Search results for 'Drzmsra Dellarosa Cummins' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Drzmsra Dellarosa Cummins, The Role of Understanding in Solving Word Problems.
    Word problems are notoriously difficult to solve. We suggest that much of the difficulty children experience with word problems can be attributed to difficulty in comprehending abstract or ambiguous language. We tested this hypothesis by (1) requiring children to recall problems either before or after solving them, (2) requiring them to generate f'mal questions to incomplete word problems, and (3) modeling performance pattems using a computer simulation. Solution performance was found to be systematically related to recall and question generation performance. (...)
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  2. Denise Dellarosa Cummins, Reply to Fairley and Manktelow's Comment on “Naive Theories and Causal Deduction”.
    Fairley and Manktelow (1997) have mistaken an error of presentation for an error of substance. My causal the- ory remains the same: Causal reasoning scenarios that require the reasoner to decide whether or not an effect will occur in the presence of a viable cause trigger considera- tion of disabling conditions—that is, factors that could prevent the effect from occurring in the presence of a vi- able cause. Scenarios that require the reasoner to decide whether or not a particular cause (...)
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  3.  5
    Denise Dellarosa Cummins & Robert Cummins (1999). Biological Preparedness and Evolutionary Explanation. Cognition 73 (3):B37-B53.
  4. Robert C. Cummins & Denise Dellarosa Cummins (eds.) (2000). Minds, Brains, and Computers: An Anthology. Blackwell.
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  5. Denise Dellarosa Cummins, Role of Analogical Reasoning in the Induction of Problem Categories.
    The purpose of the work reported here was to investigate the role of problem comparison and, specifically, analogical comparison in the induction of problem categories. This work was motivated by two factors. First, it is well-documented that experts and novices represent problems in very different ways and that solution success often depends on producing expert-like problem representations (DeGroot, 1965; Duncker, 1945; Chi, Feltovich, & Glaser, 1981; Hardiman, Dufresne, & Mestre, 1989; Novick, 1988; Schoenfeld & Herrmann, 1982; Silver, 1979, 1981). Second, (...)
     
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  6. Denise Dellarosa Cummins, Of Arithmetic Word Problems.
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate children’s interpretations of standard arithmetic word problems and the factors that influence their interpretations. In Experiment 1, children were required to solve a series of problems and then to draw and select pictures that represented the problems’ structures. Solution performance was found to vary systematically with the nature of the representations drawn and chosen. The crucial determinant of solution success was the interpretation a child assigned to certain phrases used in the problems. In Experiment (...)
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  7. Denise Dellarosa Cummins (2000). How the Social Environment Shaped the Evolution of Mind. Synthese 122 (1-2):3 - 28.
    Dominance hierarchies are ubiquitous in the societies of human and non-human animals. Evidence from comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychological investigations is presented that show how social dominance hierarchies shaped the evolution of the human mind, and hence, human social institutions. It is argued that the pressures that arise from living in hierarchical social groups laid a foundation of fundamental concepts and cognitive strategies that are crucial to surviving in social dominance hierarchies. These include recognizing and reasoning transitively about dominance relations, (...)
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  8.  31
    Denise Dellarosa Cummins (1996). Dominance Hierarchies and the Evolution of Human Reasoning. Minds and Machines 6 (4):463-480.
    Research from ethology and evolutionary biology indicates the following about the evolution of reasoning capacity. First, solving problems of social competition and cooperation have direct impact on survival rates and reproductive success. Second, the social structure that evolved from this pressure is the dominance hierarchy. Third, primates that live in large groups with complex dominance hierarchies also show greater neocortical development, and concomitantly greater cognitive capacity. These facts suggest that the necessity of reasoning effectively about dominance hierarchies left an indelible (...)
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  9.  14
    Joseph Spino & Denise Dellarosa Cummins (2014). The Ticking Time Bomb: When the Use of Torture Is and Is Not Endorsed. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (4):543-563.
