Search results for 'Disorder' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lubomira Radoilska (2012). Personal Autonomy, Decisional Capacity, and Mental Disorder. In , Autonomy and Mental Disorder. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    In this Introduction, I situate the underlying project “Autonomy and Mental Disorder” with reference to current debates on autonomy in moral and political philosophy, and the philosophy of action. I then offer an overview of the individual contributions. More specifically, I begin by identifying three points of convergence in the debates at issue, stating that autonomy is: 1) a fundamentally liberal concept; 2) an agency concept and; 3) incompatible with (severe) mental disorder. Next, I explore, in the context (...)
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  2. Serife Tekin (2011). Self-Concept Through the Diagnostic Looking Glass: Narratives and Mental Disorder. Philosophical Psychology 24 (3):357-380.score: 18.0
    This paper explores how the diagnosis of mental disorder may affect the diagnosed subject’s self-concept by supplying an account that emphasizes the influence of autobiographical and social narratives on self-understanding. It focuses primarily on the diagnoses made according to the criteria provided by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and suggests that the DSM diagnosis may function as a source of narrative that affects the subject’s self-concept. Engaging in this analysis by appealing to autobiographies and memoirs written (...)
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  3. Christopher James Ryan (2009). Out on a Limb: The Ethical Management of Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Neuroethics 2 (1):21-33.score: 18.0
    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), previously called apotemnophilia, is an extremely rare condition where sufferers desire the amputation of a healthy limb because of distress associated with its presence. This paper reviews the medical and philosophical literature on BIID. It proposes an evidenced based and ethically informed approach to its management. Amputation of a healthy limb is an ethically defensible treatment option in BIID and should be offered in some circumstances, but only after clarification of the diagnosis and consideration (...)
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  4. Marcus P. Adams (2013). Explaining the Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Philosophical Studies 163 (1):233-249.score: 18.0
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. Most involved in the debate about the explanation of the ToM deficit have failed to notice that autism’s status as a spectrum disorder has implications about which explanation is more plausible. In this paper, I argue that the shift from viewing autism as a unified syndrome to a spectrum disorder increases the plausibility of the explanation (...)
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  5. Kent Bach (1993). Emotional Disorder and Attention. In George Graham (ed.), Philosophical Psychopathology. Cambridge: MIT Press.score: 18.0
    Some would say that philosophy can contribute more to the occurrence of mental disorder than to the study of it. Thinking too much does have its risks, but so do willful ignorance and selective inattention. Well, what can philosophy contribute? It is not equipped to enumerate the symptoms and varieties of disorder or to identify their diverse causes, much less offer cures (maybe it can do that-personal philosophical therapy is now available in the Netherlands). On the other hand, (...)
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  6. Steve Matthews (1998). Personal Identity, Multiple Personality Disorder, and Moral Personhood. Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):67-88.score: 18.0
    Marya Schechtman argues that psychological continuity accounts of personal identity, as represented by Derek Parfit's account, fail to escape the circularity objection. She claims that Parfit's deployment of quasi-memory (and other quasi-psychological) states to escape circularity implicitly commit us to an implausible view of human psychology. Schechtman suggests that what is lacking here is a coherence condition, and that this is something essential in any account of personal identity. In response to this I argue first that circularity may be escaped (...)
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  7. Timothy J. Bayne (2002). Moral Status and the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder. Journal Of Medicine And Philosophy 27 (1):87-105.score: 18.0
    Many contemporary bioethicists claim that the possession of certain psychological properties is sufficient for having full moral status. I will call this thepsychological approach to full moral status. In this paper, I argue that there is a significant tension between the psychological approach and a widely held model of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID, formerly Multiple Personality Disorder). According to this model, the individual personalities or alters that belong to someone with DID possess those properties that proponents of the (...)
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  8. Jeanette Kennett & Steve Matthews (2002). Identity, Control and Responsibility: The Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder. Philosophical Psychology 15 (4):509-526.score: 18.0
    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder) is a condition in which a person appears to possess more than one personality, and sometimes very many. Some recent criminal cases involving defendants with DID have resulted in "not guilty" verdicts, though the defense is not always successful in this regard. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Stephen Behnke have argued that we should excuse DID sufferers from responsibility, only if at the time of the act the person was insane (...)
