Search results for 'Discrimination' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Mark V. Roehling (2002). Weight Discrimination in the American Workplace: Ethical Issues and Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 40 (2):177 - 189.score: 18.0
    Research providing consistent evidence of pervasive discrimination against overweight job applicants and employees in the American workplace raises important questions for organizational stakeholders. To what extent is the disparate treatment of job applicants or employees based on their weight ethically justified? Are there aspects of weight discrimination that make it more acceptable than discrimination based on other characteristics, such as race or gender? What operational steps can employers take to address concerns regarding the ethical treatment of overweight (...)
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  2. Kasper Lippert-rasmussen (2006). The Badness of Discrimination. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (2):167 - 185.score: 18.0
    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad. In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. (...)
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  3. Geert Demuijnck (2009). Non-Discrimination in Human Resources Management as a Moral Obligation. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):83 - 101.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I will argue that it is a moral obligation for companies, firstly, to accept their moral responsibility with respect to non-discrimination, and secondly, to address the issue with a full-fledged programme, including but not limited to the countering of microsocial discrimination processes through specific policies. On the basis of a broad sketch of how some discrimination mechanisms are actually influencing decisions, that is, causing intended as well as unintended bias in Human Resources Management (HRM), (...)
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  4. Myrtle P. Bell, Mary E. Mclaughlin & Jennifer M. Sequeira (2002). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives as Change Agents. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 37 (1):65 - 76.score: 18.0
    In this article, we discuss the relationships between discrimination, harassment, and the glass ceiling, arguing that many of the factors that preclude women from occupying executive and managerial positions also foster sexual harassment. We suggest that measures designed to increase numbers of women in higher level positions will reduce sexual harassment. We first define and discuss discrimination, harassment, and the glass ceiling, relationships between each, and relevant legislation. We next discuss the relationships between gender and sexual harassment, emphasizing (...)
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  5. Markus Weidler & Imran Aijaz (2013). Divine Hiddenness and Discrimination: A Philosophical Dilemma. Sophia 52 (1):95-114.score: 18.0
    Since its first delivery in 1993, J.L. Schellenberg’s atheistic argument from divine hiddenness keeps generating lively debate in various quarters in the philosophy of religion. Over time, the author has responded to many criticisms of his argument, both in its original evidentialist version and in its subsequent conceptualist version. One central problem that has gone undetected in these exchanges to date, we argue, is how Schellenberg’s explicit-recognition criterion for revelation contains discriminatory tendencies against mentally handicapped persons. Viewed from this angle, (...)
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  6. Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (2012). Intentions and Discrimination in Hiring. Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (1):55-74.score: 18.0
    Fundamentally, intentions do not matter to the permissibility of actions, according to Thomas Scanlon (among others). Yet, discriminatory intentions seem essential to certain kinds of direct discrimination in hiring and firing, and appear to be something by virtue of which, in part at least, these kinds of discrimination are morally impermissible. Scanlon's account of the wrongness of discrimination attempts to accommodate this appearance through the notion of the expressive meaning of discriminatory acts and a certain view about (...)
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  7. Oscar Horta (2010). Discrimination in Terms of Moral Exclusion. Theoria 76 (4):314-332.score: 18.0
    This article tries to define what discrimination is and to understand in particular detail its most important instances: those in which the satisfaction of interests is at stake. These cases of discrimination will be characterized in terms of deprivations of benefits. In order to describe and classify them we need to consider three different factors: the benefits of which discriminatees are deprived, the criteria according to which such benefits are denied or granted, and the justification that such deprivation (...)
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  8. Matt Zwolinski (2006). Why Not Regulate Private Discrimination? San Diego Law Review 43 (Fall):1043.score: 18.0
    In the United States, discrimination based on race, religion, and other suspect categories is strictly regulated when it takes place in hiring, promotion, and other areas of the world of commerce. Discrimination in one's private affairs, however, is not subject to legal regulation at all. Assuming that both sorts of discrimination can be equally morally wrong, why then should this disparity in legal treatment exist? This paper attempts to find a theory that can simultaneously explain these divergent (...)
