Search results for 'Divine Command Theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Martin Kavka & Randi Rashkover (2004). A Jewish Modified Divine Command Theory. Journal of Religious Ethics 32 (2):387 - 414.score: 412.0
    We claim that divine command metaethicists have not thought through the nature of the expression of divine love with sufficient rigor. We argue, against prior divine command theories, that the radical difference between God and the natural world means that grounding divine command in divine love can only ground a formal claim of the divine on the human; recipients of revelation must construct particular commands out of this formal claim. While some (...)
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  2. Christian Miller (2009). Divine Desire Theory and Obligation. In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave Macmillan. 105--24.score: 396.0
    Thanks largely to the work of Robert Adams and Philip Quinn, the second half of the twentieth century witnessed a resurgence of interest in divine command theory as a viable position in normative theory and meta-ethics. More recently, however, there has been some dissatisfaction with divine command theory even among those philosophers who claim that normative properties are grounded in God, and as a result alternative views have begun to emerge, most notably (...) intention theory (Murphy, Quinn) and divine motivation theory (Zagzebski). My goal here is to outline a distinct theory, divine desire theory, and suggest that, even if it is not clearly superior to these extant views, it is at least worthy of serious consideration.1 As far as this paper is concerned, the discussion will be limited just to the deontic status of actions (obligatory, permissible, forbidden), and so no attempt will be made to also account for axiological properties such as goodness or evil. In order to get oriented to the range of deontological views in this area, consider the following three rough characterizations. (shrink)
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  3. Richard Brian Davis & W. Paul Franks (forthcoming). Counterpossibles and the 'Terrible' Divine Command Deity. Religious Studies:1-19.score: 396.0
    In a series of articles, Wes Morriston has launched what can only be considered a full-scale assault on the divine command theory (DCT) of morality. According to Morriston, proponents of this theory are committed to an alarming counterpossible: that if God did command an annual human sacrifice, it would be morally obligatory. Since only a ‘terrible’ deity would do such a ‘terrible’ thing, we should reject DCT. Indeed, if there were such a deity, the world (...)
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  4. Daniel M. Johnson (2012). The Objectivity of Obligations in Divine Motivation Theory: On Imitation and Submission. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (3):504-517.score: 396.0
    To support her divine motivation theory of the good, which seeks to ground ethics in motives and emphasize the attractiveness of morality over against the compulsion of morality, Linda Zagzebski has proposed an original account of obligations which grounds them in motives. I argue that her account renders obligations objectionably person-relative and that the most promising way to avoid my criticism is to embrace something quite close to a divine command theory of obligation. This requires (...)
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  5. Jeffery L. Johnson (1994). Procedure, Substance, and the Divine Command Theory. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (1):39 - 55.score: 360.0
    Natural theology is still practiced as though substantive theological conclusions can be derived by a quasi-deductive process. Perhaps relevant "evidence" may lead to interesting theological conclusions -- the fact of natural evil, or the cosmic fine-tuning we hear about in contemporary cosmology, both cry out for theological explanation. I remain a skeptic, however, about the value of "a priori" methods in natural theology. The case study in this short discussion is the well known attempt to establish the logical incoherence of (...)
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  6. Scott Hill (2010). Richard Joyce's New Objections to the Divine Command Theory. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):189-196.score: 360.0
    In a 2002 paper for this journal, Richard Joyce presents three new arguments against the Divine Command Theory. In this comment, I attempt to show that each of these arguments is either unpersuasive or uninteresting. Two of Joyce’s arguments are unpersuasive because they rely on an implausible principle or an implausible claim about what counts as a platitude governing use of the term “wrong.” Joyce’s other argument is uninteresting because it is persuasive only if Joyce’s formulation of (...)
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  7. Dale Tuggy (2005). Necessity, Control, and the Divine Command Theory. Sophia 44 (1):53-75.score: 360.0
    The simplest Divine Command Theory is one which identifies rightness with being commanded or willed by God. Two clear and appealing arguments for this theory turn on the idea that laws require a lawgiver, and the idea that God is sovereign or omnipotent. Critical examination of these arguments reveals some fundamental principles at odds with the Divine Command Theory, and yields some more penetrating versions of traditional objections to that theory.
