Search results for 'Direction' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Bowin (2009). Aristotle on the Order and Direction of Time. Apeiron 42 (1):49-78.score: 24.0
    This paper defends Aristotle’s project of deriving the order of time from the order of change in Physics 4.11, against the objection that it contains a vicious circularity arising from the assumption that we cannot specify the direction of a change without invoking the temporal relations of its stages. It considers and rejects a solution to this objection proposed by Ursula Coope, and proposes an alternative solution. It also considers the related problem of how the temporal orders and directions (...)
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  2. Brad Weslake (2006). Common Causes and the Direction of Causation. Minds and Machines 16 (3):239-257.score: 24.0
    Is the common cause principle merely one of a set of useful heuristics for discovering causal relations, or is it rather a piece of heavy duty metaphysics, capable of grounding the direction of causation itself? Since the principle was introduced in Reichenbach’s groundbreaking work The Direction of Time (1956), there have been a series of attempts to pursue the latter program—to take the probabilistic relationships constitutive of the principle of the common cause and use them to ground the (...)
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  3. John Milliken (2008). In a Fitter Direction: Moving Beyond the Direction of Fit Picture of Belief and Desire. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (5):563 - 571.score: 24.0
    Those working within the tradition of Humean psychology tend to mark a clear distinction between beliefs and desires. One prominent way of elucidating this distinction is to describe them as having different “directions of fit” with respect to the world. After first giving a brief overview of the various attempts to carry out this strategy along with their flaws, I argue that the direction of fit metaphor is misleading and ought to be abandoned. It fails to take into account (...)
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  4. Alex Gregory (2012). Changing Direction on Direction of Fit. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (5):603-614.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I show that we should understand the direction of fit of beliefs and desires in normative terms. After rehearsing a standard objection to Michael Smith’s analysis of direction of fit, I raise a similar problem for Lloyd Humberstone’s analysis. I go on to offer my own account, according to which the difference between beliefs and desires is determined by the normative relations such states stand in. I argue that beliefs are states which we have reason (...)
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  5. Larry A. Herzberg (2009). Direction, Causation, and Appraisal Theories of Emotion. Philosophical Psychology 22 (2):167 – 186.score: 24.0
    Appraisal theories of emotion generally presuppose that emotions are “directed at” various items. They also hold that emotions have motivational properties. However, although it coheres well with their views, they have yet to seriously develop the idea that the function of emotional direction is to guide those properties. I argue that this “guidance hypothesis” can open up a promising new field of research in emotion theory. But I also argue that before appraisal theorists can take full advantage of it, (...)
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  6. Benjamin K. Bergen & Ting Ting Chan Lau (2012). Writing Direction Affects How People Map Space Onto Time. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    What determines which spatial axis people use to represent time? We investigate effects of writing direction. English, like Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, is written left-to-right and then top-to-bottom. But in Taiwan, characters are written predominantly top-to-bottom and then right-to-left. Because being a fluent reader-writer entails thousands of hours of experience with eye and hand movement in the direction dictated by one's writing system, it could be that writing system direction affects the axis used to represent time (...)
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  7. Hilário de Sousa (2012). Generational Differences in the Orientation of Time in Cantonese Speakers as a Function of Changes in the Direction of Chinese Writing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    It has long been argued that spatial aspects of language influence people’s conception of time. However, what spatial aspect of language is the most influential in this regard? To test this, two experiments were conducted in Hong Kong and Macau with literate Cantonese speakers. The results suggest that the crucial factor in literate Cantonese people’s spatial conceptualization of time is their experience with writing and reading Chinese script. In Hong Kong and Macau, Chinese script is written either in the traditional (...)
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  8. Caterina Artuso, Paola Palladino & Paola Ricciardelli (2012). How Do We Update Faces? Effects of Gaze Direction and Facial Expressions on Working Memory Updating. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The aim of the study was to investigate how the biological binding between different facial dimensions, and their social and communicative relevance, may impact updating processes in working memory (WM). We focused on WM updating because it plays a key role in ongoing processing. Gaze direction and facial expression are crucial and changeable components of face processing. Direct gaze enhances the processing of approach-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g. joy), while averted gaze enhances the processing of avoidance-oriented facial emotional expressions (...)