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  9. David Papineau (1994). Mental Disorder, Illness and Biological Disfunction. Philosophy 37:73-82.score: 18.0
    I shall begin with the "anti-psychiatry" view that the lack of a physical basis excludes many familiar mental disorders from the category of "illness". My response to this argument will be that anti-psychiatrists are probably right to hold that most mental disorders do not involve any physical disorder, but that they are wrong to conclude from this that these mental disorders are not illnesses.
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  10. George Graham (1999). Fuzzy Fault Lines: Selves in Multiple Personality Disorder. Philosophical Explorations 2 (3):159-174.score: 18.0
    This paper outlines a multidimensional conception of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) that differs from the 'orthodox' conception in terms of the content of its commitment to the reality of the self. Unlike the orthodox conception it recognizes that selves are fuzzy entities. By appreciating the possibility that selves are fuzzy entities, it is possible to rebut a form of fictionalism about the self which appeals to clinical data from MPD. Realism about self can be preserved in the face of (...)
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  11. Gerben Meynen (2010). Free Will and Mental Disorder: Exploring the Relationship. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (6):429-443.score: 18.0
    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions “an important loss of freedom” as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how “an important loss of freedom” should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, (...)
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  12. Alfredo Gaete (2009). The Concept of Mental Disorder: A Proposal. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (4):327-339.score: 18.0
    During the last years, there has been an important discussion on the concept of mental disorder. Several accounts of such a concept have been offered by theorists, although neither of these accounts seems to have successfully answered both the question of what it means for a certain mental condition to be a disorder and the question of what it means for a certain disorder to be mental. In this paper, I propose an account of the concept of (...)
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  13. Marga Reimer (2008). Psychopathy Without (the Language of) Disorder. Neuroethics 1 (3):185-198.score: 18.0
    Psychopathy is often characterized in terms of what I call “the language of disorder.” I question whether such language is necessary for an accurate and precise characterization of psychopathy, and I consider the practical implications of how we characterize psychopathy—whether as a biological, or merely normative, disorder.
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  14. Michael J. Shaffer & Jeffery Oakley (2005). Some Epistemological Concerns About Dissociative Identity Disorder and Diagnostic Practices in Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 18 (1):1-29.score: 18.0
    In this paper we argue that dissociative identity disorder (DID) is best interpreted as a causal model of a (possible) post-traumatic psychological process, as a mechanical model of an abnormal psychological condition. From this perspective we examine and criticize the evidential status of DID, and we demonstrate that there is really no good reason to believe that anyone has ever suffered from DID so understood. This is so because the proponents of DID violate basic methodological principles of good causal (...)
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  15. Bengt Brülde (2010). On Defining “Mental Disorder”: Purposes and Conditions of Adequacy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):19-33.score: 18.0
    All definitions of mental disorder are backed up by arguments that rely on general criteria (e.g., that a definition should be consistent with ordinary language). These desiderata are rarely explicitly stated, and there has been no systematic discussion of how different definitions should be assessed. To arrive at a well-founded list of desiderata, we need to know the purpose of a definition. I argue that this purpose must be practical; it should, for example, help us determine who is entitled (...)
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  16. Thomas Schramme (2010). Can We Define Mental Disorder by Using the Criterion of Mental Dysfunction? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):35-47.score: 18.0
    The concept of mental disorder is often defined by reference to the notion of mental dysfunction, which is in line with how the concept of disease in somatic medicine is often defined. However, the notions of mental function and dysfunction seem to suffer from some problems that do not affect models of physiological function. Functions in general have a teleological structure; they are effects of traits that are supposed to have a particular purpose, such that, for example, the heart (...)
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  17. Aimee Bryant (2011). Consent, Autonomy, and the Benefits of Healthy Limb Amputation: Examining the Legality of Surgically Managing Body Integrity Identity Disorder in New Zealand. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (3):281-288.score: 18.0
    Upon first consideration, the desire of an individual to amputate a seemingly healthy limb is a foreign, perhaps unsettling, concept. It is, however, a reality faced by those who suffer from body integrity identity disorder (BIID). In seeking treatment, these individuals request surgery that challenges both the statutory provisions that sanction surgical operations and the limits of consent as a defence in New Zealand. In doing so, questions as to the influence of public policy and the extent of personal (...)
