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  1. Duane Windsor (forthcoming). Rationale for a Transnational Code. Emerging Global Business Ethics:165.
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  2. Duane Windsor (2013). Authenticity, Greenwashing, and Institutionalization of CSR Best Practices. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 24:70-80.
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  3. Duane Windsor (2013). "Corporate Social Responsibility: An Ethical Approach," by Mark S. Schwartz. Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (4):628-632.
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  4. Duane Windsor (2012). Toward a General Theory of Responsibility and Irresponsibility. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 23:48-59.
    This paper seeks to make a contribution toward a general theory of responsibility and irresponsibility. Such a theory, or framework or model, addresses therelationship between responsibility and irresponsibility. The motive for the effort is that the literature on business ethics, corporate citizenship, and corporate social responsibility combines negative prohibitions with positive requirements and at both individual and organizational levels of action. A prohibition takes the form “do not” expressed in laws and ethics. A requirement takes the form “should” or “ought” (...)
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  5. Duane Windsor (2011). An Organizing Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility Theories. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 22:151-162.
    This paper proposes an organizing framework that shows likely relationships among five identifiable approaches to corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR is an umbrella term embracing mandatory, expected, and voluntary activities. CSR is a contested concept, along a continuum from strong CSR through strategic CSR to zero CSR positions. The intention for the framework is to help scholars with understanding how various CSR approaches relate to one another. The organizing framework is explicated in Figure 2.
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  6. Duane Windsor (2010). Corporations and Global Human Rights. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 21:1-11.
    This paper considers the relationship between corporations and global human rights. This relationship lies at the heart of the 2010 conference theme “Business and the Sustainable Commons.” A human or natural right is one that is inherent, and thus universal, in being human. It is typical to distinguish between civil and political rights as a category (thus supposing constitutional democracy in some form); and economic, social, and cultural rights (thus implying minimum conditions such as food, work, education, culture, and so (...)
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  7. Duane Windsor (2010). Choice Institutions, Moral Theories, and Social Responsibilities. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 21:12-22.
    This paper reports a preliminary sketch of a framework for integrating perspectives on economics, ethics, strategy, and stakeholders (Jones, 1995). It may notbe desirable in management practice to separate such considerations (Harris & Freeman, 2008). There are three general types of collective choice institutions: governments, markets, and voluntary associations. There are four general types of moral theory: moral rules (Kantianism), consequentialism (utilitarianism), virtuousness (bundling virtue theory, religion, and moral intuitionism), and social contract. There are three general positions concerning social responsibilities (...)
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  8. Duane Windsor (2010). The Role of Dynamics in Stakeholder Thinking. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):79-87.
    Dynamics concerns the process of change in variable conditions through time at any level of analysis. Various important issues or topics in stakeholder theory and practice involve consideration of change over time and thus unavoidably involve dynamics. While dynamics has received explicit recognition in stakeholder literature, dynamic analysis remains partly tacit and suffused through the literature. One reason is that dynamics remains difficult to model even in economics. This article provides a basic orientation to stakeholder dynamics as a key conceptual (...)
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  9. Duane Windsor (2009). Developing a Global Regime for Human Rights. International Corporate Responsibility Series 4:83-105.
    This paper examines prospects for and content of a global regime for human rights. Competing schools of thought forecast convergence and divergence of national standards under stress of globalization. No such regime exists, and there is no compelling theory of international corporate social responsibility. However, elements of an emerging global regime can be identified and partially overlap with environmental protection issues. This regime is highly fragmented, underdeveloped, and only partially enforceable—but it is in development. The UN Global Compact, the Global (...)
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  10. Duane Windsor (2009). Global Justice and Global Climate Change. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 20:23-34.
    Global climate change has very significant implications for the theory and practice of global justice. Climate change, whether generated by natural processes or human activities, generates uneven distribution of negative and net impacts across individuals, groups, and countries. Sources of climate change due to human activities, and also capacity to respond to climate change, are similarly unevenly distributed. Distributions of sources, impacts, and capacity are likely quite different from one another. In this context, justice concerns who should bear the final (...)
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  11. Duane Windsor (2009). Private Equity Investments. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 20:278-289.
    The recent global financial crisis and economic recession has generated renewed inquiry into and debate over optimal regulation of financial sectors. One such topic of interest concerns how to define, monitor, and regulate the responsibilities of private equity investors. Waves of private equity acquisitions have occurred since the 1980s. The more negative aspects of private equity investment are now under renewed scrutiny. The topic has wide scope, including the recent GM and Chrysler situations. A recent lawsuit by Mervyn’s LLC, a (...)
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  12. Duane Windsor (2009). The Value Creation Proposition Suggests Two Requirements for Assessing Alternative Theories of Capitalism. Philosophy of Management 8 (3):65-74.
    The recent global financial crisis and worst recession since the Great Depression underscore the theoretical and practical importance of defining requirements for assessing alternative theories of capitalism. The expressed goal of Freeman and his co-authors is to replace value-allocating ‘shareholder capitalism’ with value-creating ‘stakeholder capitalism.’ Each theory combines a different value proposition and principal-agent conception. So interpreted, the value creation proposition suggests two requirements for assessing alternative theories. A proposed better theory of capitalism should demonstrate first practicality of prescriptive guidance (...)
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  13. Duane Windsor (2008). Responsible Management Education for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:512-523.
