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  1.  21
    Dirk Richter (1999). Chronic Mental Illness and the Limits of the Biopsychosocial Model. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (1):21-30.
    Twenty years ago, the biopsychosocial model was proposed by George Engel to be the new paradigm for medicine and psychiatry. The model assumed a hierarchical structure of the biological, psychological and social system and simple interactions between the participating systems. This article holds the thesis that the original biopsychosocial model cannot depict psychiatry's reality and problems. The clinical validity of the biopsychosocial model has to be questioned. It is argued that psychiatric interventions can only stimulate but not determine their target (...)
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  2.  19
    Dirk Richter (1994). Existentialism and Postmodernism. Continuities, Breaks, and Some Consequences for Medical Theory. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (3).
    Since existentialism lost its influence in philosophy in the 1960s, postmodern theory has taken over criticizing basic concepts of western thought. From a postmodern point of view, the main shortcomings of existentialism is that it criticizes traditional unitarian concepts, while re-inventing new unitarian models. Against these unitarian approaches postmodernism holds that the world can only be described in terms of difference. In this article the postmodern program and its differences from existentialism are explained in reference to three concepts of western (...)
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    Dirk Richter (2011). How to De‐Escalate a Risk Situation to Avoid the Use of Coercion. In Thomas W. Kallert, Juan E. Mezzich & John Monahan (eds.), Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects. Wiley-Blackwell 57--79.
  4. Dirk Richter (2011). Normativität in der Systemtheorie. In Johannes Ahrens, Raphael Beer, Uwe H. Bittlingmayer & Jürgen Gerdes (eds.), Normativität: Über Die Hintergründe Sozialwissenschaftlicher Theoriebildung. Vs Verlag
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