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  9. Axel Gosseries (2012). Equality and Non-Discrimination in Hiring - Introduction. Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (1):3-7.score: 18.0
    In this introduction, the author briefly presents the way in which Clayton, Segall and Lippert-Rasmussen deal with what egalitarianism has to say about non-discrimination in hiring. Parallels and differences between their approaches are stressed.
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  10. Craig Kunimoto, Jeff G. Miller & Harold Pashler (2001). Confidence and Accuracy of Near-Threshold Discrimination Responses. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):294-340.score: 18.0
    This article reports four subliminal perception experiments using the relationship between confidence and accuracy to assess awareness. Subjects discriminated among stimuli and indicated their confidence in each discrimination response. Subjects were classified as being aware of the stimuli if their confidence judgments predicted accuracy and as being unaware if they did not. In the first experiment, confidence predicted accuracy even at stimulus durations so brief that subjects claimed to be performing at chance. This finding indicates that subjects's claims that (...)
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  11. Eleanor G. Henry & James P. Jennings (2004). Age Discrimination in Layoffs: Factors of Injustice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 54 (3):217 - 224.score: 18.0
    ABSTRACT. This paper considers two sets ethical obligations owed by a firm and its management to stockholders and employees with respect to layoffs. Literature and research from ethics and agency are used to frame ethical issues that pertain to age discrimination in layoffs. An actual court case provides an example for focus, analysis, and discussion. Points of discussion include management''s obligations to employees and factors of injustice related to prejudice against age.
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  12. José Jorge Mendoza (2014). Discrimination and the Presumptive Rights of Immigrants. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1):68-83.score: 18.0
    Philosophers have assumed that as long as discriminatory admission and exclusion policies are off the table, it is possible for one to adopt a restrictionist position on the issue of immigration without having to worry that this position might entail discriminatory outcomes. The problem with this assumption emerges, however,when two important points are taken into consideration. First, immigration controls are not simply discriminatory because they are based on racist or ethnocentric attitudes and beliefs, but can themselves also be the source (...)
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  13. Wilfried Allaerts (1999). The Biological Function Paradigm Applied to the Immunological Self-Non-Self Discrimination: Critique of Tauber's Phenomenological Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 30 (1):155-171.score: 18.0
    Biological self reference idioms in brain-centered or nervous-system-centered self determination of the consious Self reveal an interesting contrast with biological self-determination by immunological self/non-self discrimination. This contrast is both biological and epistemological. In contrast to the consciousness conscious of itself, the immunological self-determination imposes a protective mechanism against self-recognition (Coutinho et al. 1984), which adds to a largely unconscious achievement of the biological Self (Popper 1977; Medawar 1959). The latter viewpoint is in contrast with the immunological Self-determination as an (...)
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  14. Oscar H. Gandy (2010). Engaging Rational Discrimination: Exploring Reasons for Placing Regulatory Constraints on Decision Support Systems. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):29-42.score: 18.0
    In the future systems of ambient intelligence will include decision support systems that will automate the process of discrimination among people that seek entry into environments and to engage in search of the opportunities that are available there. This article argues that these systems must be subject to active and continuous assessment and regulation because of the ways in which they are likely to contribute to economic and social inequality. This regulatory constraint must involve limitations on the collection and (...)
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  15. Lisa N. Geller, Joseph S. Alper, Paul R. Billings, Carol I. Barash, Jonathan Beckwith & Marvin R. Natowicz (1996). Individual, Family, and Societal Dimensions of Genetic Discrimination: A Case Study Analysis. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (1):71-88.score: 18.0
    Background. As the development and use of genetic tests have increased, so have concerns regarding the uses of genetic information. Genetic discrimination, the differential treatment of individuals based on real or perceived differences in their genomes, is a recently described form of discrimination. The range and significance of experiences associated with this form of discrimination are not yet well known and are investigated in this study. Methods. Individuals at-risk to develop a genetic condition and parents of children (...)