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  18. Terje Sagvolden, Espen Borgå Johansen, Heidi Aase & Vivienne Ann Russell (2005). A Dynamic Developmental Theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive and Combined Subtypes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):397-419.score: 18.0
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic function plays a pivotal role by failing to modulate nondopaminergic (primarily glutamate and GABA) signal transmission appropriately. A hypofunctioning mesolimbic dopamine branch produces altered reinforcement of behavior and deficient extinction of previously reinforced behavior. This gives rise (...)
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  19. Lubomira Radoilska (ed.) (2012). Autonomy and Mental Disorder. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Autonomy is a fundamental though contested concept both in philosophy and the broader intellectual culture of today’s liberal societies. For instance, most of us place great value on the opportunity to make our own decisions and to lead a life of our own choosing. Yet, there is stark disagreement on what is involved in being able to decide autonomously, as well as how important this is compared to other commitments. For example, the success of every group project requires that group (...)
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  20. Christina M. van Der Feltz-Cornelis (2002). The Impact of Factitious Disorder on the Physician-Patient Relationship. An Epistemological Model. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (3):253-261.score: 18.0
    Theoretical models for physician-patient communication in clinical practice are described in literature, but none of them seems adequate for solving the communication problem in clinical practice that emerges in case of factitious disorder. Theoretical models generally imply open communication and respect for the autonomy of the patient. In factitious disorder, the physician is confronted by lies and (self)destructive behaviour of the patient, who in one way or another tries to involve the physician in this behaviour. It is no (...)
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  21. Neil Pickering (2013). Extending Disorder: Essentialism, Family Resemblance and Secondary Sense. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):185-195.score: 18.0
    It is commonly thought that mental disorder is a valid concept only in so far as it is an extension of or continuous with the concept of physical disorder. A valid extension has to meet two criteria: determination and coherence. Essentialists meet these criteria through necessary and sufficient conditions for being a disorder. Two Wittgensteinian alternatives to essentialism are considered and assessed against the two criteria. These are the family resemblance approach and the secondary sense approach. Where (...)
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  22. Michael Jungert (2013). Mental Realities—the Concept of Mental Disorder and the Mind-Body Problem. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Mental realities—the concept of mental disorder and the mind-body problem.
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  23. Simona Giordano (2012). Sliding Doors: Should Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder and Other Body Modifications Be Privately Funded? [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):31-40.score: 18.0
    Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is regarded as a mental illness and included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It will also appear in the DSM-V, due to be published in 2013. The classification of GID as a mental illness is contentious. But what would happen to sufferers if it were removed from the diagnostic manuals? Would people lose their entitlement to funded medical care, or to reimbursement under insurance schemes? On what basis should medical treatment (...)
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  24. Greg Horne (2014). Is Borderline Personality Disorder a Moral or Clinical Condition? Assessing Charland's Argument From Treatment. Neuroethics 7 (2):215-226.score: 18.0
    Louis Charland has argued that the Cluster B personality disorders, including borderline personality disorder, are primarily moral rather than clinical conditions. Part of his argument stems from reflections on effective treatment of borderline personality disorder. In the argument from treatment, he claims that successful treatment of all Cluster B personality disorders requires a positive change in a patient’s moral character. Based on this claim, he concludes (1) that these disorders are, at root, deficits in moral character, and (2) (...)
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  25. Patricia A. Ross (2005). Sorting Out the Concept Disorder. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (2):115-140.score: 18.0
    . Current debates concerning the concept of mental disorder involve many different philosophical issues. However, it is not always clear from these discussions how, or whether, these issues relate to one another, or in exactly what way they are important for the definition of disorder. This article aims to sort through some of the philosophical issues that arise in the current literature and provide a clarification of how these issues are related to one another and whether they are (...)
