal Language Games”, I used conceptual tools (...)
     
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  4. Lynne Tirrell (1999). Aesthetic Derogation: Hate Speech, Pornography, and Aesthetic Contexts,. In Jerrold Levinson (ed.), Aesthetics and Ethics: Essays at the Intersection. Cambridge University Press
    Derogatory terms (racist, sexist, ethnic epithets) have long played various roles and achieved diverse ends in works of art. Focusing on basic aspects of an aesthetic object or work, this article examines the interpretive relation between point of view and content, asking how aesthetic contextualization shapes the impact of such terms. Can context, particularly aesthetic contexts, detach the derogatory force from powerful epithets and racist and sexist images? What would it be about aesthetic contexts that would (...)
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  5. Lynne Tirrell (1999). Pornographic Subordination: How Pornography Silences Women. In Claudia F. Card (ed.), Feminist Ethics and Politics. University Press of Kansas
    Making sense of MacKinnon’s claim that pornography silences women requires attention to the discursive and interpretive frameworks that pornography establishes and promotes. Treating pornography as a form of hate speech is promising, but also limited. A close examination of a legal case, in which pornographic images were used to sexually harass, focuses on the hate speech analogy while illustrating the broad and lasting impact of such depictions when targeted at an individual. Applying the distinction between Absolutist and Reclaimer approaches to (...)
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  6.  2
    Chizaram Onyekwere & Oliver Uche (2013). Atheism and Humanism in a Globalized World: The Igbo Experience. Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):93.
    Obnoxious labels are derogatory terms which speak extensively on the ignorant dispositions of scholars who either rush into faulty conclusions, or have prior decisions to promote class distinction through the uncomplimentary colours they paint of what others hold as divine, spiritual, and transcendental. For such derogatory terms to gain wide audience in a globalized age explain the frame of mind of discordant voices which have been based on arm-chair scholarship. The thrust of this article therefore, is (...)
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  7. Corine Besson (2012). Empty Natural Kind Terms and Dry-Earth. Erkenntnis 76 (3):403-425.
    This paper considers the problem of assigning meanings to empty natural kind terms. It does so in the context of the Twin-Earth externalist-internalist debate about whether the meanings of natural kind terms are individuated by the external physical environment of the speakers using these terms. The paper clarifies and outlines the different ways in which meanings could be assigned to empty natural kind terms. And it argues that externalists do not have the semantic resources to assign (...)
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  8. Corine Besson (2010). Rigidity, Natural Kind Terms, and Metasemantics. In Helen Beebee & Nigel Sabbarton-Leary (eds.), The Semantics and Metaphysics of Natural Kinds. Routledge 25--44.
    A paradigmatic case of rigidity for singular terms is that of proper names. And it would seem that a paradigmatic case of rigidity for general terms is that of natural kind terms. However, many philosophers think that rigidity cannot be extended from singular terms to general terms. The reason for this is that rigidity appears to become trivial when such terms are considered: natural kind terms come out as rigid, but so do all (...)
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  9. Brent G. Kyle (2013). How Are Thick Terms Evaluative? Philosophers' Imprint 13 (1):1-20.
    Ethicists are typically willing to grant that thick terms (e.g. ‘courageous’ and ‘murder’) are somehow associated with evaluations. But they tend to disagree about what exactly this relationship is. Does a thick term’s evaluation come by way of its semantic content? Or is the evaluation pragmatically associated with the thick term (e.g. via conversational implicature)? In this paper, I argue that thick terms are semantically associated with evaluations. In particular, I argue that many thick concepts (if not all) (...)
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  10. Michael Strevens (2012). Theoretical Terms Without Analytic Truths. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):167-190.
    When new theoretical terms are introduced into scientific discourse, prevailing accounts imply, analytic or semantic truths come along with them, by way of either definitions or reference-fixing descriptions. But there appear to be few or no analytic truths in scientific theory, which suggests that the prevailing accounts are mistaken. This paper looks to research on the psychology of natural kind concepts to suggest a new account of the introduction of theoretical terms that avoids both definition and reference-fixing description. (...)
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  11. Richard Gray (2006). Natural Phenomenon Terms. Analysis 66 (290):141–148.