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  16. Sevki Ozgener (2008). Diversity Management and Demographic Differences-Based Discrimination: The Case of Turkish Manufacturing Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):621 - 631.score: 18.0
    In the late 1980s workforce became more diverse in terms of demographic changes, cultural differences and other characteristics of organizational members. This diversity was a reflection of changing global markets. Workforce diversity has both positive and negative effects on organizational performance. Therefore, it is becoming important especially for medium- and large-scale businesses. In order to manage increasingly workforce diversity and to prevent discrimination, diversity management is now considered as a major part of strategic human resource management. The purpose of (...)
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  17. Re'em Segev (2013). Making Sense of Discrimination. Ratio Juris (1):47-78.score: 18.0
    Discrimination is a central moral and legal concept. However, it is also a contested one. Particularly, accounts of the wrongness of discrimination often rely on controversial and particular assumptions. In this paper, I argue that a theory of discrimination that relies on premises that are general (rather than unique to the concept of discrimination) and widely accepted provides a plausible (exhaustive) account of the concept of wrongful discrimination. According to the combined theory, wrongful discrimination (...)
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  18. Margaret Otlowski (2005). Exploring the Concept of Genetic Discrimination. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2 (3):165-176.score: 18.0
    The issue of genetic discrimination has attracted growing attention and has been the focus of a recent major Australian inquiry. It is, however, a complex and loaded notion, open to interpretation. This paper explores the concept of genetic discrimination in both its theoretical and practical dimensions. It examines its conceptual underpinnings, how it is understood, and how this understanding fits within the legal framework of disability discrimination. The paper also examines the phenomenon in practice, including the ‘fear (...)
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  19. Douglas A. Hicks (2002). Gender, Discrimination, and Capability: Insights From Amartya Sen. Journal of Religious Ethics 30 (1):137 - 154.score: 18.0
    This essay critically examines economist and philosopher Amartya Sen's writings as a potential resource in religious ethicists' efforts to analyze discrimination against girls and women and to address their well-being and agency. Delineating how Sen's discussions of "missing women" and "gender and cooperative conflict" fit within his "capability approach" to economic and human development, the article explores how Sen's methodology employs empirical analysis toward normative ends. Those ends expand the capability of girls and women to function in all aspects (...)
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  20. Eugen Fischer (2001). Discrimination: A Challenge to First-Person Authority? Philosophical Investigations 24 (4):330-346.score: 18.0
    It is no surprise that empirical psychology refutes, again and again, assumptions of uneducated common sense. But some puzzlement tends to arise when scientific results appear to call into question the very conceptual framework of the mental to which we have become accustomed. This paper shall examine a case in point: Experiments on colour-discrimination have recently been taken to refute an assumption of first-person authority that appears to be constitutive of our ordinary notion of perceptual experience. The paper is (...)
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  21. Mahmoud Morvarid (forthcoming). The Discrimination Argument: A Reply to Dierig. Erkenntnis:1-11.score: 18.0
    Boghossian’s discrimination argument aims to show that content externalism undermines the privileged access thesis. Simon Dierig has recently proposed a new objection to Boghossian’s argument according to which having a “twater thought” is not an alternative, and a fortiori not a relevant alternative, to possessing a “water thought”. Dierig also considers, and criticizes, a modified version of the discrimination argument which would be immune to his objection. I shall argue, first, that he fails to advance a successful objection (...)
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  22. Javier Portillo & Walter E. Block (2012). Anti-Discrimination Laws: Undermining Our Rights. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):209-217.score: 18.0
    The purpose of this article is to argue in favor of a private employer’s right to discriminate amongst job applicants on any basis he chooses, and this certainly includes unlawful characteristics such as race, sex, national origin, sexual preference, religion, etc. John Locke and many after him have argued that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property or the pursuit of happiness. In this view, law should be confined to protecting these rights and be limited to prohibiting other (...)
