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Eugen Fischer [28]Ernst Fischer [14]Ernst Kuno B. Fischer [13]E. Fischer [8]
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Profile: Eugen Fischer (University of East Anglia)
Profile: Eitan Fischer (Yale University)
Profile: Emily Fischer
  1. Erich Ammereller & Eugen Fischer (forthcoming). Wittgenstein at Work: Method in The. Philosophical Investigations. London: Routledge.
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  2. Eugen Fischer (forthcoming). Intuitions and Illusions: From Explanation and Experiment to Assessment. In Eugen Fischer & John Collins (eds.), Experimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and Naturalism. Rethinking Philosophical Method. Routledge. 259-292.
    This paper pioneers the use of methods and findings from psycholinguistics in experimental philosophy’s ‘sources project’. On this basis, it clarifies the epistemological relevance of empirical findings about intuitions – a key methodological challenge to experimental philosophy. The sources project (aka ‘cognitive epistemology of intuitions’) seeks to develop psychological explanations of philosophically relevant intuitions, which help us assess their evidentiary value. One approach seeks explanations which trace relevant intuitions back to automatic cognitive processes that are generally reliable but predictably generate (...)
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  3. Eugen Fischer & Paul E. Engelhardt (forthcoming). Intuitions' Linguistic Sources: Stereotypes, Intuitions, and Illusions. Mind and Language.
    Intuitive judgments elicited by verbal case-descriptions play key roles in philosophical problem-setting and argument. Experimental philosophy’s ‘sources project’ seeks to develop psychological explanations of philosophically relevant intuitions which help us assess our warrant for accepting them. This paper develops a psycholinguistic explanation of intuitions prompted by philosophical case-descriptions. For proof of concept, we target intuitions underlying a classic paradox about perception (‘argument from illusion’), trace them to stereotype-driven inferences automatically executed in verb comprehension, and employ a forced-choice plausibility-ranking task to (...)
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  4. Eugen Fischer (2015). Mind the Metaphor! A Systematic Fallacy in Analogical Reasoning. Analysis 75 (1):67-77.
    Conceptual metaphors facilitate both productive and pernicious analogical reasoning. This article addresses the question: When and why does the frequently helpful use of metaphor become pernicious? By applying the most influential theoretical framework from cognitive psychology in analysing the philosophically most prominent example of pernicious metaphorical reasoning , we identify a philosophically relevant but previously undescribed fallacy in analogical reasoning with metaphors. We then outline an explanation of why even competent thinkers commit this fallacy and obtain a psychologically informed ‘debunking’ (...)
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  5. Eugen Fischer & John Collins (eds.) (2015). Experimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and Naturalism: Rethinking Philosophical Method. Routledge.
    Experimental philosophy is one of the most exciting and controversial philosophical movements today. This book explores how it is reshaping thought about philosophical method. Experimental philosophy imports experimental methods and findings from psychology into philosophy. These fresh resources can be used to develop and defend both armchair methods and naturalist approaches, on an empirical basis. This outstanding collection brings together leading proponents of this new meta-philosophical naturalism, from within and beyond experimental philosophy. They explore how the empirical study of philosophically (...)
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  6. Eugen Fischer (2014). Messing Up the Mind? Analogical Reasoning with Metaphors. In Henrique Jales Ribeiro (ed.), Systematic Approaches to Argument by Analogy. Springer. 129-148.
    One major facilitator of analogical reasoning is conceptual metaphor: cross-domain mappings that preserve relations and thereby motivate the extension of linguistic terms from the source to the target domain. Their conscious and explicit use in analogical reasoning has been helpful and productive in disciplines ranging from physics to psychology, and philosophy. At the same time, students of metaphor have suggested that partially unwitting use of conceptual metaphors led to unsound but intuitive conceptions of the mind, in philosophy and psychology. This (...)
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  7. Eugen Fischer (2014). Philosophical Intuitions , Heuristics , and Metaphors. Synthese 191 (3):569-606.
    : Psychological explanations of philosophical intuitions can help us assess their evidentiary value, and our warrant for accepting them. To explain and assess conceptual or classificatory intuitions about specific situations, some philosophers have suggested explanations which invoke heuristic rules proposed by cognitive psychologists. The present paper extends this approach of intuition assessment by heuristics-based explanation, in two ways: It motivates the proposal of a new heuristic, and shows that this metaphor heuristic helps explain important but neglected intuitions: general factual intuitions (...)
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  8. Eugen Fischer (2014). Paradox-Psychologie: Kognitive Epistemologie und philosophische Problemaufloesung. In Thomas Grundmann, Joachim Horvath & Jens Kipper (eds.), Die Experimentelle Philosophie in der Diskussion. Suhrkamp. 322-349.