    In lecture III of Naming and Necessity, Kripke extends his claim that names are non-descriptive to natural kind terms, and in so doing includes a brief supporting discussion of terms for natural phenomena, in particular the terms ‘light’ and ‘heat’. Whilst natural kind terms continue to feature centrally in the recent literature, natural phenomenon terms have barely figured. The purpose of the present paper is to show how the apparent similarities between natural kind terms (...)
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  12. Rafael de Clercq (2005). Aesthetic Terms, Metaphor, and the Nature of Aesthetic Properties. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (1):27–32.
    The paper argues that an important class of aesthetic terms cannot be used as metaphors because it is impossible to commit a category mistake with them. It then uses this fact to provide a general definition of 'aesthetic property'.
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  13.  15
    Robert Schwartzkopff (2015). Singular Terms Revisited. Synthese (3):1-28.
    Neo-Fregeans take their argument for arithmetical realism to depend on the availability of certain, so-called broadly syntactic tests for whether a given expression functions as a singular term. The broadly syntactic tests proposed in the neo-Fregean tradition are the so-called inferential test and the Aristotelian test. If these tests are to subserve the neo-Fregean argument, they must be at least adequate, in the sense of correctly classifying paradigm cases of singular terms and non-singular terms. In this paper, I (...)
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  14.  97
    Zhihua Yao (2009). Empty Subject Terms in Buddhist Logic: Dignāga and His Chinese Commentators. Journal of Indian Philosophy 37 (4):383-398.
    The problem of empty terms is one of the focal issues in analytic philosophy. Russell’s theory of descriptions, a proposal attempting to solve this problem, attracted much attention and is considered a hallmark of the analytic tradition. Scholars of Indian and Buddhist philosophy, e.g., McDermott, Matilal, Shaw and Perszyk, have studied discussions of empty terms in Indian and Buddhist philosophy. But most of these studies rely heavily on the Nyāya or Navya-Nyāya sources, in which Buddhists are portrayed as (...)
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  15.  42
    Åsa Wikforss (2013). Bachelors, Energy, Cats and Water: Putnam on Kinds and Kind Terms. Theoria 79 (3):242-261.
    Since Hilary Putnam and Saul Kripke's first attacks on traditional, descriptivist theories of natural kind terms, it has become customary to speak of the ‘Putnam-Kripke’ view of meaning and reference. This article argues that this is a mistake, and that Putnam's account of natural kind terms is importantly different from that of Kripke. In particular, Putnam has from the very start been sceptical of Kripke's modal claims, and in later papers he explicitly rejects the proposal that theoretical identity (...)
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  16.  6
    Hanna Kim (2015). Metaphor-Proof Expressions: A Dimensional Account of the Metaphorical Uninterpretability of Aesthetic Terms. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 73 (4):391-405.
    In this article, I start with the observation that aesthetic terms resist metaphorical interpretation; that is, it makes little sense to say that something is beautiful metaphorically speaking or to say something is metaphorically elegant, harmonious, or sublime. I argue that aesthetic terms’ lack of metaphorical interpretations is not explained by the fact that their applicability is not limited to a particular category of objects, at least in the standard sense of ‘category.’ In general, I challenge category-based accounts (...)
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  17. Michael P. Wolf, Rigid Designation and Natural Kind Terms, Pittsburgh Style. Normative Functionalism and the Pittsburgh School.
    This paper addresses recent literature on rigid designation and natural kind terms that draws on the inferentialist approaches of Sellars and Brandom, among others. Much of the orthodox literature on rigidity may be seen as appealing, more or less explicitly, to a semantic form of “the given” in Sellars’s terms. However, the important insights of that literature may be reconstructed and articulated in terms more congenial to the Pittsburgh school of normative functionalism.
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  18.  40
    Igor Douven & Jaap van Brakel (1998). Can the World Help Us in Fixing the Reference of Natural Kind Terms? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 29 (1):59-70.
    According to Putnam the reference of natural kind terms is fixed by the world, at least partly; whether two things belong to the same kind depends on whether they obey the same objective laws. We show that Putnam's criterion of substance identity only “works” if we read “objective laws” as “OBJECTIVE LAWS”. Moreover, at least some of the laws of some of the special sciences have to be included. But what we consider to be good special sciences and what (...)
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  19.  5
    Hanna Kim (2015). Aesthetic Terms, Metaphor, and Categories: A Reply to De Clercq. Philosophia 43 (4):1059-1066.