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  8. R. Zachary Manis (2009). Kierkegaard and Divine-Command Theory: Replies to Quinn and Evans. Religious Studies 45 (3):289-307.score: 360.0
    One of the most important recent developments in the discussion of Kierkegaard's ethics is an interpretation defended, in different forms, by Philip Quinn and Stephen Evans. Both argue that a divine-command theory of moral obligation (DCT) is to be found in "Works of Love". Against this view, I argue that, despite significant overlap between DCT and the view of moral obligation found in "Works of Love", there is at least one essential difference between the two: the former, (...)
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  9. Michael J. Almeida (2004). Supervenience and Property-Identical Divine-Command Theory. Religious Studies 40 (3):323-333.score: 360.0
    Property-identical divine-command theory (PDCT) is the view that being obligatory is identical to being commanded by God in just the way that being water is identical to being H2O. If these identity statements are true, then they express necessary a posteriori truths. PDCT has been defended in Robert M. Adams (1987) and William Alston (1990). More recently Mark C. Murphy (2002) has argued that property-identical divine-command theory is inconsistent with two well-known and well-received theses: (...)
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  10. Yong Li (2006). The Divine Command Theory of Mozi. Asian Philosophy 16 (3):237 – 245.score: 360.0
    In this study, I will examine the famous 'divine command theory' of Mozi. Through the discussion of several important chapters of Mozi, including Fayi (law), Tianzhi (the will of heaven), Minggui (knowing the spirits) and Jianai (universal love), I attempt to clarify the arguments of Mozi offered in support of his distinctive ideas of serving heaven, knowing the spirits and loving all. The analysis shows that there are serious problems with his assumptions, hence they fail to support (...)
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  11. Simin Rahimi (2012). Divine Command Theory and Theistic Activism. Heythrop Journal 53 (4):551-559.score: 360.0
    If the divine will is not subject to any principle, and God controls all truths including moral truths, morality will be arbitrary at the deepest level. It will not be possible to offer any explanation of why God has willed certain actions rather than their contraries. Throughout the history of philosophical debate there have been many attempts to support the dependence of moral truths on God's command (or divine command theory) and at the same time (...)
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  12. David Efird (2009). Divine Command Theory and the Semantics of Quantified Modal Logic. In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave Macmillan. 91.score: 360.0
    I offer a series of axiomatic formalizations of Divine Command Theory motivated by certain methodological considerations. Given these considerations, I present what I take to be the best axiomatization of Divine Command Theory, an axiomatization which requires a non-standardsemantics for quantified modal logic.
     
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  13. Matthew Carey Jordan (2013). Divine Commands or Divine Attitudes? Faith and Philosophy 30 (2):159-70.score: 330.0
    In this essay, I present three arguments for the claim that theists should reject divine command theory (DCT) in favor of divine attitude theory (DAT). First, DCT (but not DAT) implies that some cognitively normal human persons are exempt from the dictates of morality. Second, it is incumbent upon us to cultivate the skill of moral judgment, a skill that fits nicely with the claims of DAT but which is superfluous if DCT is true. Third, (...)
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  14. Matthew Carey Jordan (2012). Divine Attitudes, Divine Commands, and the Modal Status of Moral Truths. Religious Studies 48 (1):45-60.score: 330.0
    This essay presents a theistic account of deontic properties that can lay claim to many of the advantages of divine command theory but which avoids its flaws. The account, divine attitude theory, asserts that moral properties should be understood in terms of agent-directed divine attitudes, such that it is morally wrong for an agent to perform an action just in case God would be displeased with the agent for performing that action. Among the virtues (...)
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  15. M. V. Dougherty (2002). Thomas Aquinas and Divine Command Theory. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 76:153-164.score: 312.0
    Nearly all attempts to include Aquinas among the class of divine command theorists have focused on two kinds of texts: those exhibiting Aquinas’s treatment of the apparent immoralities of the patriarchs (e.g., Abraham’s intention to kill Isaac), and those pertaining to Aquinas’s discussion of the divine will. In the present paper, I lay out a third approach unrelated to these two. I argue that Aquinas’s explicit endorsement of one ethical proposition as self-evident throughout his writings is sufficient (...)