    Der Aufsatz stellt einen Strang der experimentellen Philosophie vor, der sich nicht mit empirischen Umfragen begnügt, sondern bemüht, psychologische Experimente und Erklärungen für die philosophische Arbeit nutzbar zu machen: Das prominent propagierte, aber bislang nur vereinzelt praktizierte Forschungsprogramm der kognitiven Epistemologie (alias ‚sources project‘) verwendet bereits vorliegende experimentelle und theoretische Ergebnisse der Kognitions- und Sozialpsychologie, um ihrerseits experimentell überprüfbare Erklärungen philosophisch relevanter Intuitionen zu entwickeln, die deren epistemologische Bewertung erlauben. Während die Diskussion in und um die experimentelle Philosophie sich bislang (...)
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  9. Eugen Fischer (2014). Verbal Fallacies and Philosophical Intuitions: The Continuing Relevance of Ordinary Language Analysis. In Brian Garvey (ed.), Austin on Language. Palgrave Macmillan. 124-140.
    The paper builds on a methodological idea from experimental philosophy and on findings from psycholinguistics, to develop and defend ordinary language analysis (OLA) as practiced in J.L. Austin’s Sense and Sensibilia. That attack on sense-datum theories of perception focuses on the argument from illusion. Through a case-study on this paradoxical argument, the present paper argues for a form of OLA which is psychologically informed, seeks to expose epistemic, rather than semantic, defects in paradoxical arguments, and is immune to the main (...)
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  10. G. J. Boender, A. A. De Koeijer & E. A. J. Fischer (2012). Derivation of a Floquet Formalism Within a Natural Framework. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (3):303-317.
    Many biological systems experience a periodic environment. Floquet theory is a mathematical tool to deal with such time periodic systems. It is not often applied in biology, because linkage between the mathematics and the biology is not available. To create this linkage, we derive the Floquet theory for natural systems. We construct a framework, where the rotation of the Earth is causing the periodicity. Within this framework the angular momentum operator is introduced to describe the Earth’s rotation. The Fourier operators (...)
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  11. Eugen Fischer (2011). Diseases of the Understanding and the Need for Philosophical Therapy. Philosophical Investigations 34 (1):22-54.
    The paper develops and addresses a major challenge for therapeutic conceptions of philosophy of the sort increasingly attributed to Wittgenstein. To be substantive and relevant, such conceptions have to identify “diseases of the understanding” from which philosophers suffer, and to explain why these “diseases” need to be cured in order to resolve or overcome important philosophical problems. The paper addresses this challenge in three steps: With the help of findings and concepts from cognitive linguistics and cognitive psychology, it redevelops the (...)
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  12. Eugen Fischer (2011). How to Practise Philosophy as Therapy: Philosophical Therapy and Therapeutic Philosophy. Metaphilosophy 42 (1-2):49-82.
    Abstract: The notion that philosophy can be practised as a kind of therapy has become a focus of debate. This article explores how philosophy can be practised literally as a kind of therapy, in two very different ways: as philosophical therapy that addresses “real-life problems” (e.g., Sextus Empiricus) and as therapeutic philosophy that meets a need for therapy which arises in and from philosophical reflection (e.g., Wittgenstein). With the help of concepts adapted from cognitive and clinical psychology, and from cognitive (...)
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  13. Eugen Fischer (2011). Philosophical Delusion and its Therapy: Outline of a Philosophical Revolution. Routledge.
    Philosophical Delusion and its Therapy provides new foundations and methods for the revolutionary project of philosophical therapy pioneered by Ludwig Wittgenstein. The book vindicates this currently much-discussed project by reconstructing the genesis of important philosophical problems: With the help of concepts adapted from cognitive linguistics and cognitive psychology, the book analyses how philosophical reflection is shaped by pictures and metaphors we are not aware of employing and are prone to misapply. Through innovative case-studies on the genesis of classical problems about (...)
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  14. A. Rebecca Reuber & Eileen Fischer (2010). Organizations Behaving Badly: When Are Discreditable Actions Likely to Damage Organizational Reputation? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 93 (1):39 - 50.
    Everyday there are revelations of organizations behaving in discreditable ways. Sometimes these actions result in damage to an organization's reputation, but often they do not. In this article, we examine the question of why external stakeholders may overlook disclosed discreditable actions, even those entailing ethical breaches. Drawing on stigmatization theory, we develop a model to explain the likelihood of reputational loss following revelations of discreditable actions. The model integrates four properties of actions (perceived control, perceived certainty, perceived threat, and perceived (...)
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  15. Eugen Fischer (2009). Philosophical Pictures and Secondary Qualities. Synthese 171 (1):77 - 110.