    In his paper, “Aesthetic Terms, Metaphor and the Nature of Aesthetic Properties”, Rafael De Clercq claims to offer a category-based explanation of the metaphorical uninterpretability of aesthetic terms, and establish that the concept of an aesthetic property is fully analyzable in non-aesthetic terms. Both would be interesting and noteworthy achievements if accomplished. However, I argue in this discussion piece that he fails to achieve either goal.
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  20.  14
    Genoveva Martí & José Martínez-Fernández (2011). General Terms, Rigidity and the Trivialization Problem. Synthese 181 (2):277 - 293.
    We defend the view that defines the rigidity of general terms as sameness of designated universal across possible worlds from the objection that such a characterization is incapable of distinguishing rigid from non-rigid readings of general terms and, thus, that it trivializes the notion of rigidity. We also argue that previous attempts to offer a solution to the trivialization problem do no succeed.
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  21.  39
    Emmanuella Plakoyiannaki, Kalliopi Mathioudaki, Pavlos Dimitratos & Yorgos Zotos (2008). Images of Women in Online Advertisements of Global Products: Does Sexism Exist? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1):101 - 112.
    Research on female stereotypes in online advertisements is particularly scant, and thus, we lack evidence on whether women are depicted in derogatory (stereotypical) terms on the Internet or not. This theme has significant ethical implications. Hence, the objectives of this study are: (1) to provide evidence on female role portrayals in online advertisements of global products, and (2) to explore female role portrayals across web pages for different audience types. The results indicate that women are generally portrayed in (...)
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  22.  34
    Tao Liang (2009). Mencius and the Tradition of Articulating Human Nature in Terms of Growth. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):180-197.
    This article analyses the tradition of “articulating xing in terms of sheng ” and related other expressions, and also examines the debate between Mencius and Gaozi concerning “ xing is known by sheng .” It claims that while Mencius’ “human nature is good” discourse is influenced by the interpretive tradition of “articulating xing in terms of sheng ”, Mencius also transcends and develops this tradition. Therefore it is only when Mencius’ views about the goodness of human nature are (...)
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  23.  32
    Luisa Valente (2007). Names That Can Be Said of Everything: Porphyrian Tradition and 'Transcendental' Terms in Twelfth-Century Logic. Vivarium 45 (s 2-3):298-310.
    In an article published in 2003, Klaus Jacobi—using texts partially edited in De Rijk's Logica Modernorum —demonstrated that twelfth-century logic contains a tradition of reflecting about some of the transcendental names . In addition to reinforcing Jacobi's thesis with other texts, this contribution aims to demonstrate two points: 1) That twelfth-century logical reflection about transcendental terms has its origin in the logica vetus , and especially in a passage from Porphyry Isagoge and in Boethius's commentary on it. In spite (...)
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  24.  18
    Liang Tao & Andrew Lambert (2009). Mencius and the Tradition of Articulating Human Nature in Terms of Growth. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):180 - 197.
    This article analyses the tradition of "articulating xing in terms of sheng" and related other expressions, and also examines the debate between Mencius and Gaozi concerning "xing is known by sheng" It claims that while Mencius' "human nature is good" discourse is influenced by the interpretive tradition of "articulating xing in terms of sheng", Mencius also transcends and develops this tradition. Therefore it is only when Mencius' views about the goodness of human nature are understood in the context (...)
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  25.  10
    Michael Rubin (2013). Are Chemical Kind Terms Rigid Appliers? Erkenntnis 78 (6):1303-1316.
    According to Michael Devitt, the primary work of a rigidity distinction for kind terms is to distinguish non-descriptional predicates from descriptional predicates. The standard conception of rigidity fails to do this work when it is extended to kind terms. Against the standard conception, Devitt defends rigid application: a predicate is a rigid applier iff, if it applies to an object in one world, it applies to that object in every world in which it exists. Devitt maintains that rigid (...)
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  26.  13
    Greg Ray (1996). On the Possibility of a Privileged Class of Logical Terms. Philosophical Studies 81 (2-3):303 - 313.
    Alfred Tarski's (1936) semantic account of the logical properties (logical consequence, logical truth and logical consistency) makes essential appeal to a distinction between logical and non-logical terms. John Etchemendy (1990) has recently argued that Tarski's account is inadequate for quite a number of different reasons. Among them is a brief argument which purports to show that Tarski's reliance on the distinction between logical and non-logical terms is in principle mistaken. According to Etchemendy, there are very simple (even first (...)