    Although standard ethical views categorize intentional torture as morally wrong, the ticking time bomb scenario is frequently offered as a legitimate counter-example that justifies the use of torture. In this scenario, a bomb has been placed in a city by a terrorist, and the only way to defuse the bomb in time is to torture a terrorist in custody for information. TTB scenarios appeal to a utilitarian “greater good” justification, yet critics maintain that the utilitarian structure depends on a questionable (...)
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  10.  2
    Denise Dellarosa Cummins (1998). Can Humans Form Hierarchically Embedded Mental Representations? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):687-688.
    Certain recurring themes have emerged from research on intelligent behavior from literatures as diverse as developmental psychology, artificial intelligence, human reasoning and problem solving, and primatology. These themes include the importance of sensitivity to goal structure rather than action sequences in intelligent learning, the capacity to construct and manipulate hierarchically embedded mental representations, and a troubling domain specificity in the manifestation of each.
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  11.  5
    Laurence Fiddick, Denise Dellarosa Cummins, Maria Janicki, Sean Lee & Nicole Erlich (2013). A Cross-Cultural Study of Noblesse Oblige in Economic Decision-Making. Human Nature 24 (3):318-335.
    A cornerstone of economic theory is that rational agents are self-interested, yet a decade of research in experimental economics has shown that economic decisions are frequently driven by concerns for fairness, equity, and reciprocity. One aspect of other-regarding behavior that has garnered attention is noblesse oblige, a social norm that obligates those of higher status to be generous in their dealings with those of lower status. The results of a cross-cultural study are reported in which marked noblesse oblige was (...)
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  12. Robert Cummins (2002). Comments on Smith on Cummins. In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Philosophy of Mental Representation. Clarendon Press
     
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  13.  6
    Seth Bullock (1999). The Evolution of Mind, Edited by Denise Dellarosa Cummins and Colin Allen. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (9):361.
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  14.  63
    Robert C. Cummins (1996). Representations, Targets, and Attitudes. MIT Press.
  15.  14
    Robert C. Cummins, James Blackmon & David Byrd (2005). What Systematicity Isn't. Journal of Philosophical Research 30:405-408.
    In “On Begging the Systematicity Question,” Wayne Davis criticizes the suggestion of Cummins et al. that the alleged systematicity of thought is not as obvious as is sometimes supposed, and hence not reliable evidence for the language of thought hypothesis. We offer a brief reply.
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  16. Robert C. Cummins (2002). Haugeland on Representation and Intentionality. In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Philosophy of Mental Representation. Oxford University Press
    Haugeland doesn’t have what I would call a theory of mental representation. Indeed, it isn’t clear that he believes there is such a thing. But he does have a theory of intentionality and a correlative theory of objectivity, and it is this material that I will be discussing in what follows. It will facilitate the discussion that follows to have at hand some distinctions and accompanying terminology I introduced in Representations, Targets and Attitudes (Cummins, 1996; RTA hereafter). Couching (...)
     
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  17.  46
    Denise D. Cummins, Robert C. Cummins & Pierre Poirier (2003). Cognitive Evolutionary Psychology Without Representational Nativism. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 15 (2):143-159.
    A viable evolutionary cognitive psychology requires that specific cognitive capacities be (a) heritable and (b) ‘quasi-independent’ from other heritable traits. They must be heritable because there can be no selection for traits that are not. They must be quasi-independent from other heritable traits, since adaptive variations in a specific cognitive capacity could have no distinctive consequences for fitness if effecting those variations required widespread changes in other unrelated traits and capacities as well. These requirements would be satisfied by innate cognitive (...)
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  18.  32
    Juraj Simko & Fred Cummins (2011). Sequencing and Optimization Within an Embodied Task Dynamic Model. Cognitive Science 35 (3):527-562.