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  23. María Del Carmen Triana, Kwanghyun Kim & María Fernanda García (2011). To Help or Not to Help? Personal Value for Diversity Moderates the Relationship Between Discrimination Against Minorities and Citizenship Behavior Toward Minorities. Journal of Business Ethics 102 (2):333-342.score: 18.0
    Using the scope of justice perspective (Deutsch in J Soc Issues 31(3):137–149, 1975 ; Opotow in Conflict, cooperation, and justice: essays inspired by the work of Morton Deutsch, 1995 , J Soc Issues 52:19–24, 1996 ), we examined whether and how the relationship between perceived discrimination against minorities at work (i.e., racial minorities and females) and citizenship behavior toward minorities can be modified by personal value for diversity. Based on a survey of 173 employees, unexpectedly, we found a negative (...)
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  24. Lars-Eric Petersen & Franciska Krings (2009). Are Ethical Codes of Conduct Toothless Tigers for Dealing with Employment Discrimination? Journal of Business Ethics 85 (4):501 - 514.score: 18.0
    This study examined the influence of two organizational context variables, codes of conduct and supervisor advice, on personnel decisions in an experimental simulation. Specifically, we studied personnel evaluations and decisions in a situation where codes of conduct conflict with supervisor advice. Past studies showed that supervisors’ advice to prefer ingroup over outgroup candidates leads to discriminatory personnel selection decisions. We extended this line of research by studying how codes of conduct and code enforcement may reduce this form of discrimination. (...)
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  25. Salvatore Ruggieri, Dino Pedreschi & Franco Turini (2010). Integrating Induction and Deduction for Finding Evidence of Discrimination. Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (1):1-43.score: 18.0
    We present a reference model for finding (prima facie) evidence of discrimination in datasets of historical decision records in socially sensitive tasks, including access to credit, mortgage, insurance, labor market and other benefits. We formalize the process of direct and indirect discrimination discovery in a rule-based framework, by modelling protected-by-law groups, such as minorities or disadvantaged segments, and contexts where discrimination occurs. Classification rules, extracted from the historical records, allow for unveiling contexts of unlawful discrimination, where (...)
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  26. Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (2011). "We Are All Different": Statistical Discrimination and the Right to Be Treated as an Individual. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 15 (1/2):47 - 59.score: 18.0
    There are many objections to statistical discrimination in general and racial profiling in particular. One objection appeals to the idea that people have a right to be treated as individuals. Statistical discrimination violates this right because, presumably, it involves treating people simply on the basis of statistical facts about groups to which they belong while ignoring non-statistical evidence about them. While there is something to this objection—there are objectionable ways of treating others that seem aptly described as failing (...)
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  27. Mahmut Sonmez, Deli Yang & Gerald Fryxell (2013). Interactive Role of Consumer Discrimination and Branding Against Counterfeiting: A Study of Multinational Managers' Perception of Global Brands in China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (1):195-211.score: 18.0
    Prior research has examined consumer intentions to purchase fakes, branding strategies and anti-counterfeiting actions, but little attention seems to have been paid to the role of consumers’ ability to discern fakes and branding strategies against counterfeiting. This article, thus, based on a study of 128 multinational managers’ experience in China, examines these inter-relationships. As a result, we address how knowledgeable and experienced managers in branding, consumer consumption and anti-counterfeiting effort perceive consumers’ ability to discriminate fakes from originals interacts with branding (...)
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  28. Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (2013). Born Free and Equal? A Philosophical Inquiry Into the Nature of Discrimination. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    This book addresses these three issues: What is discrimination?; What makes it wrong?; What should be done about wrongful discrimination? It argues: that there are different concepts of discrimination; that discrimination is not always morally wrong and that when it is, it is so primarily because of its harmful effects.
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  29. Melinda Gormley (2009). Scientific Discrimination and the Activist Scientist: L. C. Dunn and the Professionalization of Genetics and Human Genetics in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):33 - 72.score: 18.0
    During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L. C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's primary (...)
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  30. N. E. Barraclough B. D. Keefe, M. Dzhelyova, D. I. Perrett (2013). Adaptation Improves Face Trustworthiness Discrimination. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted (...)
