Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are frequently a focus of complaints from researchers, but evidence about the operation and decisions of RECs tends to be anecdotal. We conducted a systematic study to identify and compare the ethical issues raised in 54 letters to researchers about the same 18 applications submitted to three RECs over one year. The most common type of ethical trouble identified in REC letters related to informed consent, followed by scientific design and conduct, care and protection of research (...) participants, confidentiality, recruitment and documentation. Community considerations were least frequently raised. There was evidence of variability in the ethical troubles identified and the remedies recommended. This analysis suggests that some principles may be more institutionalized than others, and offers some evidence of inconsistency between RECs. Inconsistency is often treated as evidence of incompetence and caprice, but a more sophisticated understanding of the role of RECs and their functioning is required. (shrink)
Two separate regulatory regimes govern research with adults who lack capacity to consent in England and Wales: the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005 and the Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004 (“the Regulations”). A service evaluation was conducted to investigate how research ethics committees (RECs) are interpreting the requirements. With the use of a coding scheme and qualitative software, a sample of REC decision letters where applicants indicated that their project involved adults who lacked mental capacity was analysed. (...) The analysis focuses on 45 letters about projects covered by the MCA and 12 letters about projects covered by the Regulations. The legal requirements for involving incapacitated adults in research were not consistently interpreted correctly. Letters often lacked explicitness and clarity. Neither consent nor assent from third parties is a legally valid concept for purposes of the MCA, yet they were suggested or endorsed in 10 post-MCA letters, and there was evidence of confusion about the consultee processes. The correct terms were also not consistently used in relation to clinical trials. Inappropriate use of terms such as “relative” had the potential to exclude people eligible to be consulted. Unless the correct terms and legal concepts are used in research projects, there is potential for confusion and for exclusion of people who are eligible to be consulted about involvement of adults who lack capacity. Improved clarity, explicitness and accuracy are needed when submitting and reviewing applications for ethical review of research in this area. (shrink)
We analysed research ethics committee (REC) letters. We found that RECs frequently identify process errors in applications from researchers that are not deemed “favourable” at first review. Errors include procedural violations (identified in 74% of all applications), missing information (68%), slip-ups (44%) and discrepancies (25%). Important questions arise about why the level of error identified by RECs is so high, and about how errors of different types should be handled.
A-LOGIC is a full-length book (600+ pg). It functions as a system of logic designed to: 1) solve the standard paradoxes and major problems of standard mathematical logic; 2) minimize that logic's anomalies with respect to ordinary language, yet; 3) prove that all theorems in mathematical logic are tautologies. It covers lst order logic the logic of the words "and", "or", "not", "all" and "some". But it also has a non truth functional "if...then" and differs in its definition of validity, (...) its semantics and its theorems. In the book A-logic is contrasted step by step with standard mathematical logic as presented and defended by Quine. All of standard logic's theorems are proven tautologies in A-logic. But some argument-forms called "valid" in standard logic are not valid in A-logic -- notably non-sequiturs like "(P and not-P), therefore Q". In addition A-logic has many tautologies with its non-truthfunctional "if ... then" that standard logic can not derive -- e.g., "Not-(if P&Q then not-P)." A-logic's semantics is based on syntactically defined concepts of logical synonymy and containment of meanings rather than on truth-values and truth-functions. Its "if...then" sentences (called "C-conditionals") are valid if and only if (i) the meaning of the consequent is logically contained in that of the antecedent, and (ii) the antecedent and consequent are jointly consistent. The predicate "valid" holds only of C-conditionals and arguments. No valid C-conditionals are translatable into standard logic though all of them imply tautologies of standard logic. (shrink)