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  16. Mariam Attar (2010). Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought. Routledge.score: 310.0
    This book explores philosophical ethics in Arabo-Islamic thought.
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  17. Ton van den Beld (2001). The Morality System with and Without God. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (4):383-399.score: 279.0
    What I set out to do is to cast some doubt on the thesis that, in Bernard Williams''s words, any appeal to God in morality either adds nothing at all, or it adds the wrong sort of thing. A first conclusion is that a morality of real, inescapable and (sometimes) for the agent costly obligations, while being at home in a theistic metaphysic, does not sit easily with metaphysical, atheistic naturalism. The second conclusion is that Christine Korsgaard''s impressive ethical project (...)
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  18. Philip L. Quinn (2000). Divine Command Theory. In Hugh LaFollette - (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Blackwell Publishers. 53--73.score: 279.0
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  19. Richard Joyce (2002). Theistic Ethics and the Euthyphro Dilemma. Journal of Religious Ethics 30 (1):49-75.score: 270.0
    It is widely believed that the Divine Command Theory is untenable due to the Euthyphro Dilemma. This article first examines the Platonic dialogue of that name, and shows that Socrates’s reasoning is faulty. Second, the dilemma in the form in which many contemporary philosophers accept it is examined in detail, and this reasoning is also shown to be deficient. This is not to say, however, that the Divine Command Theory is true—merely that one popular (...)
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  20. Edward Wierenga (1983). A Defensible Divine Command Theory. Noûs 17 (3):387-407.score: 270.0
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  21. Michael W. Austin, Divine Command Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 270.0
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  22. Mark C. Murphy (2002). A Trilemma for Divine Command Theory. Faith and Philosophy 19 (1):22-31.score: 270.0
  23. Kyle Swan (2006). A Metaethical Option for Theists. In Journal of Religious Ethics. 3-20.score: 270.0
    John Hare has proposed “prescriptive realism” in an attempt to stake out a middle-ground position in the twentieth century Anglo-American debates concerning metaethics between substantive moral realists and antirealist-expressivists. The account is supposed to preserve both the normativity and objectivity of moral judgments. Hare defends a version of divine command theory. The proposal succeeds in establishing the middle-ground position Hare intended. However, I argue that prescriptive realism can be strengthened in an interesting way.
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  24. Hardy Jones (1980). Concerning a New Version of the Divine Command Theory of Morality. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (3):195 - 205.score: 270.0
  25. John Chandler (1984). Is the Divine Command Theory Defensible? Religious Studies 20 (3):443 - 452.score: 270.0
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  26. Stephen J. Sullivan (1994). “Why Adams Needs to Modify His Divine-Command Theory One More Time”. Faith and Philosophy 11 (1):72-81.score: 270.0
  27. Robert Burch (1980). Objective Values and the Divine Command Theory of Morality. New Scholasticism 54 (3):279-304.score: 270.0
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  28. A. T. Nuyen (2013). The "Mandate of Heaven": Mencius and the Divine Command Theory of Political Legitimacy. Philosophy East and West 63 (2):113-126.score: 270.0
    In Confucius' time, it was supposed that the sovereign had the mandate of heaven (tianming) to rule. Both Confucius and Mencius speak of a legitimate ruler as someone who has such a mandate and of a deposed ruler as someone who has lost it. Commentators have recently turned their attention to what the reference to the mandate of heaven means, as there are implications for the prospects of democracy in a Confucian state. The result is a wide spectrum of views. (...)