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  31. Luis M. Gómez-Laplaza & Robert Gerlai (2012). Activity Counts: The Effect of Swimming Activity on Quantity Discrimination in Fish. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Human infants and nonhuman animals can discriminate the larger of two sets of discrete items. This quantity discrimination may be based upon the number of items, or upon non-numerical variables of the sets that co-vary with number. We have demonstrated that angelfish select the larger of two shoals of conspecifics without using inter-fish distance or space occupied by the stimuli as cues. However, density appeared to influence the choice between large shoals. Here, we examine the role of another non-numerical (...)
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  32. Yuki Henselek, Julia Fischer & Christian Schloegl (2012). Does the Stimulus Type Influence Horses' Performance in a Quantity Discrimination Task? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    The ability to understand the relation between quantities has been documented in a wide range of species. Such quantity discrimination competences are commonly demonstrated by a choice of the larger quantity or numerosity in a two-choice task. However, despite their overall success, many subjects commit a surprisingly large number of errors even in simple discriminations such as 1 vs. 3. Recently, it had been suggested that this is a result of the testing procedure. When monkeys could choose between different (...)
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  33. Nicole Y. Y. Wicha Ryan J. Giuliano, Peter Q. Pfordresher, Emily M. Stanley, Shalini Narayana (2011). Native Experience with a Tone Language Enhances Pitch Discrimination and the Timing of Neural Responses to Pitch Change. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone (...)
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  34. Lauren M. Guillette, Tara M. Farrell, Marisa Hoeschele & Christopher B. PhD Sturdy (2010). Acoustic Mechanisms of a Species-Based Discrimination of the Chick-a-Dee Call in Sympatric Black-Capped (Poecile Atricapillus) and Mountain Chickadees (P. Gambeli). Frontiers in Psychology 1:229.score: 18.0
    Previous perceptual research with black-capped and mountain chickadees has demonstrated that these species treat each other’s namesake chick-a-dee calls as belonging to separate, open-ended categories. Further, the terminal dee portion of the call has been implicated as the most prominent species marker. However, statistical classification using acoustic summary features suggests that all note-types contained within the chick-a-dee call should be sufficient for species classification. The current study seeks to better understand the note-type based mechanisms underlying species-based classification of the chick-a-dee (...)
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  35. Rosemary Hunter (2002). Talking Up Equality: Women Barristers and the Denial of Discrimination. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 10 (2):113-130.score: 18.0
    This article examines the phenomenon of women barristers' denials of the existence of discrimination against women at the Bar, against a backdrop of widespread evidence of sex discrimination and gender bias in this branch of the legal profession. Using interview transcripts from a research study of the status of women at one of the independent Bars in Australia, the article analyses the various stories told by senior women barristers to the interviewers about their gender and experiences at the (...)
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  36. Daniel Goldreich Jonathan Tong, Oliver Mao (2013). Two-Point Orientation Discrimination Versus the Traditional Two-Point Test for Tactile Spatial Acuity Assessment. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the (...)
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  37. Hugh R. Wilson Michael Vesker (2012). Face Context Advantage Explained by Vernier and Separation Discrimination Acuity. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face-context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and (...)
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  38. Mfa Otlowski (2005). Exploring the Concept of Genetic Discrimination. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2 (3):165-176.score: 18.0
    The issue of genetic discrimination has attracted growing attention and has been the focus of a recent major Australian inquiry. It is, however, a complex and loaded notion, open to interpretation. This paper explores the concept of genetic discrimination in both its theoretical and practical dimensions. It examines its conceptual underpinnings, how it is understood, and how this understanding fits within the legal framework of disability discrimination. The paper also examines the phenomenon in practice, including the ‘fear (...)
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  39. Jasper Robinson (2013). Diminished Acquired Equivalence yet Good Discrimination Performance in Older Participants. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences (‘like’ [+] or ‘dislike’ [-]) for sports (e.g., tennis [t] and hockey [h]) of four fictitious people (e.g., Alice [A], Beth [B], Charlotte [C] & Dorothy [D]). In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt-, Ct+, Dt-, Ah-, Bh+, Ch-, (...)