No altar da Igreja de Santa Maria della Vittoria (Roma), encontramos a bela escultura de Bernini, denominada “O êxtase de Santa Teresa”. Símbolo da entrega ao gozo espiritual, a escultura do artista italiano representa Santa Teresa de Ávila recebendo do anjo a seta do amor divino, reprodução perfeita do êxtase místico e religioso. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de Teresas na literatura brasileira, como heroínas divididas entre o sacro e o profano. Propomos o estudo do romance Tereza (...) Batista: cansada de guerra , de Jorge Amado, a partir da intertextualidade com a tradição literária baiana, de Gregório de Matos e Castro Alves, e em contraponto ao pensamento religioso da obra lírica de Santa Teresa de Ávila, em diálogo com a escultura extática da santa, criada por Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Palavras-chaves : Santa Teresa de Ávila. Jorge Amado. Castro Alves. Gregório de Matos. Sagrado. Profano.At the altar of the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria (Rome), is located the Bernini’s sculpture, called "The Ecstasy of St. Teresa." Symbol of surrender to spiritual joy, the sculpture by the Italian artist represents St. Teresa of Avila affected by the arrow of the Angel, perfect reproduction of the religious and mystical ecstasy. This article aims to analyze the occurrence of Teresas in Brazilian literature, as heroines divided between the sacred and the profane. We propose to study of the novel Tereza Batista: cansada de guerra , by Jorge Amado, from the intertextuality with the literary tradition of Bahia, of Gregorio de Mattos and Castro Alves, and in opposition to the religious thought of the lyrical work of St. Teresa de Ávila, in dialogue with the ecstatic sculpture of St. Tereza, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Keywords : St. Teresa of Ávila. Jorge Amado. Castro Alves. Gregório de Mattos. Sacred. Profane. (shrink)
The subject of this investigation is the role of conventions in the formulation of Thomas Reid's theory of the geometry of vision, which he calls the 'geometry of visibles'. In particular, we will examine the work of N. Daniels and R. Angell who have alleged that, respectively, Reid's 'geometry of visibles' and the geometry of the visual field are non-Euclidean. As will be demonstrated, however, the construction of any geometry of vision is subject to a choice of conventions regarding (...) the construction and assignment of its various properties, especially metric properties, and this fact undermines the claim for a unique non-Euclidean status for the geometry of vision. Finally, a suggestion is offered for trying to reconcile Reid's direct realist theory of perception with his geometry of visibles.While Thomas Reid is well-known as the leading exponent of the Scottish 'common-sense' school of philosophy, his role in the history of geometry has only recently been drawing the attention of the scholarly community. In particular, several influential works, by N. Daniels and R. B. Angell, have claimed Reid as the discoverer of non-Euclidean geometry; an achievement, moreover, that pre-dates the geometries of Lobachevsky, Bolyai, and Gauss by over a half century. Reid's alleged discovery appears within the context of his analysis of the geometry of the visual field, which he dubs the 'geometry of visibles'. In summarizing the importance of Reid's philosophy in this area, Daniels is led to conclude that 'there can remain little doubt that Reid intends the geometry of visibles to be an alternative to Euclidean geometry'; while Angell, similarly inspired by Reid, draws a much stronger inference: 'The geometry which precisely and naturally fits the actual configurations of the visual field is a non-Euclidean, two-dimensional, elliptical geometry. In substance, this thesis was advanced by Thomas Reid in 1764 ...' The significance of these findings has not gone unnoticed in mathematical and scientific circles, moreover, for Reid's name is beginning to appear more frequently in historical surveys of the development of geometry and the