Search results for 'Disasters' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  68
    Leonard Kahn (2013). Rule Consequentialism and Disasters. Philosophical Studies 162 (2):219-236.
    Rule consequentialism (RC) is the view that it is right for A to do F in C if and only if A's doing F in C is in accordance with the the set of rules which, if accepted by all, would have consequences which are better than any alternative set of rules (i.e., the ideal code). I defend RC from two related objections. The first objection claims that RC requires obedience to the ideal code even if doing so has disastrous (...)
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  2.  7
    Paul Voice (2015). What Do Liberal Democratic States Owe the Victims of Disasters? A Rawlsian Account. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):n/a-n/a.
    Is there a principled way to understand what liberal democratic states owe, as a matter of justice, to the victims of disasters? This article shows what is normatively special and distinctive about disasters and argues for the view that there are substantial duties of justice for liberal democratic states. The article rejects both a libertarian and a utilitarian approach to this question and, based on broadly Rawlsian principles, argues for a ‘political definition’ of disasters that is concerned (...)
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  3. Colleen Murphy & Paolo Gardoni (2010). Gauging the Societal Impacts of Natural Disasters Using a Capability Approach. Disasters 34 (3):619-636.
    There is a widely acknowledged need for a single composite index that provides a comprehensive picture of the societal impact of disasters. A composite index combines and logically organizes important information policy-makers need to allocate resources for the recovery from natural disasters; it can also inform hazard mitigation strategies. This paper develops a Disaster Impact Index (DII) to gauge the societal impact of disasters on the basis of the changes in individuals’ capabilities. The DII can be interpreted (...)
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  4. Robert D. Bullard (2008). Differential Vulnerabilities: Environmental and Economic Inequality and Government Response to Unnatural Disasters. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):753-784.
    This paper uses an environmental justice framework to examine government response to weather-related disasters dating back some eight decades. It places the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster in socio-historical context of past emergencies with an emphasis on race and class dynamics and social vulnerability. Key questions explored include: What went wrong? Can it happen again? Is government equipped to plan for, mitigate against, respond to, and recover from natural and manmade disasters? Can the public trust government response to be (...)
     
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  5.  8
    Satoshi Kodama (2015). Tsunami-Tendenkoand Morality in Disasters. Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):361-363.
    Disaster planning challenges our morality. Everyday rules of action may need to be suspended during large-scale disasters in favour of maxims that that may make prudential or practical sense and may even be morally preferable but emotionally hard to accept, such as tsunami-tendenko. This maxim dictates that the individual not stay and help others but run and preserve his or her life instead. Tsunami-tendenko became well known after the great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011, when almost all (...)
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  6. Charles Perrow (2008). Disasters Evermore? Reducing Our Vulnerabilities to Natural, Industrial, and Terrorist Disasters. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):733-752.
    Natural and industrial disasters are increasing in the U.S., and the terrorist threat is still with us. Our response has been proximate — remediation and protection B rather than basic B reducing our vulnerabilities. Reducing vulnerabilities will involve the deconcentration of hazardous materials, of population density in vulnerable areas, and of private centers of economic and political power. The objection that deconcentration will entail economic inefficiencies is addressed by examining four systems that are very large, highly efficient, robust, radically (...)
     
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  7.  18
    Niki Pfeifer (forthcoming). Cognition and Natural Disasters: Stimulating an Environmental Historical Debate. In E. Vaz, A. Melo & C. J. de Melo (eds.), Proceedings of the Second World Congress of Environmental History. Environmental History in the Making. Springer
    Modern cognitive and clinical psychology offer insight into how people deal with natural disasters. In my methodological paper, I make a strong case for incorporating experimental findings and theoretical concepts of modern psychology into environmental historical disaster research. I show how psychological factors may influence the production and interpretation of historical sources with respect to perceptions of and responses to disasters. While previous psychological approaches to history mostly involve psychoanalysis, I focus on empirical psychology. Specifically, I review a (...)
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  8. Robert J. Ursano, Carol S. Fullerton & Artin Terhakopian (2008). Disasters and Health: Distress, Disorders, and Disaster Behaviors in Communities, Neighborhoods, and Nations. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):1015-1028.
    Disasters overwhelm resources and threaten the safety and functioning of communities. Mental health and community needs after catastrophic disasters can be substantial, however the effects of traumatic events are not exclusively bad with many people showing individual resilience and some reporting growth. Sustaining the social fabric of the community and facilitating recovery following disaster depends on leadership=s knowledge of a community=s resilience and vulnerabilities as well as an understanding of the distress, disorder, and health risk behavioral responses. A (...)