    A model of gestural sequencing in speech is proposed that aspires to producing biologically plausible fluent and efficient movement in generating an utterance. We have previously proposed a modification of the well-known task dynamic implementation of articulatory phonology such that any given articulatory movement can be associated with a quantification of effort (Simko & Cummins, 2010). To this we add a quantitative cost that decreases as speech gestures become more precise, and hence intelligible, and a third cost component that (...)
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  19.  18
    Robert Cummins (2010). The World in the Head. OUP Oxford.
    Robert Cummins presents a series of essays motivated by the following question: Is the mind a collection of beliefs and desires that respond to and condition our feeling and perceptual experiences, or is this just a natural way to talk about it? What sort of conceptual framework do we need to understand what is really going on in our brains?
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  20. Robert Cummins (2013). The World in the Head. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The World in the Head collects the best of Robert Cummins' papers on mental representation and psychological explanation. Cummins' essays are motivated by the following question: Is the mind a collection of beliefs and desires that respond to and condition our feeling and perceptual experiences, or is this just a natural way to talk about it? What sort of conceptual framework do we need to understand what is really going on in our brains?
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  21.  45
    Robert C. Cummins (1989). Meaning and Mental Representation. MIT Press.
  22.  27
    Robert C. Cummins (1983). The Nature of Psychological Explanation. MIT Press.
  23. Robert C. Cummins (1975). Functional Analysis. Journal of Philosophy 72 (November):741-64.
  24. Napoleon Katsos, Clara Andrés Roqueta, Rosa Ana Clemente Estevan & Chris Cummins (2011). Are Children with Specific Language Impairment Competent with the Pragmatics and Logic of Quantification? Cognition 119 (1):43-57.
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  25. Robert C. Cummins (2000). "How Does It Work" Versus "What Are the Laws?": Two Conceptions of Psychological Explanation. In F. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (eds.), Explanation and Cognition, 117-145. MIT Press
    In the beginning, there was the DN (Deductive Nomological) model of explanation, articulated by Hempel and Oppenheim (1948). According to DN, scientific explanation is subsumption under natural law. Individual events are explained by deducing them from laws together with initial conditions (or boundary conditions), and laws are explained by deriving them from other more fundamental laws, as, for example, the simple pendulum law is derived from Newton's laws of motion.
     
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  26. Andre Ariew, Robert C. Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.) (2002). Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. Oxford University Press.
  27. Robert C. Cummins (1977). Programs in the Explanation of Behavior. Philosophy of Science 44 (June):269-87.
    The purpose of this paper is to set forth a sense in which programs can and do explain behavior, and to distinguish from this a number of senses in which they do not. Once we are tolerably clear concerning the sort of explanatory strategy being employed, two rather interesting facts emerge; (1) though it is true that programs are "internally represented," this fact has no explanatory interest beyond the mere fact that the program is executed; (2) programs which are couched (...)
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  28. Denise D. Cummins & Todd Lubart, Conditional Reasoning and Causation.
    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative contributions of syntactic form and content to conditional reasoning. The content domain chosen was that of causation. Conditional statements that described causal relationships (if (cause>, then (effect>) were embedded in simple arguments whose entailments are governed by the rules -oftruth-functional logic (i.e., modus ponens, modus tollens, denying the antecedent, and affirming the consequent). The causal statements differed in terms ofthe number of alternative causes and disabling conditions that characterized the causal relationship. (A (...)
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  29.  3
    Christopher J. Cowton & Julian Cummins (2003). Teaching Business Ethics in UK Higher Education: Progress and Prospects. Teaching Business Ethics 7 (1):37-54.
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  30. R. Cummins (1986). Inexplicit Representation. In Myles Brand (ed.), The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. Tucson: University of Arizona Press
     
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  31. W. Joseph Cummins (1981). "Eros", "Epithumia", and "Philia" in Plato. Apeiron 15 (1):10-18.
  32. Robert A. Cummins, G. C. Myers, E. L. Cornell, A. I. Gates & A. T. Poffenberger (1918). New York Branch of the American Psychological Association. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 15 (5):130-134.