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  9. Paola Ricciardelli Caterina Artuso, Paola Palladino (2012). How Do We Update Faces? Effects of Gaze Direction and Facial Expressions on Working Memory Updating. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The aim of the study was to investigate how the biological binding between different facial dimensions, and their social and communicative relevance, may impact updating processes in working memory (WM). We focused on WM updating because it plays a key role in ongoing processing. Gaze direction and facial expression are crucial and changeable components of face processing. Direct gaze enhances the processing of approach-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g. joy), while averted gaze enhances the processing of avoidance-oriented facial emotional expressions (...)
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  10. Thomas Wolbers Magdalena G. Wutte, Michael T. Smith, Virginia L. Flanagin (2011). Physiological Signal Variability in hMT+ Reflects Performance on a Direction Discrimination Task. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Our ability to perceive visual motion is critically dependent on the human motion complex (hMT+) in the dorsal visual stream. Extensive electrophysiological research in the monkey equivalent of this region has demonstrated how neuronal populations code for properties such as speed and direction, and that neurometric functions relate to psychometric functions within the individual monkey. In humans, the physiological correlates of inter-individual perceptual differences are still largely unknown. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while (...)
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  11. G. F. Schueler (2013). Direction of Fit. In Huge LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell Publishing Ltd..score: 22.0
    The difference between cognitive and conative mental states, such as beliefs and desires, has sometimes been held to be that they have different “directions of fit” between the mind and the world – mind-to-world for beliefs and world-to-mind for desires (see Desire). Some philosophers have pursued the idea that if this thought can be given a plausible explanation it can be used to ground Hume's claim that “reason is the slave of the passions,” i.e., that no moral or other “practical” (...)
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  12. Hugh C. Blodgett, Kenneth McCutchan & Ravenna Mathews (1949). Spatial Learning in the T-Maze: The Influence of Direction, Turn, and Food Location. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (6):800.score: 21.0
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  13. Leslie A. Fox, Ronald E. Shor & Robert J. Steinman (1971). Semantic Gradients and Interference in Naming Color, Spatial Direction, and Numerosity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (1):59.score: 21.0
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  14. Judson S. Brown & Arthur T. Slater-Hammel (1949). Discrete Movements in the Horizontal Plane as a Function of Their Length and Direction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (1):84.score: 21.0
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  15. David A. Grant & Noel F. Kaestner (1955). Constant Velocity Tracking as a Function of S's Handedness and the Rate and Direction of the Target Course. Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (3):203.score: 21.0
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  16. Paul Bakan & Kiyoe Mizusawa (1963). Effect of Inspection Time and Direction of Rotation on a Generalized From of the Spiral Aftereffect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (6):583.score: 21.0
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  17. Robert Eisenberger, Arlo K. Myers & Robert M. Kaplan (1973). Persistent Deprivation-Shift Effect Opposite in Direction to Incentive Contrast. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):400-404.score: 21.0
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  18. Frederick R. Fosmire & W. Lynn Brown (1951). The Effect of Training Procedures on the Relative Strength of Place and Direction Dispositions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (6):450.score: 21.0
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  19. E. Rae Harcum (1966). Visual Hemifield Differences as Conflicts in Direction of Reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):479.score: 21.0
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  20. Koh Johdai (1955). Extinction as Due to the Changed Direction of a Psychological Force. Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (3):193.score: 21.0
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  21. Frank A. Logan & Allan R. Wagner (1962). Supplementary Report: Direction of Change in CS in Eyelid Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (3):325.score: 21.0
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  22. Horoshi Ono & Robert G. Angus (1974). Adaptation to Sensory-Motor Conflict Produced by the Visual Direction of the Hand Specified From the Cyclopean Eye. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (1):1.score: 21.0
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  23. Benbow F. Ritchie (1948). Studies in Spatial Learning. VI. Place Orientation and Direction Orientation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (6):659.score: 21.0
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  24. Eliaz Segal (2004). The Mind's Direction of Time. Journal of Mind and Behavior 25 (3):227-235.score: 21.0
     
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  25. Dan Hicks (2014). A New Direction for Science and Values. Synthese 191 (14):3271-95.score: 20.0
    The controversy over the old ideal of “value-free science” has cooled significantly over the past decade. Many philosophers of science now agree that even ethical and political values may play a substantial role in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Consequently, in the last few years, work in science and values has become more specific: Which values may influence science, and in which ways? Or, how do we distinguish illegitimate from illegitimate kinds of influence? In this paper, I argue that this (...)