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  26. Panagiotis Oulis (2012). On the Nature of Mental Disorder: Towards an Objectivist Account. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (5):343-357.score: 18.0
    According to the predominant view within contemporary philosophy of psychiatry, mental disorders involve essentially personal and societal values, and thus, the concept of mental disorder cannot, even in principle, be elucidated in a thoroughly objective manner. Several arguments have been adduced in support of this impossibility thesis. My critical examination of two master arguments advanced to this effect by Derek Bolton and Jerome Wakefield, respectively, raises serious doubts about their soundness. Furthermore, I articulate an alternative, thoroughly objective, though in (...)
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  27. Avinash De Sousa & Gurvinder Kalra (2012). Drug Therapy of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Trends. Mens Sana Monographs 10 (1):45.score: 18.0
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. (...)
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  28. Maël Lemoine (2012). How Does a Psychiatrist Infer From an Observed Condition to a Case of Mental Disorder? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):979-983.score: 18.0
    The main thesis of this paper is that mental health practitioners can legitimately infer that a patient's given condition is a case of mental disorder without having diagnosed any specific mental disorder. The article shows how this is justifiable by relying either on psychopathological reasoning, on 'intentional' analysis or possibly on other modes of reasoning. In the end, it highlights the clinical and philosophical consequences of the plurality of modes of 'inferences to mental disorder'.
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  29. Olof Pettersson (2013). Plato on Necessity and Disorder. Frontiers of Philosophy in China (BRILL) 8 (4):546-565.score: 18.0
    In the Timaeus, Plato makes a distinction between reason and necessity. This distinction is often accounted for as a distinction between two types of causation: purpose oriented causation and mechanistic causation. While reason is associated with the soul and taken to bring about its effects with the good and the beautiful as the end, necessity is understood in terms of a set of natural laws pertaining to material things. In this paper I shall suggest that there are reasons to reconsider (...)
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  30. Jane M. Ussher (2003). The Role of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in the Subjectification of Women. Journal of Medical Humanities 24 (1-2):131-146.score: 18.0
    This paper will examine the way in which premenstrual symptomatology has been represented and regulated by psychology and psychiatry. It questions the “truths” about women's premenstrual experiences that circulate in scientific discourse, namely the fictions framed as facts that serve to regulate femininity, reproduction, and what it is to be “woman.” Hegemonic truths that define Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) and its nosological predecessor Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) are examined to illustrate how regimes of objectified knowledge and practices of “assemblage” come (...)
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  31. Daniel H. Mathalon, Ralph E. Hoffman, Todd D. Watson, Ryan M. Miller, Brian J. Roach & Judith M. Ford (2010). Neurophysiological Distinction Between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3:70.score: 18.0
    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG (...)
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  32. Wim Dekkers & Peter van Domburg (2000). The Role of Doctor and Patient in the Construction of the Pseudo-Epileptic Attack Disorder. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (1):29-38.score: 18.0
    Periodic attacks of uncertain origin, where the clinical presentationresembles epilepsy but there is no evidence of a somatic disease, arecalled Pseudo-Epilepsy or Pseudo-Epileptic Attack Disorder (PEAD). PEADmay be called a `non-disease', i.e. a disorder on the fringes ofestablished disease patterns, because it lacks a rationalpathophysiological explanation. The first aim of this article is tocriticize the idea, common in medical science, that diseases are realentities which exist separately from the patient, waiting to bediscovered by the doctor. We argue that (...)
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  33. Antonia F. De C. Hamilton Amy Pearson, Danielle Ropar (2013). A Review of Visual Perspective Taking in Autism Spectrum Disorder. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Impairments in social cognition are a key symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder. People with autism have great difficulty with understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities which demand the use of spatial and social skills, such as visual perspective taking (VPT). Flavell (1977) defined two levels of perspective taking: VPT level 1 is the ability to understand that other people have a (...)
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  34. Paul Cefalu (2010). The Doubting Disease: Religious Scrupulosity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Historical Context. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 31 (2):111-125.score: 18.0
    Psychologists and cultural historians typically have argued that early modern theologians such as Martin Luther, John Bunyan, and Ignatius Loyola exhibited behavior that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) classifies as a subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder termed “religious scrupulosity.” This essay argues that, although early modern theologians do manifest scrupulosity, such religiosity was a culturally acceptable, even recommended component of spiritual progress, a necessary means of receiving an unmerited bestowal of God’s grace. The larger aim (...)