    The paper presents a novel account of nature and genesis of some philosophical problems, which vindicates a new approach to an arguably central and extensive class of such problems: The paper develops the Wittgensteinian notion of ‘philosophical pictures’ with the help of some notions adapted from metaphor research in cognitive linguistics and from work on unintentional analogical reasoning in cognitive psychology. The paper shows that adherence to such pictures systematically leads to the formulation of unwarranted claims, ill-motivated problems, and pointless (...)
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  16. Eugen Fischer (2009). Therapie als philosophisches Projekt. In Gunther Gebauer, Fabian Goppelsroeder & Joerg Volbers (eds.), Wittgenstein - Philosophie als "Arbeit and Einem selbst". Fink. 167-194.
  17. Eugen Fischer (2008). Wittgenstein's 'Non-Cognitivism' – Explained and Vindicated. Synthese 162 (1):53 - 84.
    The later Wittgenstein advanced a revolutionary but puzzling conception of how philosophy ought to be practised: Philosophical problems are not to be coped with by establishing substantive claims or devising explanations or theories. Instead, philosophical questions ought to be treated ‘like an illness’. Even though this ‘non-cognitivism’ about philosophy has become a focus of debate, the specifically ‘therapeutic’ aims and ‘non-theoretical’ methods constitutive of it remain ill understood. They are motivated by Wittgenstein’s view that the problems he addresses result from (...)
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  18. Ernst Peter Fischer (2007). Einsteins Geheimnisse. Ein anderer Weg zur naturwissen-schaftlichen Bildung. In Philipp W. Balsiger & Rudolf Kötter (eds.), Die Kultur Moderner Wissenschaft Am Beispiel Albert Einstein. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.
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  19. G. G. Brittan Jr, S. Choi, P. Contu, M. de Pinedo, K. Dosen, J. Earman, E. Fischer, H. J. Glock, L. Hallnas & S. O. Hansson (2006). Bandyopadhyay, PS, 259 Bassler, OB, 99. Synthese 148:749.
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  20. Eugen Fischer (2006). Philosophical Pictures. Synthese 148 (2):469 - 501.
    The paper develops a novel account of the nature and genesis of some philosophical problems, which motivates an unfamiliar form of philosophical criticism that was pioneered by the later Wittgenstein. To develop the account, the paper analyses two thematically linked sets of problems, namely problems about linguistic understanding: a set of problems Wittgenstein discusses in a core part of his Philosophical Investigations, and the ‘problem of linguistic creativity’ that is central to current philosophy of language. The paper argues that these (...)
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  21. Eugen Fischer (2006). Therapie statt Theorie. Das Big Typescript als Schluessel zu Wittgensteins spaeter Philosophieauffassung. In Stefan Majetschak (ed.), Wittgensteins "grosse Maschinenschrift". Lang. 31-59.
    The paper clarifies therapeutic ideas about philosophical method which Wittgenstein puts forward in his "Big Typescript". It does so by analysing how Wittgenstein treats the question 'What is meaning?', in that part of the same work from which the opening sections of his "Philosophical Investigations" derive. On this basis, the paper explains why Wittgenstein set himself a therapeutic goal, why this is reasonable, and how he sought to attain that goal without 'pronouncing new truths about the subject of the investigation', (...)
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  22. Steven Weinstein, Substantive General Covariance & Eugen Fischer (2006). Reinhard Kahle and Peter Schroeder-Heister. Synthese 148 (1):745-747.
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  23. Eugen Fischer (2005). Austin on Sense-Data: Ordinary Language Analysis as 'Therapy'. Grazer Philosophische Studien 70 (1):67-99.
    The construction and analysis of arguments supposedly are a philosopher's main business, the demonstration of truth or refutation of falsehood his principal aim. In Sense and Sensibilia, J.L. Austin does something entirely different: He discusses the sense-datum doctrine of perception, with the aim not of refuting it but of 'dissolving' the 'philosophical worry' it induces in its champions. To this end, he 'exposes' their 'concealed motives', without addressing their stated reasons. The paper explains where and why this at first sight (...)
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  24. E. Fischer & J. A. Makowsky (2004). On Spectra of Sentences of Monadic Second Order Logic with Counting. Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (3):617-640.
    We show that the spectrum of a sentence ϕ in Counting Monadic Second Order Logic (CMSOL) using one binary relation symbol and finitely many unary relation symbols, is ultimately periodic, provided all the models of ϕ are of clique width at most k, for some fixed k. We prove a similar statement for arbitrary finite relational vocabularies τ and a variant of clique width for τ-structures. This includes the cases where the models of ϕ are of tree width at most (...)
