Provision of education for children under five has recently become a political concern. At the same time, this relatively small field has been attracting increased research attention, with many early years practitioners seeking routes to initial and higher degrees. This book offers essential guidance for researchers and newcomers to the field, outlining opportunities in research as well as useful, sensitive and appropriate methods for researching childhoodeducation.
This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavell’s philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If we—as earlychildhood educators—see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly limit the possibilities of education for that child. Cavell argues that we must become poets if we are to be the type of (...) representatives of language that education calls for. In the final section of the paper I discuss the work of Lucy Sprague Mitchell, someone who developed an approach to language teaching that overlaps in interesting ways with Cavell’s approach in The Claim of Reason. (shrink)
An intensification of interest in earlychildhood by government, parents, and employers, focuses primarily on the provision of private earlychildhoodeducation services outside of the home. With a focus on New Zealand, the paper argues that the form of earlyeducation now promoted is a particular form of care and education that moves children away from family and community narratives embedded in the historical, cultural and humanist intentions of the national curriculum (...) Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education, 1996). It argues that current earlychildhood policy directions, largely driven by global economic agendas, pay scant regard to the lived experiences of children and families. Working with Ricoeur's narrative identity, Ricoeur's ‘capable subject’ is considered in order to examine the emerging purposes and aims of earlychildhoodeducation, with a particular focus on just institutions for children and families. (shrink)
Recent government attention to the coherence between earlychildhood and compulsory school curricula in Aotearoa/New Zealand has led to debates regarding the educational aims of different education sectors. Concerns regarding a ‘push-down’ of compulsory school aims are highlighted in this article, with reference to Nel Noddings's Happiness and Education and the problem of an increased ‘measuring’ of earlychildhoodeducation aims and outcomes. It is argued that removal of seams between early (...) class='Hi'>childhood and primary education may lead to unhappiness in earlychildhoodeducation characterised by increasing standardisation and regulation and decreasing engagement with the aims of education—with, in Noddings's words, ‘aims-talk’. (shrink)
Going beyond the theory/practice and discourse/matter divides -- Learning and becoming in an onto-epistemology -- The tool of pedagogical documentation -- An intra-active pedagogy and its dual movements -- Transgressing binary practices in earlychildhood teacher education -- The hybrid-writing-process: going beyond the theory/practice divide in academic writing -- An ethics of immanence and potentialities for earlychildhoodeducation.
With places at nursery school promised for every child above the age of four, this book raises the stakes by looking at the quality of what is provided, and how that compares to what should be provided. Beyond Quality In EarlyChildhoodEducation and Care challenges received wisdom and the tendency to reduce philosophical issues of value to purely technical issues of measurement and management. In its place, it offers alternative ways of understanding earlychildhood, (...)earlychildhood institutions and pedagogical work. The book places issues of earlychildhood into a global context and relates them to writers from many fields. Drawing on work with aboriginal peoples in Canada, on the experience of Reggio-Emilia in Italy and on a project in Stockholm inspired by Reggio, the book considers the implications of these alternative ways of understanding, for practice and a reconceptualization of earlychildhoodeducation and care. (shrink)
Philosophy of EarlyChildhoodEducation: Transforming Narratives provides an insightful reflection on some contemporary issues and theories underpinning earlychildhoodeducation. The essays in this volume penned by an international group of educators are both critical and transformative, offering new insights on the practices and policies within earlychildhoodeducation. Provides a critical reflection on some current issues within earlychildhoodeducation Offers perspectives outside traditional narratives of (...) class='Hi'>earlychildhood Encourages the emergence of new paradigms for earlychildhoodeducation Promotes the value of difference, perspective, and “otherness” Features an international field of contributors from diverse geographical boundaries. (shrink)
With increasing development in the field of earlychildhoodeducation and care, and new interest in alternative approaches to early years provision internationally, there is an urgent need for a book which explores and explains historical roots of practices and philosophical ideas which have underpinned the development of those practices in the field. This book traces historical ideas and their pioneers. It provides brief biographies and critical insights into their work as individuals and compares their principles (...) and practices to those of others past and present. Traditionally, historical reflections and philosophical critiques can be dense and difficult for readers to access and so many students and practitioners remain unaware of the roots of their current practice. This book takes an innovative and accessible approach to the history and philosophy of earlychildhoodeducation. It gives sufficient, meaningful detail about individual educators and contributors to the field in order to help readers understand how contributions and developments in the past have created routes to present thinking and practice. So, the book offers five things: " An historical overview of the development of key ideas and practices in ECE from JJ Rousseau to the present time; " A series of biographical accounts of some 20 key contributors to the field, with summaries of their major achievements and key texts; " An exploration of ways in which their ideas compare through lively, imagined conversations based on their writings; " An analysis of ways in which certain common themes can be seen in both early writings and current practices; and " An illustration of how teachers can use these ideas in professional development activities in LEA and HE contexts. (shrink)
What this book is about -- Theoretical perspectives : modernity and postmodernity, power and ethics -- Constructing earlychildhood institution : what do we think it is? -- Constructing the earlychildhood institution : what do we think they are for? -- Beyond the discourse of quality to the discourse of meaning making -- The stockholm project : constructing a pedagogy that speaks in the voice of the child, the pedagogue and the parent -- Pedagogical documentation (...) : a practice for reflection and democracy -- Minority directions in the majority world : threats and possibilities. (shrink)
While, in some professions, the gender balance seems to be changing in the direction of equality, the participation of males in earlychildhoodeducation has not expanded because of stereotypical perceptions of this occupation, low salaries and status, and fear of being accused of sexual abuse. Males may make important contributions to the field of earlychildhoodeducation as well as female teachers. Male teachers could provide support for children as nurturing adults. It is (...) critical to improve the perceptions about gender?related issues in the profession of earlychildhoodeducation. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and thoughts of male students. Five main categories were identified: attitudes towards male teacher identity; the advantages and disadvantages of being a male teacher; the future positions of male teachers and their future plans related to their job. The main issue was the identification and perception of earlychildhood teaching as ?women?s work? (shrink)
This article presents a case study of successful research capacity building in the field of earlychildhoodeducation in a non-research intensive, regional Australian university. In a context characterised by substantial political, economic and structural constraints, it illustrates a creative, strategic, and to some extent, transgressive approach to research capacity building inspired, in part, by concepts proffered by social theorist Gilles Deleuze.