theories of space.Implicit in the recent work on Reid's 'geometry of visibles', or GOV, one can discern two closely related but distinct arguments: first, that Reid did in fact formulate a non-Euclidean geometry, and second, that the GOV is non-Euclidean. This essay will investigate mainly the latter claim, although a lengthy discussion will be accorded to the first. Overall, in contrast to the optimistic reports of a non-Euclidean GOV, it will be argued that there is a great deal of conceptual freedom in the construction of any geometry pertaining to the visual field. Rather than single out a non-Euclidean structure as the only geometry consistent with visual phenomena, an examination of Reid, Daniels, and Angell will reveal the crucial role of geometric 'conventions', especially of the metric sort, in the formulation of the GOV (where a 'metric' can be simply defined as a system for determining distances, the measures of angles, etc.). Consequently, while a non-Euclidean geometry is consistent with Reid's GOV, it is only one of many different geometrical structures that a GOV can possess. Angell's theory that the GOV can only be construed as non-Euclidean, is thus incorrect. After an exploration of Reid's theory and the alleged non-Euclidean nature of the GOV, in respectively, the focus will turn to the tacit role of conventionalism in Daniels' reconstruction of Reid's GOV argument, and in the contemporary treatment of a non-Euclidean visual geometry offered by Angell (). Finally, in the conclusion, a suggestion will be offered for a possible reconstruction of Reid's GOV that does not violate his avowed 'direct realist' theory of perception, since this epistemological thesis largely prompted his formulation of the GOV. (shrink)
In his Questions I, qq. 35-36 Sent. Robert Kilwardby asks whether divine understanding (intelligere) is the same as the divine speaking (dicere), as Anselm says in Monologion, ch. 63, just as for us mental speaking (mentis locutio) is the same as the thinker's examination (inspectio cogitantis) or mental seeing (videre in mente). His answer is that neither for us nor for God is the equation correct, because understanding lacks an essential characteristic of speech, i.e. referentiality, and because speaking is active (...) and understanding passive, which is reflected in the meanings (impositiones) and grammatical functions (modi significandi) of the corresponding expressions. Kilwardby does concede in his discussion of the speech of angels in II Sent. q. 56 that when inner speech does occur, and remains internal, it amounts to thought, though with the additional element of referentiality. I suggest that Kilwardby is unwilling accept Augustine's theory that thought is inner speech, as Anselm does, because it would require him to reject Aristotelian-style philosophical psychology. (shrink)
Este artículo de homenaje a la Profesora Yolanda Ruano se divide en dos partes. En la primera discuto las críticas que ella realizara a mi libro sobre la diosa Fortuna en las que avanzaba su propio análisis de las complejas relaciones entre razón y fortuna en el pensamiento occidental. En la segunda parte, desde el punto de vista del “giro icónico” en humanidades y ciencias sociales, analizo el caso concreto del auge y desaparición de la diosa Fortuna en la iconografía (...) política de la ciudad de Berlín. A lo largo del siglo XIX la diosa Fortuna desaparece de la escena berlinesa y es sustituida por la diosa Niké o Victoria, que popularmente se interpreta como un Ángel de la Victoria. Este es el marco de la infancia de Walter Benjamin, quien más tarde expresará su visión de la historia con un otro ángel completamente distinto, el Angelus Novus de Paul Klee. (shrink)
In E. Levinass phenomenology of time three stages belonging to three different works can be distinguished: Le temps et lAutre (1947), Totalité et Infini (1961), and Autrément quêtre ou au-delà de lessence (1974). This paper systematically reconstructs these three periods, displaying the progress..
Different types of Religious Experience: One experiences a nonreligious object as a religious one, e.g. a dove as an angel, one experiences an object that is a "public object” (one there for everyone to experience/observe), an experience of a supernatural entity that others cannot experience/observe, experiences that resist being captured by words, an awareness of an entity, though there is no sensation.