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  27.  2
    David Albrecht, Frank A. Bäuerle, John N. Crossley & John S. Jeavons (1998). Curry-Howard Terms for Linear Logic. Studia Logica 61 (2):223-235.
    In this paper we 1. provide a natural deduction system for full first-order linear logic, 2. introduce Curry- Howard -style terms for this version of linear logic, 3. extend the notion of substitution of Curry- Howard terms for term variables, 4. define the reduction rules for the Curry- Howard terms and 5. outline a proof of the strong normalization for the full system of linear logic using a development of Girard's candidates for reducibility, thereby providing an alternative (...)
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  28.  2
    W. Ray Crozier (2002). Donkeys and Dragons: Recollections of Schoolteachers' Nicknames. Educational Studies 28 (2):133-142.
    Pupils' nicknames for teachers are typically clandestine and serve a reference function rather than acting as terms of address. Despite being a ubiquitous feature of school life, they have attracted little research. This questionnaire study explores characteristics of the use of nicknames as recalled by a sample of 103 university students. Most nicknames expressed contempt or dislike, or attempted to get back or get even, or to put one over on the teacher. The majority of names drew upon physical (...)
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  29.  2
    Helmut Wolter (1993). On Roots of Exponential Terms. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):96-102.
    In the present paper some tools are given to state the exact number of roots for some simple classes of exponential terms . The result were obtained by generalizing Sturm's technique for real closed fields. Moreover for arbitrary non-zero terms t certain estimations concerning the location of roots of t are given. MSC: 03C65, 03C60, 12L12.
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  30.  1
    Wensheng Qu (2015). Compilations of Law Dictionaries in New China and Their Roles on Standardization of Translated Legal Terms. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (3):449-467.
    From the perspectives of foreign-Chinese bilingual law dictionaries, Chinese-foreign bilingual law dictionaries, and monolingual Chinese law dictionaries, this paper reviews the compilation and publication of law dictionaries in China over the past six decades following the founding of New China in 1949, especially over the past three decades after the policy of reform and opening up was adopted in 1978. This paper reevaluates the translated legal terms covered and defined in the Legal Dictionary of the Soviet Union, Law Dictionary, (...)
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  31.  2
    Pius ten Hacken (2010). Creating Legal Terms: A Linguistic Perspective. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 23 (4):407-425.
    Legal terms have a special status at the interface between language and law. Adopting the general framework developed by Jackendoff and the concepts competence and performance as developed by Chomsky, it is shown that legal terms cannot be fully accounted for unless we set up a category of abstract objects. This idea corresponds largely to the classical view of terminology, which has been confronted with some challenges recently. It is shown that for legal terms, arguments against abstract (...)
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  32. Ioan Biris (2010). On the Logic of Religious Terms. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (22):63-88.
    The present study starts from the question if there can be any logic of religion. The answer is affirmative for logic in a wide sense. The attempts from the logic of beliefs account for this. However, the study focuses on the specific of the logic of religious terms, a less approached domain by logicians and philosophers. In this line issues like those of the logic of analogy, of the distinctions between the specific, general and total content of terms, (...)
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  33. Kathrin Koslicki (2014). Mereological Sums and Singular Terms. In Shieva Kleinschmidt (ed.), Mereology and Location. Oxford University Press 209-235.
    The relative merits of standard mereology have received quite a bit of attention in recent years from metaphysicians concerned with the part/whole properties of material objects. A question that has not been pursued to the same degree, however, is what sort of semantic repercussions a commitment to mereological sums in the standard sense might have in particular on the predicted behavior of singular terms and our practices of using such terms to refer to objects. The apparent mismatch between (...)
     
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  34. Helmut Wolter (1993). Consequences of Schanuel's Condition for Zeros of Exponential Terms. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):559-565.
    Assuming “Schanuel's Condition” for a certain class of exponential fields, Sturm's technique for polynomials in real closed fields can be extended to more complicated exponential terms in the corresponding exponential field. Hence for this class of terms the exact number of zeros can be calculated. These results give deeper insights into the model theory of exponential fields. MSC: 03C65, 03C60, 12L12.
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  35.  30
    Ian Rumfitt (2003). Singular Terms and Arithmetical Logicism. Philosophical Books 44 (3):193--219.