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  40. Giosuè Baggio Andrea Pavan, Māris Skujevskis (2013). Motion Words Selectively Modulate Direction Discrimination Sensitivity for Threshold Motion. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Can speech selectively modulate the sensitivity of a sensory system so that, in the presence of a suitable linguistic context, the discrimination of certain perceptual features becomes more or less likely? In this study, participants heard upward or downward motion words followed by a single visual field of random dots moving upwards or downwards. The time interval between the onsets of the auditory and the visual stimuli was varied parametrically. Motion direction could be either discriminable (suprathreshold motion) or non-discriminable (...)
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  41. Adam D. Bailey (forthcoming). Anti-Discrimination Law, Religious Organizations, and Justice. New Blackfriars.score: 18.0
    In many jurisdictions the list of factors for which anti-discrimination law applies has been expanded to include sexual orientation. As a result, moral and legal difficulties have arisen for religious organizations whose basic beliefs include the belief that sexual acts between persons of the same sex are immoral. In light of these difficulties, is anti-discrimination law of this sort unjust? Recently John Finnis has argued that, as commonly applied, such anti-discrimination law is disproportionate and therefore unjust. In (...)
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  42. Joseph M. Baker, Justice Morath, Katrina S. Rodzon & Kerry E. Jordan (2012). A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously (...)
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  43. David Edmonds (2006). Caste Wars: A Philosophy of Discrimination. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The central topic for this book is the ethics of treating individuals as though they are members of groups. The book raises many interesting questions, including: why do we feel so much more strongly about discrimination on certain grounds e.g. of race and sex - than discrimination on other grounds? Are we right to think that discrimination based on these characteristics is especially invidious? what should we think about rational discrimination discrimination which is based on (...)
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  44. Freda-Marie Hartung & Britta Renner (2013). Perceived and Actual Social Discrimination: The Case of Overweight and Social Inclusion. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    The present study examined the correspondence between perceived and actual social discrimination of overweight people. In total, 77 first-year students provided self-ratings about their height, weight, and perceived social inclusion. To capture actual social inclusion, each participant nominated those fellow students a) she/he likes and dislikes and b) about whom she/he is likely to hear social news. Students with lower BMI felt socially included, irrespective of their actual social inclusion. In contrast, students with higher BMI felt socially included depending (...)
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  45. Stéphanie Cummings Isabelle Peretz, Sébastien Nguyen (2011). Tone Language Fluency Impairs Pitch Discrimination. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval). They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in (...)
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  46. Kerry E. Jordan Joseph M. Baker, Justice Morath, Katrina S. Rodzon (2012). A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously (...)
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  47. B. J. Casey Nim Tottenham, Todd A. Hare (2011). Behavioral Assessment of Emotion Discrimination, Emotion Regulation, and Cognitive Control in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Emotion discrimination, emotion regulation, and cognitive control are three related, yet separable processes that emerge over the course of development. The current study tested 100 children, adolescents, and adults on an Emotional Go/Nogo task, illustrating the ability of this paradigm to identify the unique developmental patterns for each of these three processes in the context of both positive (happy) and negative emotions (fear, sad and anger), across three different age groups. Consistent with previous literature, our findings show that emotion (...)
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  48. Ruth Wilkinson (2010). Unjustified Discrimination: Is the Moratorium on the Use of Genetic Test Results by Insurers a Contradiction in Terms? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 18 (3):279-293.score: 18.0
    This paper considers the legal position of genetic test results in insurance law in England and Wales. The strict position is that this information is material to the decision of the insurer to offer insurance cover and should be disclosed by insurance applicants. However, the British Government and the Association of British Insurers have agreed to a moratorium on the use of genetic test results in insurance, which will run until 2014. The moratorium prohibits unfavourable treatment of insurance clients on (...)
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  49. Stephen Wood, Johan Braeken & Karen Niven (2013). Discrimination and Well-Being in Organizations: Testing the Differential Power and Organizational Justice Theories of Workplace Aggression. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):617-634.score: 18.0
    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on victims’ well-being will vary in strength depending on the relative power of the perpetrator. We further explore whether the negative impact of discrimination is at least partly explained by its effects on people’s sense of (...)
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  50. Alvin Goldman (1976). Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge. Journal of Philosophy 73 (November):771-791.score: 15.0
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