     
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  9. Elliot Aronson (2008). Fear, Denial, and Sensible Action in the Face of Disasters. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):855-872.
    How can we use our knowledge of how the mind works to help people act in ways that can prevent disaster, prepare for it, or at the very least, help them respond to a disaster in ways that will reduce its impact? This paper suggests that the most effective method for helping the public deal with disaster, and preventing denial, is to provide them with a concrete, doable, and effective strategy. A number of examples are discussed, including government warnings about (...)
     
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  10.  87
    John D. Bishop (1991). The Moral Responsibility of Corporate Executives for Disasters. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (5):377 - 383.
    This paper examines whether or not senior corporate executives are morally responsible for disasters which result from corporate activities. The discussion is limited to the case in which the information needed to prevent the disaster is present within the corporation, but fails to reach senior executives. The failure of information to reach executives is usually a result of negative information blockage, a phenomenon caused by the differing roles of constraints and goals within corporations. Executives should be held professionally responsible (...)
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  11.  6
    Evaldo Becker & Michele Amorim Becker (2014). Rousseau's Contributions to the Understanding of Contemporary Socioenvironmental Disasters. Trans/Form/Ação 37 (2):111-126.
    Nosso objetivo no presente artigo é contextualizar as críticas de Rousseau àquilo que posteriormente será designado como ética socioambiental, a partir da qual se analisam as relações dos homens com o meio ambiente e como estas são determinadas e também determinantes de suas ações ético-políticas. Pretende-se ainda verificar em que medida o pensamento de Rousseau pode contribuir para o entendimento dos desastres socioambientais, na atualidade. This paper aims at contextualizing Rousseau's critiques of what would later be called the socio-environmental ethics, (...)
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  12.  32
    Robert Larmer (1996). Corporate Executives: Disasters and Moral Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (7):785 - 788.
    In his article The Moral Responsibility of Corporate Executives for Disasters, John Bishop has argued that we are justified on moral considerations for holding corporate executives responsible for disasters resulting from corporate activities, even in circumstances where they could not reasonably have been expected to possess the information necessary to avert these disasters. I argue that he is mistaken in this claim.
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  13.  52
    John Protevi, Evolution, Neuroscience, and Prosocial Behavior in Disasters.
    Sociologists have known for some time of the widespread incidence of prosocial behavior in the aftermath of disasters (research summarized in Rodriguez, Trainor, and Quarantelli 2006). They have also criticized the role of media in spreading “disaster myths” which include the idea of widespread anti-social behavior (Tierney, Bevc, and Kuligowski 2006). In this essay I will investigate the evolutionary theory and neuroscience needed to account for such prosocial behavior, as well as to discuss the political entailments and consequence of (...)
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  14.  15
    B. Janz, Places That Disasters Leave Behind.
    In 2004 Orlando Florida was hit with an almost unprecedented series of storms and hurricanes. Within two months, Hurricanes Charley, Frances, and Jeanne hit, and Hurricane Ivan made a near miss. Billions of dollars of damage resulted from these disasters, and several dozen lives were lost. It is tempting, in the case of extreme events, to either regard them as having no need of interpretation (that is, as simply given, material events shared by everyone), or as a kind of (...)
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  15. C. Murphy & P. Gardoni (2008). Recovery From Natural and Man-Made Disasters As Capabilities Restoration and Enhancement. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 3 (4):1-17.
    In the literature on the recovery of societies from natural disasters, a dominant theme is the importance of pursuing and achieving sustainable recovery. Sustainability implies that recovery efforts should aim to (re-) build, maintain, and, if possible, enhance the quality of life of members of the disaster-stricken community in the short and long term. In this paper, we propose a capabilities-based approach to recovery and argue that it provides important theoretical resources for better realizing this ideal of sustainability in (...)
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  16.  2
    Joana Arantes, Randolph C. Grace & Simon Kemp (2013). Press Freedom, Oil Exports, and Risk for Natural Disasters: A Challenge for Climato-Economic Theory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):483-483.
    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.
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  17.  3
    M. Daniel (2011). Bedside Resource Stewardship in Disasters: A Provider's Dilemma Practicing in an Ethical Gap. Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (4):331-335.
    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using (...)
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  18.  1
    Bryan Kibbe (2011). Aging and Disasters: Facing Natural and Other Disasters. In Ethics, Aging, and Society: The Critical Turn. Springer Publishing 255-279.