A professor’s experience of attending the 17th annual Reconceptualizing EarlyChildhoodEducation (RECE) Conference on pedagogies of hope demonstrates her desire to experiment on an immanent plane. As she looks back on her past experiences of depression, working in a revolutionary psychiatric clinic, experiencing a near catatonic state, and an action research study of women in earlychildhoodeducation at the precipice of an immanent plane, the reader is led on their own journey to (...) consider deeply the differences between transcendence and immanence. In the end, the author’s story of returning from a catatonic state through bodily movements and triumph in human relationships and connections demonstrates how one moves out of his or her own disconnection between mind and body. Further, the meaning in the experiences of the action research project - the phenomenon - occurs when a misrepresented group of earlychildhood workers discovers their own power and voice in overcoming transcended expertise. They rise in immanence like the Humpty Dumpties that needed to exchange and word their new agency, connecting in a worldwide rhizome (image of thought). Finally, the reconceptualists in earlychildhoodeducation are asked to take in these experiences and play with them in order to resist transcendence and to determine their own outcome as an organization. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , Volume 12, Special Edition May 2012. (shrink)
No estudo de Philippe Ariès observou-se que a partir do século XVII, houve uma crescente ênfase na instituição escolar que propunha a substituição da família, por profissionais da educação, no ensino dedicado à criança, que de depreciada, começava a receber destaque e se tornava figura central na família. A criança de filho passou a ser intuída como aluno e percebida como criança-aluno. Nesse contexto, Comenius, Pai da Pedagogia Moderna, um apologista da instituição escolar, ao propor sua organização escolar, inicia pela (...) escola materna e denomina-a de “escola da infância”, o que demonstra claro entendimento, de que o espaço familiar era uma das classes escolares essenciais em sua proposta de reformar e organizar a instituição escolar, uma vez que, dela dependeria todas as demais classes. Aos pais-professores era indispensável prover manuais para que soubessem ensinar a criança-aluno. No atendimento dessa demanda é que Comenius escreveu suas obras pedagógicas, dentre elas, A escola da infância , que delimita o presente artigo e, que por sua vez pretende identificar os conteúdos da educação religiosa cristã, a serem ensinados às crianças de zero a seis anos. Palavras-chave : Educação religiosa cristã. Pais-professores. Educação da primeira infância. John Amos Comenius. Família. Escola.According the study by Philippe Ariès it was noticed that from the XVII century on there was a growing emphasis in the kind of school institution that proposed the substitution of the family for professionals of the education. The child ceases to be depreciated and starts being valued, becoming the central figure within family. The son also came to be intuited as a student and perceived as a child-student. In this context, while proposing his school organization, Comenius, Father of the Modern Pedagogy, an apologist of the school institution, begins from the motherly school. named by him of “school of the childhood”, which demonstrates clear understanding that familiar space was one of the school essential classes in its proposal of reforming and organizing the school institution. In order to attend such demand, Comenius wrote some pedagogic works, among them "The school of the childhood", that delimits the present article and intends to identify the contents of the religious Christian education to be taught to children from birth to six years old. Keywords : Religious Christian education. Parents-teachers. Education of the earlychildhood. John Amos Comenius. Family. School. (shrink)
In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their earlychildhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed form a fieldwork done in one earlychildhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as education arguing that the children`s expressions are offering new beginning and change in the pedagogical (...) thinking and praxis within the earlychildhood setting. (shrink)
Abstract This paper will attempt to organize and critically review recent research relevant to classroom approaches for fostering prosocial behaviour in earlychildhood. Seven applicable approaches for the classroom (positive reinforcement, discipline, modelling, verbal instruction and exhortation, cooperative experiences, role?playing, and emotional self?reflection) are conceptualized as falling within four categories of learning: learning through behavioural consequences, learning by observation, learning through verbal prescription and learning through personal experience. The review uncovers an overall inadequate research base for definitive conclusions, (...) but finds some support for the effectiveness of certain approaches to prosocial education with this very young population. Suggestions for future research are offered. (shrink)