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  26. David Sobel & David Copp (2001). Against Direction of Fit Accounts of Belief and Desire. Analysis 61 (1):44-53.score: 18.0
    We argue that beliefs and desires cannot be successfully explicated in terms of direction of fit. It is more difficult than has been realized to do so without presupposing these notions in the explication.
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  27. Sergio Tenenbaum (2006). Direction of Fit and Motivational Cognitivism. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics. Oxford University Press. 235-64.score: 18.0
    The idea of direction of fit has been found appealing by many philosophers. Anscombe’s famous examples have persuaded many of us that there must be some deep difference between belief and desire that is captured by the metaphor of direction of fit. Most of the aim of the paper is to try to get clear on which intuitions Anscombe’s example taps into. My view is that there is more than one intuition in play here, and I will try (...)
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  28. Craig Callender (1997). What is 'the Problem of the Direction of Time'? Philosophy of Science 64 (4):234.score: 18.0
    This paper searches for an explicit expression of the so-called problem of the direction of time. I argue that the traditional version of the problem is an artifact of a mistaken view in the foundations of statistical mechanics, and that to the degree it is a problem, it is really one general to all the special sciences. I then search the residue of the traditional problem for any remaining difficulty particular to time's arrow and find that there is a (...)
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  29. John Earman (1974). An Attempt to Add a Little Direction to "the Problem of the Direction of Time". Philosophy of Science 41 (1):15-47.score: 18.0
    It is argued that the main problem with "the problem of the direction of time" is to figure out what the problem is or is supposed to be. Towards this end, an attempt is made to disentangle and to classify some of the many issues which have been discussed under the label of 'the direction of time'. Secondly, some technical apparatus is introduced in the hope of producing a sharper formulation of the issues than they have received in (...)
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  30. Hans Reichenbach (1956/1999). The Direction of Time. Dover.score: 18.0
    The final work of a distinguished physicist, this remarkable volume examines the emotive significance of time, the time order of mechanics, the time direction of thermodynamics and microstatistics, the time direction of macrostatistics, and the time of quantum physics. Coherent discussions include accounts of analytic methods of scientific philosophy in the investigation of probability, quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity, and causality. "[Reichenbach’s] best by a good deal."—Physics Today. 1971 ed.
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  31. Frank Arntzenius (1995). Indeterminism and the Direction of Time. Topoi 14 (1):67-81.score: 18.0
    Many phenomena in the world display a striking time-asymmetry: the forwards transition frequencies are approximately invariant while the backwards ones are not. I argue in this paper that theories of such phenomena will entail that time has a direction, and that quantum mechanics in particular entails that the future is objectively different from the past.
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  32. Steven F. Savitt (1996). The Direction of Time. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (3):347-370.score: 18.0
    The aim of this essay is to introduce philosophers of science to some recent philosophical discussions of the nature and origin of the direction of time. The essay is organized around books by Hans Reichenbach, Paul Horwich, and Huw Price. I outline their major arguments and treat certain critical points in detail. I speculate at the end about the ways in which the subject may continue to develop and in which it may connect with other areas of philosophy.
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  33. Robert K. Clifton, Jeremy N. Butterfield & Michael L. G. Redhead (1990). Nonlocal Influences and Possible Worlds--A Stapp in the Wrong Direction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):5-58.score: 18.0
    give a proof of the existence of nonlocal influences acting on correlated spin-1/2 particles in the singlet state which does not require any particular interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). (Except Stapp holds that the proof fails under a many-worlds interpretation of QM—a claim we analyse in 1.2.) Recently, in responding to Redhead's ([1987], pp. 90-6) criticism that the Stapp 1 proof fails under an indeterministic interpretation of QM, Stapp [1989] (henceforth Stapp 2), has revised the logical structure of his proof (...)
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  34. Ross Cameron (2014). On the Lack of Direction in Rayo's The Construction of Logical Space. Inquiry 57 (4):427-441.score: 18.0
    (2014). On the Lack of Direction in Rayo’s The Construction of Logical Space. Inquiry: Vol. 57, The Construction of Logical Space, pp. 427-441. doi: 10.1080/0020174X.2014.905035.