    “Aging and Disasters,” is an effort to tell a consistent and compelling story about the elderly amidst catastrophic disaster, and to then develop an ethical analysis and practical strategy for addressing the unique situation of the elderly. In the first portion of the chapter I make the case that the elderly are routinely overlooked amidst catastrophic disasters, and thereby often suffer disproportionately relative to the general population. More than being just a vulnerable population of people, the elderly are (...)
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  19.  2
    Bartha Maria Knoppers, Madelaine Saginur & Howard Cash (2006). Ethical Issues in Secondary Uses of Human Biological Materials From Mass Disasters. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (2):352-365.
    This paper addresses the ethical issues of secondary uses of samples collected for identification purposes following mass disasters. It studies norms governing secondary use of samples , ultimately concluding that limited secondary research uses of these samples should be permissible.
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  20.  2
    Adam Morton (1993). [Book Review] Disasters and Dilemmas, Strategies for Real-Life Decision Making. [REVIEW] Ethics 103 (2):382-385.
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  21.  11
    Alejandra Mancilla (2014). The Volcanic Asymmetry or the Question of Permanent Sovereignty Over Natural Disasters. Journal of Political Philosophy 23 (1):192-212.
    Why do we assign to countries rights to all the positive utilities from their natural resources, but hold them under no duty to bear costs for the negative utilities generated by those resources for those beyond their borders? In this paper I suggest that this ‘volcanic asymmetry’ has been overlooked by statist and cosmopolitan theories and that, despite of the arguments that might be given on its behalf, keeping this asymmetry requires further normative justification. I present two ways of getting (...)
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  22. Joel Towers (2008). ""Introduction: What" Really" Happens When Disasters Happen: Preparations and Responses. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):815-818.
     
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  23. Jonathan Veitch (2008). Introduction: What We Talk About When We Talk About Disasters. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):653-658.
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  24.  81
    Dennis Olson (forthcoming). Book Review: Creation Untamed: The Bible, God, and Natural Disasters. [REVIEW] Interpretation 65 (4):421-421.
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  25.  36
    Irwin Redlener (2008). Population Vulnerabilities, Preconditions, and the Consequences of Disasters. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):785-792.
    In every corner of the globe, natural hazards are ubiquitous and varied from every perspective. Atmospheric and weather conditions, geological movements and other recurrent disturbances would occur with or without the existence of humans on the planet. It is when these natural events cause catastrophic consequences for human populations that they become what we call Adisasters.@ The extent to which people are at risk under disaster conditions, irrespective of etiology, is dependent upon many factors, not the least of which is (...)
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  26.  17
    Christopher W. Morris (1993). Disasters and Dilemmas: Strategies for Real-Life Decision Making. Philosophical Books 34 (1):49-51.
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  27.  1
    Ross Harrison & Adam Morton (1993). Disasters and Dilemmas. Philosophical Quarterly 43 (171):270.
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  28.  3
    Louise Fortmann (1988). Great Planting Disasters: Pitfalls in Technical Assistance in Forestry. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 5 (1-2):49-60.
    Social forestry, in contrast to traditional forestry, is intended to meet biological/environmental, procedural and equity goals. Social forestry projects may not fulfill this multiplicity of goals either because priority is given to a single goal or because various factors including the structure and norms of implementing institutions and the distribution of local power overwhelm procedural and distributive intentions. Thus, despite participatory and equitable project designs, social forestry projects may result in the distribution of benefits to the rich and costs to (...)
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  29.  12
    Kyriakos Keremedis (2001). Disasters in Topology Without the Axiom of Choice. Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (8):569-580.
    We show that some well known theorems in topology may not be true without the axiom of choice.
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  30.  10
    Kenneth Kipnis (2013). Disasters, Catastrophes, and Worse. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (3):297-307.
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  31.  9
    Chesmal Siriwardhana, Suwin Hewage, Ruwan Deshabandu, Sisira Siribaddana & Athula Sumathipala (2012). Psychosocial and Ethical Response to Disasters: A SWOT Analysis of Post-Tsunami Disaster Management in Sri Lanka. Asian Bioethics Review 4 (3):171-182.
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  32.  9
    James Dwyer, Kenzo Hamano & Hsuan Hui Wei (2012). The Disasters of March 11th. Hastings Center Report 42 (4):11-13.
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  33.  10
    Italo Subbarao, Matthew K. Wynia & Frederick M. Burkle Jr (2010). The Elephant in the Room: Collaboration and Competition Among Relief Organizations During High-Profile Disasters. Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (4):328.
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  34.  8
    Joseph J. Fins (2005). Everyday Disasters. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (2):207-213.