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  35. Moritz de Greck, Annette F. Bölter, Lisa Lehmann, Cornelia Ulrich, Eva Stockum, Björn Enzi, Thilo Hoffmann, Claus Tempelmann, Manfred Beutel, Jörg Frommer & Georg Northoff (2013). Changes in Brain Activity of Somatoform Disorder Patients During Emotional Empathy After Multimodal Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Somatoform disorder patients show a variety of emotional disturbances including impaired emotion recognition and increased empathic distress. In a previous paper, our group showed that several brain regions involved in emotional processing, such as the parahippocampal gyrus and other regions, were less activated in pre-treatment somatoform disorder patients (compared to healthy controls) during an empathy task. Since the parahippocampal gyrus is involved in emotional memory, its decreased activation might reflect the repression of emotional memories (which - according to (...)
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  36. Coenraad J. Hattingh, Jonathan Ipser, Sean Tromp, Supriya Syal, Christine Lochner, Samantha Jane Brooks Brooks & Dan J. Stein (2013). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Emotion Recognition in Social Anxiety Disorder: An Activation Likelihood Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:347-347.score: 18.0
    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a brain imaging technique that can be used to illustrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with social anxiety disorder. Methods: A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses (...)
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  37. Andrew Francis Leuchter, Ian A. Cook, Yi Jin & Bill Phillips (2013). The Relationship Between Brain Oscillatory Activity and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA) of its (...)
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  38. Joshua H. Balsters Sonja Delmonte, Louise Gallagher, Erik O'Hanlon, Jane McGrath (2013). Functional and Structural Connectivity of Frontostriatal Circuitry in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Abnormalities in frontostriatal circuitry potentially underlie the two core deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); social interaction and communication difficulties and restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. Whilst a few studies have examined connectivity within this circuitry in ASD, no previous study has examined both functional and structural connectivity within the same population. The present study provides the first exploration of both functional and structural frontostriatal connectivity in ASD. Twenty-eight right-handed Caucasian male ASD (17.28±3.57yrs) and 27 right-handed male, age and (...)
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  39. Hiroki C. Tanabe, Hirotaka Kosaka, Daisuke N. Saito, Takahiko Koike, Masamichi J. Hayashi, Keise Izuma, Hidetsugu Komeda, Makoto Ishitobi, Masao Omori, Toshio Munesue, Hidehiko Okazawa, Yuji Wada & Norihiro Sadato (2012). Hard to “Tune In”: Neural Mechanisms of Live Face-to-Face Interaction with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty with eye contact. This might make it difficult for partners to communicate with them face-to-face. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interactions of ASD patients and typically-developed (normal) subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with normal subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline eye contact was maintained while subjects performed a real-time joint-attention (...)
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  40. Shigenobu Kanba Toshihiko Maekawa, Satomi Katsuki, Junji Kishimoto, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Katsuya Ogata, Takao Yamasaki, Takefumi Ueno, Shozo Tobimatsu (2013). Altered Visual Information Processing Systems in Bipolar Disorder: Evidence From Visual MMN and P3. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with BD (...)
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  41. Chetra Yean, Erik Benau, Antonios Dakanalis, Julia M. Hormes, Julie Perone & Alix Timko (2013). The Relationship of Sex and Sexual Orientation to Self-Esteem, Body Shape Satisfaction, and Eating Disorder Symptomatology. Frontiers in Psychology 4:887.score: 18.0
    There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a) differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b) whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image (...)
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  42. Heather A. Berlin Alexis N. Hedrick (2012). Implicit Self-Esteem in Borderline Personality and Depersonalization Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n=18), DPD (n=18), and healthy (...)
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  43. Soraya Seedat Fatima Ahmed, Johan Ras (2012). Volumetric Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Objectives: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are limited. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been best studied in this regard. We systematically reviewed structural neuroimaging findings in pediatric PTSD and OCD. Methods: The literature was reviewed for all sMRI studies examining volumetric parameters using PubMed, ScienceDirect and PsychInfo databases, with no limit on the time frame of publication. Nine studies in pediatric PTSD and 6 in OCD were (...)