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  35. Granville A. Perkins (1976). The Direction of theZitterbewegung: A Hidden Variable. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 6 (2):237-248.score: 18.0
    Whittaker studied Dirac's equation, using prequantum mathematics, and found oscillating vectors corresponding to Schrödinger'sZitterbewegung. An extension of his study, without added assumptions or speculation, reveals the speedc associated at any instant with a direction that can be defined by specification of the Dirac spinor. This direction is hidden from quantum theory because that theory violates the physical principle that coherent amplitudes of the same kind must be added before quadratic quantities are formed from them. Two-component equations are formed (...)
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  36. Frank Arntzenius (1997). Mirrors and the Direction of Time. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):222.score: 18.0
    The frequencies with which photons pass through half-silvered mirrors in the forward direction of time is always approximately 1/2, whereas the frequencies with which photons pass through mirrors in the backward direction in time can be highly time-dependent. I argue that whether one should infer from this time-asymmetric phenomenon that time has an objective direction will depend on one's interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  37. Meir Hemmo (2003). Remarks on the Direction of Time in Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1458-1471.score: 18.0
    I consider the question of the direction of time in the context of the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics. I focus on the special role of decoherence in the recovery of time asymmetric behaviour, such as the collapse of the quantum state and the thermodynamic regularities. The discussion is based on results in the consistent histories approach (Gell-Mann and Hartle 1993) and in decoherence theory (Zurek and Paz 1994). Finally, I compare the status of the direction of time (...)
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  38. Huw Price (1996). Backward Causation and the Direction of Causal Processes: Reply to Dowe. Mind 105 (419):467-474.score: 18.0
    argues that the success of the backward causation hypothesis in quantum mechanics would provide strong support for a version of Reichenbach's account of the direction of causal processes, which takes the direction of causation to rest on the fork asymmetry. He also criticises my perspectival account of the direction of causation, which takes causal asymmetry to be a projection of our own temporal asymmetry as agents. In this reply I take issue with Dowe's argument at three main (...)
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  39. Hilla Jacobson-Horowitz (2006). Motivational Cognitivism and the Argument From Direction of Fit. Philosophical Studies 127 (3):561 - 580.score: 18.0
    An important argument for the belief-desire thesis is based on the idea that an agent can be motivated to act only if her mental states include one which aims at changing the world, that is, one with a “world-to-mind”, or “telic”, direction of fit. Some cognitivists accept this claim, but argue that some beliefs, notably moral ones, have not only a “mind-to-world”, or “thetic”, direction of fit, but also a telic one. The paper first argues that this cognitivist (...)
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  40. Huw Price (1992). The Direction of Causation: Ramsey's Ultimate Contingency. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:253 - 267.score: 18.0
    The paper criticizes the attempt to account for the direction of causation in terms of objective statistical asymmetries, such as those of the fork asymmetry. Following Ramsey, I argue that the most plausible way to account for causal asymmetry is to regard it as "put in by hand", that is as a feature that agents project onto the world. Its temporal orientation stems from that of ourselves as agents. The crucial statistical asymmetry is an anthropocentric one, namely that we (...)
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  41. Greg Sherkoske (2010). Direction of Fit Accounts of Belief and Desire Revisited. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):1-11.score: 18.0
    Proponents of Humean belief-desire psychology often appeal to the metaphor of direction of fit. Roughly, the distinction between belief and desire boils down to the differing relationship between the attitude, its content, and the way the world is. Belief in P will tend to go out of existence when confronted with the introduced (perception-like) state of not P. The desire that p will, by contrast, persist in face of the introduced state that not P. The world is to be (...)
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  42. Rogério Passos Severo (2012). A Note on Essential Indexicals of Direction. Thought 1 (1):10-15.score: 18.0
    Some authors claim that ‘I’ and ‘now’ are essential indexicals, in the sense that they cannot be eliminated in favor of other indexicals or nonindexical expressions. This article argues that three indexicals of direction—one for each spatial dimension (e.g., ‘up’, ‘front’, and ‘left’)—must also be regarded essential, insofar as they are used as pure indexicals and not as demonstratives.