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  33.  1
    Matthew K. Wynia, Deborah Cummins, David Fleming, Kari Karsjens, Amber Orr, James Sabin, Inger Saphire-Bernstein & Renee Witlen (2004). Improving Fairness in Coverage Decisions: Performance Expectations for Quality Improvement. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):87-100.
    Patients and physicians often perceive the current health care system to be unfair, in part because of the ways in which coverage decisions appear to be made. To address this problem the Ethical Force Program, a collaborative effort to create quality improvement tools for ethics in health care, has developed five content areas specifying ethical criteria for fair health care benefits design and administration. Each content area includes concrete recommendations and measurable expectations for performance improvement, which can be used by (...)
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  34. James Blackmon, David Byrd, Robert C. Cummins, Alexa Lee & Martin Roth (2006). Representation and Unexploited Content. In Graham F. Macdonald & David Papineau (eds.), Teleosemantics. Oxford University Press
    In this paper, we introduce a novel difficulty for teleosemantics, viz., its inability to account for what we call unexploited content—content a representation has, but which the system that harbors it is currently unable to exploit. In section two, we give a characterization of teleosemantics. Since our critique does not depend on any special details that distinguish the variations in the literature, the characterization is broad, brief and abstract. In section three, we explain what we mean by unexploited content, and (...)
     
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  35. Robert C. Cummins (1998). Reflection on Reflective Equilibrium. In Michael DePaul & William Ramsey (eds.), Rethinking Intuition. Rowman & Littlefield 113-128.
    As a procedure, reflective equilibrium is simply a familiar kind of standard scientific method with a new name. A theory is constructed to account for a set of observations. Recalcitrant data may be rejected as noise or explained away as the effects of interference of some sort. Recalcitrant data that cannot be plausibly dismissed force emendations in theory. What counts as a plausible dismissal depends, among other things, on the going theory, as well as on background theory and on knowledge (...)
     
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  36. Robert C. Cummins (2002). Neo-Teleology. In Andre Ariew, Robert E. Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.), Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. Oxford University Press
    Neo-teleology is the two part thesis that, e.g., (i) we have hearts because of what hearts are for: Hearts are for blood circulation, not the production of a pulse, so hearts are there--animals have them--because their function is to circulate the blood, and (ii) that (i) is explained by natural selection: traits spread through populations because of their functions. This paper attacks this popular doctrine. The presence of a biological trait or structure is not explained by appeal to its function. (...)
     
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  37.  50
    Robert C. Cummins (1986). Inexplicit Information. In Myles Brand & Robert M. Harnish (eds.), The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. University of Arizona Press
    A discussion of a number of ways that information can be present in a computer program without being explicitly represented.
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  38.  18
    C. Cummins & N. Katsos (2010). Comparative and Superlative Quantifiers: Pragmatic Effects of Comparison Type. Journal of Semantics 27 (3):271-305.
    It has historically been assumed that comparative (‘more than’, ‘fewer/less than’) and superlative (‘at most’, ‘at least’) quantifiers can be semantically analysed in accordance with their core logical–mathematical properties. However, recent theoretical and experimental work has cast doubt on the validity of this assumption. Geurts & Nouwen (2007) have claimed that superlative quantifiers possess an additional modal component in their semantics that is absent from comparative quantifiers and that this accounts for the previously neglected differences in usage and interpretation between (...)
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  39.  18
    Deborah Cummins (2002). The Professional Status of Bioethics Consultation. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (1):19-43.
    Is bioethics consultation a profession? Withfew exceptions, the arguments andcounterarguments about whether healthcareethics consultation is a profession haveignored the historical and cultural developmentof professions in the United States, the wayssocial changes have altered the work andboundaries of all professions, and theprofessionalization theories that explain howmodern societies institutionalize expertise inprofessions. This interdisciplinary analysisbegins to fill this gap by framing the debatewithin a larger theoretical context heretoforemissing from the bioethics literature. Specifically, the question of whether ethicsconsultation is a profession is examined fromthe (...)