    This paper reports on recent developments concerning responsible management education for the 21st century. AACSB International’s posture is evidently to permit local flexibility concerning delivery of any business ethics education while highlighting the general importance of ethics for business and business schools. Campaign AACSB organized to argue the case for a strong requirement emphasizing foundational course work followed by infusion/diffusion as opposed to local option. The Business Roundtable and theUN Global Compact in 2007 issued strong, useful recommendations concerning business ethics (...)
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  14. Duane Windsor & Harry van Buren Iii (2008). Teaching Workshop. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:509-511.
    This brief document introduces two papers (which follow in sequence) based on presentations at the conference in teaching workshop (June 27, 2008) jointly organized and conducted by Duane Windsor (Rice University) and Harry Van Buren III (University of New Mexico). The purpose of the teaching workshop was to report on recent developments concerning responsible management education. Windsor made some introductory comments. Van Buren followed with an exposition of his experiences with and critical reflections on business ethics education particularly with undergraduates (...)
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  15. Duane Windsor (2007). Assessing Milton Friedman's View of CSR. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:277-282.
    This paper assesses Milton Friedman’s (1962, 1970) strongly negative view of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and his influence among managers and academics. The subtitle reflects the theme of the IABS 2007 conference: advising practitioners, illustrated by Machiavelli’s The Prince (1513). The paper develops two general arguments. The first argument is that Professor Friedman was a highly academic theoretician arguing the general merits of basically simple theoretical ideas. The second argument concerns advising practitioners. While Friedman’s advice is theoretical (i.e., abstract) rather (...)
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  16. Duane Windsor (2007). Constrained Multiple Goal Optimization as a Theory of the Firm. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:283-288.
    This paper explores an approach for formulating a prescriptive theory of the firm that integrates economic and ethical criteria to guide strategic and operationalconduct of managers. A prescriptive theory posits goal optimization. A “constrained multiple goal optimization” approach models the firm as a broad set of multiple goals and multiple constraints, the latter both internal and external. An exploration begins with no assumptions concerning whether economics and ethics are compatible or antithetical. If the two approaches are mutually reinforcing, a win-win (...)
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  17. Duane Windsor (2007). Toward a Global Theory of Cross-Border and Multilevel Corporate Political Activity. Business and Society 46 (2):253-278.
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  18. Duane Windsor (2006). Corporate Social Responsibility. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 17:180-185.
    A recent literature applies economic reasoning to restrict corporate social responsibility (CSR) to profitable opportunities. The underlying theory of the firmassumes widespread public company ownership and a net positive contribution to social welfare in relatively unfettered markets. This modern economic approach posits strict fiduciary responsibility of agents. Management, in this fiduciary role, should have no CSR discretion beyond the requirements of minimalist laws and customary ethics. Any profitable CSR option can be undertaken. Any unprofitable CSR action is defined as discretionary (...)
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  19. Duane Windsor (2005). Formulating a Moral Core for International Codes of Conduct. International Corporate Responsibility Series 2:47-63.
    A moral core places ethical considerations superior to business interest. This core must include voluntary prescriptions in various forms to “buy higher, sell lower.” International business ethics must somehow address the tradeoff between corporate financial and stakeholder interests. Corporation codes of conduct generally do not define a moral core. Corporate citizenship is typically strategic investment in markets and reputation. There are two practical paths for formulating a moral core. One path is civil lawsuits against multinationals that, successful or not, increase (...)
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  20. Duane Windsor (2005). 21st Century Labor Issues. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:353-358.
    Labor issues were an important feature of 2004 U.S. presidential campaign rhetoric. The principal reason is the adverse effect on employment, compensation, and pension rights of World Trade Organization (WTO) trade liberalization and other economic trends. The objective of this paper is to investigate six key issues affecting the changing role of labor in the 21st century. (1) One issue is outsourcing of employment from advanced economies to developing and transitional economies. (2) A second issue is immigration of knowledge-skilled labor (...)
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  21. Duane Windsor (2005). The Role of Ethics in Business Curricula. In Sheb L. True, Linda Ferrell & O. C. Ferrell (eds.), Fulfilling Our Obligation: Perspectives on Teaching Business Ethics. Kennesaw State University.
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  22. Duane Windsor (2004). A Required Foundation Course for Moral, Legal, and Political Education. Journal of Business Ethics Education 1 (2):137-164.
    Corporate scandals reveal the need for deep transformation of management education so as to profess and promote moral leadership. AACSB and business schools bear partial fault for the recent situation. New 2003 AACSB accreditation standards do highlight business ethics. But the 2003 standards undermine moral, legal and political education by defining “ethics” narrowly and tending to signal pure “infusion” in place of any independent foundation coursework. This paper states a case for an independent foundation course, required universally at undergraduate and (...)
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  23. Duane Windsor (2004). Special Issue: "Business Ethics in a Global Economy". Business Ethics Quarterly 14:729-754.
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  24. Duane Windsor (2004). The Development of International Business Norms. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (4):729-754.
    International business norms do not exist. Content and development of such norms is a significant research question for business ethics scholarship. Any norms must address difficult practical and moral problems facing multinational enterprises. The author’s thesis is as follows. A key circumstance is that international relations remain a Hobbesian state of nature. The theoretical solution of a global sovereignty for norm formulation and enforcement is unlikely. The business ethics literature proposes other insightful but theoretical and conflicting solutions to abstract wealth-responsibility (...)
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  25. Duane Windsor & Kathleen A. Getz (1999). Regional Market Integration and the Development of Global Norms for Enterprise Conduct The Case of International Bribery. Business and Society 38 (4):415-449.
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