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  43. William Lane Craig (1999). Temporal Becoming and the Direction of Time. Philosophy and Theology 11 (2):349-366.score: 18.0
    The impression is frequently given that the static description of the 4-dimensional world given by a tenseless theory of time adequately accounts for the world and that a tensed theory of time has nothing to offer. In fact, the tenseless theory of time leaves us incapable of specifying the direction of time, whereas a tensed theory of time enables us to do so. Thus, the tensed theory enjoys a considerable advantage over the tenseless view.
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  44. R. Mirman (1975). The Direction of Time. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):491-511.score: 18.0
    The meaning of the phrase “the direction of time” and the physical problems involved are considered. These problems are discussed and plausibility arguments are given to show that all clocks run in the same direction (almost always), that the most probable development of the Universe during the early stages of the expansion would result in the introduction of some internal organization, and that the expansion of the Universe and the increase in entropy define time directions that have the (...)
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  45. Simon Căbulea May (2012). Moral Status and the Direction of Duties. Ethics 123 (1):113-128.score: 18.0
    Gopal Sreenivasan’s “hybrid theory” states that a moral duty is directed toward an individual because her interests justify the assignment of control over the duty. An alternative “plain theory” states that the individual’s interests justify the duty itself. I argue that a strong moral status constraint explains Sreenivasan’s instrumentalization objection to a Razian plain theory but that his own model violates this constraint. I suggest how both approaches can be reformulated to satisfy the constraint, and I argue that a reformulated (...)
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  46. David H. Sanford (1984). The Direction of Causation and the Direction of Time. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9 (1):53-75.score: 18.0
    I revise J L Mackie's first account of casual direction by replacing his notion of "fixity" by a newly defined notion of "sufficing" that is designed to accommodate indeterminism. Keeping Mackie's distinction between casual order and casual direction, I then consider another revision that replaces "fixity" with "one-way conditionship". In response to the charge that all such accounts of casual priority beg the question by making an unjustified appeal to temporal priority, i maintain that one-way conditionship explains rather (...)
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  47. Adam Elga, A Coupled Attractor Model of the Rodent Head Direction System.score: 18.0
    Head direction (HD) cells, abundant in the rat postsubiculum and anterior thalamic nuclei, fire maximally when the rat’s head is facing a particular direction. The activity of a population of these cells forms a distributed representation of the animal’s current heading. We describe a neural network model that creates a stable, distributed representation of head direction and updates that representation in response to angular velocity information. In contrast to earlier models, our model of the head direction (...)
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  48. Patrick Stokes (2010). Fearful Asymmetry: Kierkegaard's Search for the Direction of Time. Continental Philosophy Review 43 (4):485-507.score: 18.0
    The ancient problem of whether our asymmetrical attitudes towards time are justified (or normatively required) remains a live one in contemporary philosophy. Drawing on themes in the work of McTaggart, Parfit, and Heidegger, I argue that this problem is also a key concern of Kierkegaard’s Either/Or (1843). Part I of Either/Or presents the “aesthete” as living a temporally volatilized form of life, devoid of temporal location, sequence and direction. Like Parfit’s character “Timeless,” these aesthetes are indifferent to the (...) of time and seemingly do not experience McTaggart’s “A-Series” mode of temporality. The “ethical” conception of time that Judge William offers in Part II contains an attempt to normativize the direction of time, by re-orienting the aesthete towards an awareness of time’s finitude. However, the form of life Judge William articulates gives time sequentiality but not necessarily the robust directionality necessary to justify (and make normative) our asymmetrical attitudes to time. Hence while Either/Or raises this problem it remains unanswered until The Concept of Anxiety (1844). Only with the eschatological understanding of time developed in The Concept of Anxiety does Kierkegaard answer the question of why directional and asymmetrical conative and affective attitudes towards time are normative. (shrink)
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  49. Stanka A. Fitneva & Morten H. Christiansen (2011). Looking in the Wrong Direction Correlates With More Accurate Word Learning. Cognitive Science 35 (2):367-380.score: 18.0
    Previous research on lexical development has aimed to identify the factors that enable accurate initial word-referent mappings based on the assumption that the accuracy of initial word-referent associations is critical for word learning. The present study challenges this assumption. Adult English speakers learned an artificial language within a cross-situational learning paradigm. Visual fixation data were used to assess the direction of visual attention. Participants whose longest fixations in the initial trials fell more often on distracter images performed significantly better (...)
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