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  29. Edward Wierenga (1984). Utilitarianism and the Divine Command Theory. American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (4):311 - 318.score: 270.0
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  30. Karl Pfeiffer (1992). Towards a Relocation of the Divine Command Theory. Cogito 6 (2):67-69.score: 270.0
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  31. Michael Levine (1994). Adam's Modified Divine Command Theory of Ethics. Sophia 33 (2):63-77.score: 270.0
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  32. Laura M. Purdy (1988). How Many Gods Does It Take? (To Discredit the Divine Command Theory). Teaching Philosophy 11 (2):112-115.score: 270.0
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  33. Charles Taliaferro (1983). The Divine Command Theory of Ethics and the Ideal Observer. Sophia 22 (2):3-8.score: 270.0
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  34. Peter Forrest (1989). An Argument for the Divine Command Theory of Right Action. Sophia 28 (1):2-19.score: 270.0
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  35. Simin Rahimi (2009). Divine Command Theory in the Passage of History. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 14 (2).score: 270.0
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  36. Robert M. Adams (1997). A Modified Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness. In Thomas L. Carson & Paul K. Moser (eds.), Morality and the Good Life. Oup Usa.score: 270.0
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  37. Kavka Martin & Rashkover Randi (2004). A Jewish Modified Divine Command Theory. Journal of Religious Ethics 32 (2).score: 270.0
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  38. John L. Hammond (1986). Divine Command Theories and Human Analogies. Journal of Religious Ethics 14 (1):216 - 223.score: 264.0
    Some writers employ human analogies in their attempts to defend a "divine command theory" of the foundation of morals. I argue that this strategy is self-defeating. Appeal to human analogies has implications which tend to undermine any interesting or full-bodied version of divine command theory. Indeed, this line of discussion suggests there is a logical confusion in the very idea that some agent-even God-might bring about obligations by an act of will.
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  39. Nicholas Unwin (2008). Divine Hoorays: Some Parallels Between Expressivism and Religious Ethics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):659-684.score: 260.0
    Divine law theories of metaethics claim that moral rightness is grounded in God’s commands, wishes and so forth. Expressivist theories, by contrast, claim that to call something morally right is to express our own attitudes, not to report on God’s. Ostensibly, such views are incompatible. However, we shall argue that a rapprochement is possible and beneficial to both sides. Expressivists need to explain the difference between reporting and expressing an attitude, and to address the Frege-Geach problem. Divine law (...)
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  40. Thomas L. Carson (2012). Divine Will/Divine Command Moral Theories and the Problem of Arbitrariness. Religious Studies 48 (4):445 - 468.score: 258.0
    A well-known objection to divine will/divine command moral theories is that they commit us to the view that God's will is arbitrary. I argue that several versions of divine will/divine command moral theories, including two of Robert Adams's versions of the DCT and my own divine preference theory, can be successfully defended against this objection. I argue that, even if God's preferences are somewhat arbitrary, we have reasons to conform our wills to (...)
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  41. Wes Morriston (2009). What If God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for Divine-Command Meta-Ethics. Religious Studies 45 (3):249-267.score: 216.0
    If God commanded something that was obviously evil, would we have a moral obligation to do it? I critically examine three radically different approaches divine-command theorists may take to the problem posed by this question: (1) reject the possibility of such a command by appealing to God's essential goodness; (2) avoid the implication that we should obey such a command by modifying the divine-command theory; and (3) accept the implication that we should obey (...)
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  42. Thomas M. Osborne (2005). Ockham as a Divine-Command Theorist. Religious Studies 41 (1):1-22.score: 216.0
    Although this thesis is denied by much recent scholarship, Ockham holds that the ultimate ground of a moral judgement's truth is a divine command, rather than natural or non-natural properties. God could assign a different moral value not only to every exterior act, but also to loving God. Ockham does allow that someone who has not had access to revelation can make correct moral judgements. Although her right reason dictates what God in fact commands, she need not know (...)
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  43. Mark C. Murphy (1998). Divine Command, Divine Will, and Moral Obligation. Faith and Philosophy 15 (1):3-27.score: 216.0
    In this article I consider the respective merits of three interpretations of divine command theory. On DCT1, S’s being morally obligated to φ depends on God’s command that S φ; on DCT2, that moral obligation depends on God’s willing that S be morally obligated to φ; on DCT3, that moral obligation depends on God’s willing that S φ. I argue that the positive reasons that have been brought forward in favor of DCT1 have implications theists would (...)