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  25. Eugen Fischer (2004). A Cognitive Self-Therapy : Pi 138-97. In Erich Ammereller & Eugen Fisher (eds.), Wittgenstein at Work: Method in the Philosophical Investigations. Routledge. 86--126.
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  26. Eugen Fischer & Erich Ammereller (2004). Aims and Method in the Investigations. In Erich Ammereller & Eugen Fisher (eds.), Wittgenstein at Work: Method in the Philosophical Investigations. Routledge.
     
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  27. Eugen Fischer & Erich Ammereller (2004). Introduction : Aims and Method in the Investigations. In Erich Ammereller & Eugen Fisher (eds.), Wittgenstein at Work: Method in the Philosophical Investigations. Routledge.
     
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  28. Eugen Fischer (2003). Bogus Mystery About Linguistic Competence. Synthese 135 (1):49 - 75.
    The paper considers a version of the problem of linguistic creativity obtained by interpreting attributions of ordinary semantic knowledge as attributions of practical competencies with expressions. The paper explains how to cope with this version of the problem without invoking either compositional theories of meaning or the notion of `tacit knowledge' (of such theories) that has led to unnecessary puzzlement. The central idea is to show that the core assumption used to raise the problem is false. To render precise argument (...)
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  29. Eugen Fischer (2001). Discrimination: A Challenge to First-Person Authority? Philosophical Investigations 24 (4):330-346.
    It is no surprise that empirical psychology refutes, again and again, assumptions of uneducated common sense. But some puzzlement tends to arise when scientific results appear to call into question the very conceptual framework of the mental to which we have become accustomed. This paper shall examine a case in point: Experiments on colour-discrimination have recently been taken to refute an assumption of first-person authority that appears to be constitutive of our ordinary notion of perceptual experience. The paper is to (...)
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  30. Eugen Fischer (2001). Unfair to Physiology. Acta Analytica 16 (26):135-155.
    The paper seeks to refute the idea that physiology can explain at best an organism’s behaviour, outward and inner, but not the conscious experiences that accompany that behaviour. To do so, the paper clarifies the idea by confrontation with an actual example of psychophysical explanation of perceptual experience. This reveals that the idea relies on a prejudice about physiological practice. Then the paper explores some peculiar ways in which this prejudice may survive its refutation. This is to bring out that (...)
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  31. E. Fischer (2000). Plato's Study of the Forms of Virtue-A Case Study in the Question, What is Metaphysics and What is its Aim? Philosophisches Jahrbuch 107 (1):95-115.
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  32. Eugen Fischer (2000). Linguistic Creativity. Kluwer.
    How is it that speakers can get to know the meaning of any of indefinitely many sentences they have never encountered before? - the 'problem of linguistic creativity' posed by this question is a core problem of both philosophy of language and theoretical linguistics, and has sparked off a considerable amount of work in the philosophy of mind. The book establishes the failure of the familiar - compositional - approach to this problem, and then takes a radically new start: It (...)
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  33. Eugen Fischer (1997). Dissolving' the 'Problem of Linguistic Creativity. Philosophical Investigations 20 (4):290–314.
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  34. Eugen Fischer (1997). On the Very Idea of a Theory of Meaning for a Natural Language. Synthese 111 (1):1-8.
    A certain orthodoxy has it that understanding is essentially computational: that information about what a sentence means is something that may be generated by means of a derivational process from information about the significance of the sentences constituent parts and of the ways in which they are put together. And that it is therefore fruitful to study formal theories acceptable as compositional theories of meaning for natural languages: theories that deliver for each sentence of their object-language a theorem acceptable as (...)
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  35. Eric A. Fischer & Chris W. Petersen (1987). The Evolution of Sexual Patterns in the Seabasses. BioScience 37 (7):482-489.
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  36. Matthew MacLeod, Phrynichus & E. Fischer (1976). Die Ekloge des Phrynichos. Journal of Hellenic Studies 96:190.
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  37. Paul C. Eklof & Edward R. Fischer (1972). The Elementary Theory of Abelian Groups. Annals of Mathematical Logic 4 (2):115-171.
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  38. Ernst Fischer (1969). Art Against Ideology. New York, G. Braziller.
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  39. Ernst Fischer (1963/2010). The Necessity of Art. Baltimore, Penguin Books.
     
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  40. E. Fischer (1914). Buchenau, Artur, Kants Lehre vom kategorischen Imperativ. [REVIEW] Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 19:273.
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  41. Ernst Kuno B. Fischer, Immanuel Kant & John Pentland Mahaffy (1866). A Commentary on Kant's Critick of the Pure Reason, Tr. From the History of Modern Philosophy, with Explanatory Notes by J.P. Mahaffy. [REVIEW]
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