    “That's my dad on the floor.”And there he was unconscious in a pool of blood in the bathroom. A paramedic who had accompanied him to the john was holding him off the ground, the USMC tattoo on his forearm cradling his head. My sister shrieked, and I went down on my knees to see about his airway. “We need a doctor here. Cardiac Team!” Could this really be happening to him? To us? Jesus Christ.
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  35.  5
    David Oldroyd (2009). Disasters Are Political As Well As Natural. Metascience 18 (3):497-499.
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  36.  3
    Beverly Kracher (1993). Snakepits and Disasters. Business Ethics Quarterly 3 (1):69-78.
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  37.  4
    Griffin Trotter (2010). Sufficiency of Care in Disasters: Ventilation, Ventilator Triage, and the Misconception of Guideline-Driven Treatment. Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (4):294.
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  38.  5
    Atsushi Asai (2015). Tsunami-Tendenkoand Morality in Disasters. Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):365-366.
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  39.  3
    Sandra L. Borden (2010). As Lee Wilkins Argues in Her Article in This Collection, Journalism Seems to Come Into its Own During Natural Disasters. The Sheer Drama of Such Events Makes for Great Storytelling and Provides a National Showcase for the Talents of Local Reporters. This Was Illustrated Again in 2005 When the Great Flood Caused by Hurricane Katrina Overcame New Orleans and Chased Out the Staff of the Times-Picayune. At First, the Paper Was Unable to Issue a Print Edi-Tion and Instead Published on its Affiliated Nola ... [REVIEW] In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press 53.
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  40.  4
    Anant Bhan (2010). Ethical Issues Arising in Responding to Disasters: Need for a Focus on Preparation, Prioritisation and Protection. Asian Bioethics Review 2 (2):143-147.
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  41.  1
    Lee L. Brice (2015). J. Toner Roman Disasters. Pp. X + 220, Ills. Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2013. Cased, £20. ISBN: 978-0-7456-5102-6. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 65 (2):616-617.
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  42.  7
    A. Akabayashi, Y. Takimoto & Y. Hayashi (2012). Physician Obligation to Provide Care During Disasters: Should Physicians Have Been Required to Go to Fukushima? Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):697-698.
    On 11 March 2011, Japan experienced a major disaster brought about by a 9.0-magnitude earthquake and a massive tsunami that followed. This disaster caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant with the release of a large amount of radiation, leading to a crisis level 7 on the International Atomic Energy Agency scale. In this report, we discuss the obligations of physicians to provide care during the initial weeks after the disaster. We appeal to the obligation of general (...)
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  43.  3
    John L. Casti (2001). Risk, Natural Disasters, and Complex System Theory. Complexity 7 (2):11-13.
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  44.  3
    Eleni Papagaroufali (2010). Disasters That Matter: Gifts of Life in the Arena of International Diplomacy. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 12 (2):43-68.
    This article examines the bodily donations made by Greeks, Turks and Cypriots to the victims of two devastating earthquakes in Turkey and Greece (1999), as well as to a Greek and a Turkish Cypriot boy, both suffering from leukemia (2000). Considering the age old discourse of amity and enmity shared by the citizens of the three nation states, I ask what made them see these hardly rare events as exceptionally important, and rush to offer each other their blood and body (...)
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  45.  3
    J. T. Berger (2011). Resource Stewardship in Disasters: Alone at the Bedside. Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (4):336-337.
    Discussions about resource allocation commonly invoke concerns of unfair and variable decisions when physicians ration at the bedside. This concern is no less germane in disaster medicine, in which physicians make triage and allocation decisions under duress, and patients and their families may be challenged to self-advocate. Unfortunately, a real-time mechanism to support a process for ethical decision making may not be available to medical relief workers. Yet, resources for ethics decision support can be important for the moral well-being of (...)
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  46.  6
    Richard H. Carmona (2007). Preparedness for Natural Disasters. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (s4):11-16.
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  47.  1
    Kenneth Kipnis (2013). Disasters, Catastrophes, and Worse - A Scalar Taxonomy. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (3):297-307.
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  48.  1
    Tia Powell (2010). Family Participation in the Care of Patients in Public Health Disasters. Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (4):288.
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  49.  1
    Barbara J. Tewksbury (1999). Beyond Hazards and Disasters-Teaching Students Geoscience by Probing the Underlying Influence of Geology on Human Events. Science and Education 8 (6):645-663.
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  50.  1
    Caroline Clarinval & Ayesha Ahmad (2015). Conceptualising Phases of Disasters: The Drop Loop Model. Asian Bioethics Review 7 (1):81-97.
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