1. Doris Bischof-Köhler (2012). Author Reply: Empathy and Self-Recognition in Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspective: Author Response to Commentaries of Kärtner and Keller and Klann-Delius. Emotion Review 4 (1):53-54.
    Self–other distinction, as documented by mirror self-recognition (MSR), allows for empathy which offers a motivational base for helping a person in need. Kärtner and Keller propose a different, culture-related, possibility of helping based on shared intentional relations and emotional contagion which could explain helping behavior in Indian children not yet capable of MSR. Due to the experimental setting, however, other releasers of children’s sadness and helping behavior have to be considered. An alternative setting is proposed. With respect to MSR, the (...)
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  2. Doris Bischof-Köhler (2012). Empathy and Self-Recognition in Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspective. Emotion Revies 4 (1):40-48.
    Empathy means understanding another person’s emotional or intentional state by vicariously sharing this state. As opposed to emotional contagion, empathy is characterized by the self–other distinction of subjective experience. Empathy develops in the second year, as soon as symbolic representation and mental imagery set in that enable children to represent the self, to recognize their mirror image, and to identify with another person. In experiments with 126 children, mirror recognition and readiness to empathize with a distressed playmate were investigated. Almost (...)
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  3. Doris Bischof-Köhler & Norbert Bischof (2007). Is Mental Time Travel a Frame-of-Reference Issue? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):316-317.
    Mental time travel and theory of mind develop, both phylo- and ontogenetically, at the same stage. We argue that this synchrony is due to the emergence of a shared competence, namely, the ability to become aware of frames of reference.
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