2. The Contingency and A posteriority Constraint: A formulation of the thesis must make physicalism come out contingent and a posteriori. First, physicalism is a contingent truth, if it is a truth. This means that physicalism could have been false, i.e. there are counterfactual worlds in which physicalism is false, for example, counterfactual worlds in which there are <span class='Hi'>miracle</span>-performing angels. Moreover, if physicalism is true, our knowledge of its truth is a posteriori. This is to say that there are (...) ways the world could turn out to be such that physicalism is false. For example, if there are <span class='Hi'>miracle</span>-performing angels, then physicalism is false. So there are worlds considered as actual in which physicalism is false. For short, call this ‘the a posteriority constraint’.. (shrink)
Two articles on the reduction of chemistry are examined. The first, by McLaughlin (1992), claims that chemistry is reduced to physics and that there is no evidence for emergence or for downward causation between the chemical and the physical level. In a more recent article, Le Poidevin (2005) maintains that his combinatorial approach provides grounding for the ontological reduction of chemistry, which also circumvents some limitations in the physicalist program. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Chemistry and (...) Biochemistry, UCLA, 607 Charles E. Young Drive East, Box 951569, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. (shrink)
As color constancy is standardly conceived, perfect color constancy would involve the apparent colors of objects being completely invariant with respect to changes in illumination (and scene composition). The illuminant would not figure in the way objects look (in respect of color) and an apple or a rose would look the same color under the fluorescent lights of my office or the direct sunlight of the plaza outside. Although we might see lights, the way in which an object is illuminated (...) would play no role in its appearance. Yet it is quite common, particularly in travel writing and writing about art to find statements like the following explanation of why there is so much brightly colored stuff in southern California: “Failing to understand that the beautiful coloring of the land is not a reflection of things, but consists in the peculiar quality of the light itself, newcomers have indulged in riotously incongruous color schemes.” (McWilliams 1973) Or to take an even more extreme claim, “The choice and composition of landscape could narrate a feeling of the locale; for the painter George Harvey all of America was definable by the peculiar quality of the light.”(Reese and Miles 1996) Now it could be that the authors are thinking of the peculiar appearance of the principle sources of light, i.e. the sun and sky, but I doubt it. They could also be noticing failures of color constancy, consistent shifts in the apparent colors of objects when viewed in the special circumstances of Los Angeles and the like. This is more plausible, but the idea that I would like to explore is the possibility that these writers are responding to the way the things they see are illuminated but not by way of a failure of color constancy. Discussion of this possibility will then lead to a consideration of different ways of understanding some of the processes that give rise to the imperfect degree of color constancy actually possessed by human color vision. (shrink)
The present article articulates the strategy of much of my work to date, which has been concerned to understand how we can possibly come to have any objective understanding of the mind. Generally, I align myself with those who think the best prospect of such an understanding lies in a causal/computational/representational theory of thought (CRTT). However, there is a tendency in recent developments of this and related philosophical views to burden the crucial property of intentionality with what I call Strong (...) Externalism, a state’s intentional content being determined by some real external phenomenon to which the state is causally related. I argue against this tendency, drawing attention to the crucial role in cognitive scientific explanations of empty concepts, such as [angel], and the “intentional inexistents” that such concepts “represent.” This obliges me to take a brief excursion into what I hope is a minimal metaphysics, defending a methodology I call the “LEXX” strategy that treats phenomena as real only insofar as they are needed in genuine explanations. After a brief discussion of the need for greater patience generally regarding a theory of intentionality, I deploy this strategy with regard to many phenomena that are the purported objects of mental states, e.g. triangles, cones, words, sentences, colors, mental images and qualia. I argue that these phenomena do not actually exist: they are mere intentional inexistents, unreal projections of the intentional content of various mental states, and not themselves needed in any genuine explanations. In a concluding section, I summarize my suggestions about how a CRTT can explain the various illusions we have in this regard, particularly those concerning consciousness and qualia. (shrink)
Christians commonly speak of and to God as ‘a person’. The propriety of such talk depends on how the concept of a person is being used and understood, and that concept is much contested in contemporary analytic philosophy. In this article, I note the presuppositions of one current debate about what it is to be a human person, and then propose an alternative approach to persons—both human and divine—that draws upon the Thomistic philosophical and theological tradition. In this tradition, ‘person’ (...) is neither an essence-determining kind term, nor a merely nominal or functional kind term, but is applicable analogously to entities of various ‘kinds’ (e.g. humans, angels and God). The origins of this account in Aquinas’ theology of the Trinity will be examined, and I will conclude by noting a recent development of Thomas’ thought in relation to what it is to be a human person. (shrink)