Donald M. MacKay believed that freedom of action and human dignity are compatible with a science of behavior. In 1971 he argued this position with B.F. Skinner in a televised debate. After a brief biography of MacKay, several major points from this debate will be reviewed. The discussion serves to emphasize the correspondence rather than competition between levels of analysis, whether the levels are disciplinary (e.g. psychology, neuroscience, physics) or a matter of perspective (inside story, outside story).
There was a strong consensus in the commentaries that animals' performances in metacognition paradigms indicate high-level decisional processes that cannot be explained associatively. Our response summarizes this consensus and the support for the idea that these performances demonstrate animal metacognition. We amplify the idea that there is an adaptive advantage favoring animals who can – in an immediate moment of difficulty or uncertainty – construct a decisional assemblage that lets them find an appropriate behavioral solution. A working consciousness would serve (...) this function well. This explains why animals may have the functional equivalent of human declarative consciousness. However, like other commentators who were friendly to this equivalence, we approach carefully the stronger claims that animals' metacognitive performances imply full-blown self-awareness or phenomenal consciousness. We discuss the commentators' interesting ideas for future research, as well as their intriguing ideas about the evolution and development of metacognition and its relation to theory of mind. We also discuss residual confusions about existing research and remaining methodological issues. (shrink)
To understand better why evidence of student cheating is often ignored, a national sample of psychology instructors was sampled for their opinions. The 127 respondents overwhelmingly agreed that dealing with instances of academic dishonesty was among the most onerous aspects of their profession. Respondents cited insufficient evidence that cheating has occurred as the most frequent reason for overlooking student behavior or writing that might be dishonest. A factor analysis revealed 4 other clusters of reasons as to why cheating may be (...) ignored. Emotional reasons included stress and lack of courage. Difficult reasons included the extensive time and effort required to deal with cheating students. Fear reasons included concern about retaliation or a legal challenge. Denial reasons included beliefs that cheating students would fail anyway and that the worst offenders do not get caught. The reasons why instances of academic dishonesty should be proactively confronted are presented. (shrink)
Consideration of the effect on the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the differences in interplanar spacing of the various close-packed layers in cobalt stacking faults had previously indicated the stacking faults to be predominantly intrinsic. This identification has been confirmed in the present investigation by two independent methods, (1) the effect of cold-working on the N.M.R. spectrum, and (2) application of the theory of stacking-fault fringe contrast to electron micrographs.
This paper focuses on examination of women’s participation in clinical trials as it was regulated by the two official regulations Costa Rica used to norm the clinical research. Both regulations were derogated some months ago. The point of view of the paper is the difference between men and women concerning participation in clinical trials, even though the moral principles are the same for all citizens. Its meanings are not the same depending to the gender. Autonomy is enough requirements for male (...) participants but not for female participants: in the name of their reproductive ability, they suffer a decrease of their self-determination. According to this, regulations not also has incurred into a contradiction, but also involving beneficence, against the aims of clinical research. (shrink)
The intrinsic stacking-fault energy has been determined in the Ag-In series using extended nodes, from pure silver to Ag-12.5 wt. % In (e/a = 1.23). The present results show that the stacking-fault energy is insensitive to alloying up to e/a ? 1.04, after which it decreases with increasing solute content. Extrinsic faulting has been observed throughout the alloy series including pure silver and in all cases the extrinsic and intrinsic stackingfault energies are approximately equal. Following high temperature annealing treatments, the (...) effective stacking-fault energy in high solute content alloys is observed to increase irreversibly, suggesting the presence of a solute impedance force at room temperature. (shrink)
Philosophical Dilemmas: A Pro and Con Introduction to the Major Questions, 2/e, is a lucidly written and comprehensive introduction to philosophy featuring sixty brief essays arranged in pairs. Each pair answers one of the standard philosophical questions, such as "Does God exist?" or "Is morality relative?," with affirmative and negative responses. Each essay takes a definite stand and promotes it vigorously, creating a sharp contrast between the two positions and giving each abstract theory a more personal and believable "voice." While (...) the essays often employ traditional arguments of great philosophers, they present the ideas in contemporary language with vivid examples. The accessible style and conflicting answers encourage students to examine the different positions and to think carefully about which essay makes the stronger case. While other textbooks present a series of excerpts and theories without attempting to coordinate them into a larger picture, Philosophical Dilemmas teaches students about the process of thinking philosophically and encourages them to construct their own coherent worldviews. This second edition features new sections on race, gender, euthanasia, and Buddhist philosophy, showing students how philosophy applies to issues that they may encounter in their own lives. The text incorporates numerous pedagogical features including a list of historical parallels, key terms, chapter summaries, a glossary, an introduction to each issue, and critical questions following each essay. Brief sections throughout the book describe numerous critical thinking techniques demonstrated by the essays. An annotated bibliography of historical examples for each issue and useful lists of contemporary sources further enhance the text's utility. An Instructor's Manual, including chapter summaries, writing assignments, and test questions, is available. (shrink)
Language and mind, by N. Chomsky.--Some reflections on the nature of consciousness, by B. A. Farrell.--The two faces of perception, by J. R. Platt.--Building better brains, by R. W. Gerard.--The nature of psychological change and its relation to cultural change, by L. S. Kubie.--Alienation and autonomy, by B. Bettelheim.--Darwin versus Copernicus, by T. Dobzhansky.--Speculations on the problem of man's coming to the ground, by S. L. Washburn.--Revolution and development, by K. E. Boulding.--The peasant revolt of our times, by W. (...) H. McNeill.--Triumph and failure in ancient Egypt, by J. A. Wilson.--The tyranny of progress, by R. Gomer.--Man and mankind in the development of culture and the humanities, by R. McKeon. (shrink)