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  44. Jana Holtmann, Maike C. Herbort, Torsten Wüstenberg, Joram Soch, Sylvia Richter, Henrik Walter, Stefan Roepke & Björn H. Schott (2013). Trait Anxiety Modulates Fronto-Limbic Processing of Emotional Interference in Borderline Personality Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Previous studies of cognitive alterations in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) have yielded conflicting results. Given that a core feature of BPD is affective instability, which is characterized by emotional hyperreactivity and deficits in emotion regulation, it seems conceivable that short-lasting emotional distress might exert temporary detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli (fearful faces) affect performance and fronto-limbic neural activity patterns during attention-demanding cognitive processing in 16 female, (...)
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  45. Ofra Koffman (forthcoming). 'A Healthier and More Hopeful Person': Illegitimacy, Mental Disorder and the Improved Prognosis of the Adolescent Mother. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities:1-14.score: 18.0
    This paper aims to contribute to the exploration of the shift from a problematisation of ‘unwed motherhood’ to ‘teenage motherhood’ in late twentieth century Britain. It does so by exploring the dominant social scientific understanding of ‘unwed mothers’ during the 1950s and 1960s which suggested that these women suffered from a psychological disorder. I then analyse the conceptualisation of ‘adolescent unwed mothers’ exploring why professionals deemed them to be less disturbed than older women in their predicament. This finding is (...)
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  46. Ilana Ram Marek Preiss, Evelyn Shatil, Radka Čermáková, Dominika Cimermanová (2013). Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in Executive Control. We used computerized cognitive training in anattempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 minutes each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before (...)
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  47. Sabine Müller (2008). Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) – Lassen sich Amputationen gesunder Gliedmaßen ethisch rechtfertigen? Ethik in der Medizin 20 (4):287-299.score: 18.0
    Unter Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) versteht man das sehr seltene Phänomen, dass jemand die Amputation einer oder mehrerer gesunder Gliedmaßen oder die Beibringung einer Querschnittslähmung verlangt. Manche dieser Menschen verstümmeln sich selbst; andere fordern von Chirurgen eine Amputation oder die Durchtrennung des Rückenmarks. Von Psychologen und Psychiatern gibt es unterschiedliche Erklärungsansätze für dieses Phänomen; bisher ist aber keine erfolgreiche psychotherapeutische oder pharmazeutische Therapie bekannt. Betroffenenvertreter erklären den Amputationswunsch in Analogie zu dem Verlangen von Transsexuellen nach chirurgischer Angleichung an (...)
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  48. Thomas J. Schoeneman, Janel Putnam, Ian Rasmussen, Nina Sparr & Stephanie Beechem (2012). “A Fire in the Blood”: Metaphors of Bipolar Disorder in Jamison's An Unquiet Mind. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 33 (3):185-205.score: 18.0
    Content analysis of three chapters of Jamison’s memoir, An Unquiet Mind, shows that depression, mania, and Bipolar Disorder have a common metaphoric core as a sequential process of suffering and adversity that is a form of malevolence and destruction. Depression was down and in, while mania was up, in and distant, circular and zigzag, a powerful force of quickness and motion, fieriness, strangeness, seduction, expansive extravagance, and acuity. Bipolar Disorder is down and away and a sequential and cyclical (...)
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  49. Lars Schulze, Babette Renneberg & Janek S. Lobmaier (2013). Gaze Perception in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:872.score: 18.0
    Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of (...)
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  50. Aviva Yochman (2013). Differential Diagnosis of Sensory Modulation Dysfunction (SMD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Participation, Sensation and Attention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:862.score: 18.0
    Differential diagnosis between sensory modulation disorder (SMD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often challenging, since these disorders occur at a high rate of co-morbidity and share several clinical characteristics. Preliminary studies providing evidence that these are distinct disorders have focused solely on body functions, using sophisticated laboratory measurements. Moreover, no studies have compared participation profiles of these populations. This study is the first to compare the profiles of these populations regarding both ‘body functions’(attention and sensation) and (...)
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