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  40. Robert C. Cummins (1996). Systematicity. Journal of Philosophy 93 (12):591-614.
  41. Gregory Clark & Neil Cummins (2014). Surnames and Social Mobility in England, 1170–2012. Human Nature 25 (4):517-537.
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  42.  20
    Denise D. Cummins (1996). Evidence for the Innateness of Deontic Reasoning. Mind and Language 11 (2):160-90.
  43. Robert C. Cummins & Martin Roth (2012). Meaning and Content in Cognitive Science. In Richard Schantz (ed.), Prospects for Meaning. De Gruyter
    What are the prospects for a cognitive science of meaning? As stated, we think this question is ill posed, for it invites the conflation of several importantly different semantic concepts. In this paper, we want to distinguish the sort of meaning that is an explanandum for cognitive science—something we are going to call meaning—from the sort of meaning that is an explanans in cognitive science—something we are not going to call meaning at all, but rather content. What we are going (...)
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  44. James Blackmon, David Byrd, Robert C. Cummins, Pierre Poirier, Martin Roth & George Schwarz (2001). Systematicity and the Cognition of Structured Domains. Journal of Philosophy 98 (4):1-19.
    The current debate over systematicity concerns the formal conditions a scheme of mental representation must satisfy in order to explain the systematicity of thought.1 The systematicity of thought is assumed to be a pervasive property of minds, and can be characterized (roughly) as follows: anyone who can think T can think systematic variants of T, where the systematic variants of T are found by permuting T’s constituents. So, for example, it is an alleged fact that anyone who can think the (...)
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  45.  8
    Robert C. Cummins (1975). The Philosophical Problem of Truth-Of. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):103 - 122.
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  46. Robert Cummins, James Blackmon, David Byrd, Pierre Poirier, Martin Roth & Georg Schwarz (2001). Systematicity and the Cognition of Structured Domains. Journal of Philosophy 98 (4):167 - 185.
    The current debate over systematicity concerns the formal conditions a scheme of mental representation must satisfy in order to explain the systematicity of thought.1 The systematicity of thought is assumed to be a pervasive property of minds, and can be characterized (roughly) as follows: anyone who can think T can think systematic variants of T, where the systematic variants of T are found by permuting T’s constituents. So, for example, it is an alleged fact that anyone who can think the (...)
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  47.  6
    Robert C. Cummins & John L. Pollock (eds.) (1992). Philosophy and AI: Essays at the Interface. MIT Press.
    Philosophy and AI presents invited contributions that focus on the different perspectives and techniques that philosophy and AI bring to the theory of ...
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  48.  7
    Chris Cummins, Patrícia Amaral & Napoleon Katsos (2012). Experimental Investigations of the Typology of Presupposition Triggers. Humana.Mente 23:1-15.
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  49. Robert C. Cummins (2002). Truth and Meaning. In Joseph Keim-Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & David Shier (eds.), Meaning and Truth: Investigations in Philosophical Semantics. Seven Bridges Press 175-197.
    D O N A L D D AV I D S O N’S “ Meaning and Truth,” re vo l u t i o n i zed our conception of how truth and meaning are related (Davidson    ). In that famous art i c l e , Davidson put forw a rd the bold conjecture that meanings are satisfaction conditions, and that a Tarskian theory of truth for a language is a theory of meaning for that language. (...)
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  50. Robert C. Cummins (1997). The LOT of the Causal Theory of Mental Content. Journal of Philosophy 94 (10):535-542.
    The thesis of this paper is that the causal theory of mental content (hereafter CT) is incompatible with an elementary fact of perceptual psychology, namely, that the detection of distal properties generally requires the mediation of a “theory.” I shall call this fact the nontransducibility of distal properties (hereafter NTDP). The argument proceeds in two stages. The burden of stage one is that, taken together, CT and the language of thought hypothesis (hereafter LOT) are incompatible with NTDP. The burden of (...)
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