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  44. Robert Audi (2007). Divine Command Morality and the Autonomy of Ethics. Faith and Philosophy 24 (2):121-143.score: 216.0
    This paper formulates a kind of divine command ethical theory intended to comport with two major views: that basic moral principles are necessary truths and that necessary truths are not determined by divine will. The theory is based on the possibility that obligatoriness can be a theological property even if its grounds are such that the content of our obligations has a priori limits. As developed in the paper, the proposed divine command (...) is compatible with the centrality of God in practical ethics; it provides an account of a divine command morality as a set of internalized moral standards; and it is consistent with the autonomy of ethics conceived as a domain in which knowledge is possible independently of reliance on theology or religion. (shrink)
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  45. Christian Miller (2009). Divine Will Theory: Desires or Intentions? In Jonathan Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.score: 216.0
    Due largely to the work of Mark Murphy and Philip Quinn, divine will theory has emerged as a legitimate alternative to divine command theory in recent years. As an initial characterization, divine will theory is a view of deontological properties according to which, for instance, an agent S‟s obligation to perform action A in circumstances C is grounded in God‟s will that S A in C. Characterized this abstractly, divine will theory (...)
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  46. Simin Rahimi (2008). Divine Command and Ethical Duty: A Critique of the Scriptural Argument. Journal of Islamic Philosophy 4:77-108.score: 216.0
    What is the relationship between divine commands and ethical duties? According to the divine command theory of ethics, moral actions are obligatory simply because God commands people to do them. This position raises a serious question about the nature of ethics, since it suggests that there is no reason, ethical or non-ethical, behind divine commands; hence both his commands and morality become arbitrary. This paper investigates the scriptural defense of the divine command (...) and argues that this methodology is wrong as any interpretation of the text stands on a complex web of ethical and non-ethical presuppositions and as these presuppositions change so does the interpretation. (shrink)
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  47. Susan Peppers-Bates (2008). Divine Simplicity and Divine Command Ethics. International Philosophical Quarterly 48 (3):361-369.score: 216.0
    In this paper I will argue that a false assumption drives the attraction of philosophers to a divine command theory of morality. Specifically, I suggest the idea thatanything not created by God is independent of God is a misconception. The idea misleads us into thinking that our only choice in offering a theistic ground for morality is between making God bow to a standard independent of his will or God creating morality in revealing his will. Yet what (...)
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  48. Avi Sagi & Daniel Statman (1995). Divine Command Morality and Jewish Tradition. Journal of Religious Ethics 23 (1):39 - 67.score: 214.0
    Given the religious appeal of divine command theories of morality (DCM), and given that these theories are found in both Christianity and Islam, we could expect DCM to be represented in Judaism, too. In this essay, however, we show that hardly any echoes of support for this thesis can be found in Jewish texts. We analyze texts that appear to support DCM and show they do not. We then present a number of sources clearly opposed to DCM. Finally, (...)
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  49. Alexander R. Pruss (2009). Another Step in Divine Command Dialectics. Faith and Philosophy 26 (4):432-439.score: 213.0
    Consider the following three-step dialectics. (1) Even if God (consistently) commanded torture of the innocent, it would still be wrong. Therefore Divine Command Metaethics (DCM) is false. (2) No: for it is impossible for God to command torture of the innocent. (3) Even if it is impossible, there is a non-trivially true per impossibile counterfactual that even if God (consistently) com­manded torture of the innocent, it would still be wrong, and this counterfac­tual is incompatible with DCM. I (...)
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  50. John Kelsay (1994). Divine Command Ethics in Early Islam: Al-Shafi'i and the Problem of Guidance. Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1):101 - 126.score: 213.0
    Al-Shafi'i (d. 820) is clearly one of the most important figures in the early history of Islamic jurisprudence. His Risala or "Treatise" on the "principles of jurisprudence" (usul al-fiqh) is also of interest as an example of an approach to ethics that focuses on divine commands. Following a brief introduction, I offer the reader a few comments about al-Shafi'i's context. I summarize the content of the Risala and then analyze it as an example of divine command reasoning (...)
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