    This article is a critical notice of Bob Hale and Crispin Wright's *The Reason's Proper Study* (OUP). It focuses particularly on their attempts (crucial to their neo-logicist project) to say what a singular term is. I identify problems for their account but include some constructive suggestions about how it might be improved.
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  36.  18
    George Duke (2012). Abstract Singular Terms and Thin Reference. Theoria 78 (4):276-292.
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  37.  7
    Pimpen Vejjajiva (2013). Extended Curry‐Howard Terms for Second‐Order Logic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (4-5):274-285.
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  38. F. E. Peters (1967). Greek Philosophical Terms. New York, New York University Press.
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  39.  4
    Phillip Bricker (1988). Review: Harry C. Bunt, Mass Terms and Model-Theoretic Semantics. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):653-656.
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  40.  5
    Richard C. Anderson & Barry McGaw (1973). On the Representation of Meanings of General Terms. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):301.
  41.  2
    Gary M. Olson & Kevin Laxar (1973). Asymmetries in Processing the Terms "Right" and "Left.". Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (2):284.
  42.  2
    Edward W. McAllister & Ronald Ley (1972). Effects of Spaced Presentations of Stimulus Terms, Response Terms, and Stimulus-Response Pairs on Retention in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (1):68-73.
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  43.  2
    M. J. Homzie & Marjorie Krebs (1969). Transfer of Integration of Stimulus and Response Terms and Backward and Forward Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):188.
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  44.  1
    Gary M. Olson & Kevin Laxar (1974). Processing the Terms Right and Left: A Note on Left-Handers. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1135.
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  45. Sam C. Brown & J. D. Read (1968). Addition of Context Cues to Response Terms of Paired-Associate Lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (4p1):692.
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  46. David Plunkett & Timothy Sundell (2013). Disagreement and the Semantics of Normative and Evaluative Terms. Philosophers' Imprint 13 (23).
    In constructing semantic theories of normative and evaluative terms, philosophers have commonly deployed a certain type of disagreement -based argument. The premise of the argument observes the possibility of genuine disagreement between users of a certain normative or evaluative term, while the conclusion of the argument is that, however differently those speakers employ the term, they must mean the same thing by it. After all, if they did not, then they would not really disagree. We argue that in many (...)
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  47. Gil Sagi (2014). Formality in Logic: From Logical Terms to Semantic Constraints. Logique Et Analyse 57 (227).
    In this paper I discuss a prevailing view by which logical terms determine forms of sentences and arguments and therefore the logical validity of arguments. This view is common to those who hold that there is a principled distinction between logical and nonlogical terms and those holding relativistic accounts. I adopt the Tarskian tradition by which logical validity is determined by form, but reject the centrality of logical terms. I propose an alternative framework for logic where logical (...)
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  48. Robert May, Comments on Nathan Salmon “Are General Terms Rigid”.
    1. Nathan Salmon paper is entitled with a question: are general terms rigid? He asks this question in way of engaging the issue of the extension of the notion of rigidity beyond the domain of singular terms. While singular terms has been the province of most of the discussion of this rigidity since Naming and Necessity, it is well known that Kripke saw the notion extending to at least certain general terms such as terms for (...)
     
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  49. Marie Duží & Pavel Materna (2010). Can Concepts Be Defined in Terms of Sets? Logic and Logical Philosophy 19 (3):195-242.
    The goal of this paper is a philosophical explication and logical rectification of the notion of concept. We take into account only those contexts that are relevant from the logical point of view. It means that we are not interested in contexts characteristic of cognitive sciences, particularly of psychology, where concepts are conceived of as some kind of mental objects or representations. After a brief recapitulation of various theories of concept, in particular Frege’s and Church’s ones, we propose our own (...)
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  50. Stan Klein (2015). A Defense of Experiential Realism: The Need to Take Phenomenological Reality on its Own Terms in the Study of the Mind. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Practice and Research 2 (1):41-56.
    In this paper I argue for the importance of treating mental experience on its own terms. In defense of “experiential realism” I offer a critique of modern psychology’s all-too-frequent attempts to effect an objectification and quantification of personal subjectivity. The question is “What can we learn about experiential reality from indices that, in the service of scientific objectification, transform the qualitative properties of experience into quantitative indices?” I conclude that such treatment is neither necessary for realizing, nor sufficient for (...)
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