Lawyers pretend as if the process of application of laws, as well as its outcome, could be an analytic-deductive derivation; especially law students learn that legal decision-making is primarily a logic process. But we know that application of laws depends on analytic-logical as well as on voluntaristic (wilful) elements. Exact relations between these components are unknown and will be unknown. At most German law schools students as the most important imperative tool learn the so called “Auslegung” through the use of (...) theoretical instruments, which do not reflect the interpretation of law practice. These mentioned causes result in irrationality of legal decision-making. In order to achieve more rationality in the process and result of legal decision-making, the contribution makes four suggestions regarding legal methodology and legal education. These proposals consist of few long-term pragmatic approaches to more rationality of legal decision-making. (shrink)
Foucault's notion of ?regimes of truth? (MacNaughton 2005, 30) provides an understanding of how some discourses operate and network together to reinforce a particular powerful view of the world. These can be in oral or written forms. Earlychildhoodeducation practices are drawn on the discourse of a document developed by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) on developmentally appropriate practice. Statements made in this written discourse have been accepted as factual and (...) produce shared language among earlychildhood researchers. Foucault's perspectives of discourse and terms used by him as regimes of truth are used in this article to evaluate the written document that earlychildhood educators have accepted as authoritative truth. Suggestions for practice include providing a discourse that calls for earlychildhood teachers to allow time for reflective dialogue and the recognition of multiple perspectives to inform pedagogical knowledge of the social and cultural contexts of the children they teach. (shrink)
In this paper I develop an alternative to prevailing moral development assumptions in earlychildhoodeducation. Drawing on a Bakhtinian theoretical framework, theories of identity formation, and examples from my longitudinal research study of child-adult play, I reframe development as a lifelong process of coauthoring ethical identities that may begin in earlychildhood when adults join children in dramatic play.
Perhaps we fail to understand the mimetic nature of desire because we rarely refer to the first stages of human development. Every child has appetites, instincts and a given cultural milieu in which he learns by imitating adults or peers. Imitation and learning are inseparable. It may be said that we acquire knowledge by using our minds; but the child absorbs knowledge directly into his psychic life. . . . Impressions do not merely enter his mind; they form it. They (...) incarnate themselves in him. . . . We have named this type of mentality, The Absorbent Mind. The Montessori Method of earlychildhoodeducation offers mimetic theory an avenue to explore healthy patterns of desire in children. Such an .. (shrink)
The concept of “Time” seems to play out differently at various phases of our lives: In our teens and twenties, we experience the luxury of youth; we may feel invincible or even indomitable. Generally, we feel our whole lives are ahead of us, and we “take” time to enjoy, explore and experience our world. Concurrently, our physiology also goes through the phases of childhood, adolescence, puberty and into adulthood, or the “reproductive years”; and ultimately (for women) through menopause and (...) “ageing”, or, the “non- reproductive years”. In this paper I will submit, on what I believe, is the obligation of the health care community to disseminate information early to their patients. This might ensure that the choices that people make in specific phases of their lives are educated and informed choices. Earlyeducation would be invaluable if backed up by the benefit of research that already exists, some of it presented in this paper. If this research was to be made available, say, on a patient’s first visit to a gynaecologist, (presumably in their late teens, early twenties), to start the education process, I believe many patients could benefit from it. (shrink)
O presente texto procura colocar em diálogo reflexões do campo da Filosofia da Infância com os da Educação Infantil. Além das contribuições teóricas pretende fazer conexões com situações observadas em uma pesquisa de doutorado na qual as relações com o espaço e o tempo são entrelaçadas com as do corpo como experiência que surgem nas relações que as crianças estabelecem com seus machucados, ou como elas definem, seus ‘dodóis’. Nessas relações duas particularidades podem ser observadas: uma primeira é que as (...) crianças percebem o corpo como uma experiência contextualizada com o mundo social e material, ou seja, elas não percebem seus corpos separados dos espaços. Uma segunda particularidade é que as crianças trazem a possibilidade do tempo aión como uma aproximação à experiência, uma compreensão do tempo entrelaçado com pessoas, espaços, lugares e ações em que evidencia também relações, emoções e encontros. Dando seqüência as reflexões o texto pretende trazer para o diálogo também situações nas quais são tema entre as crianças as expressões dos sentimentos e das emoções e ainda situações que envolvem suas excreções como as ‘melecas’ e os ‘ranhos’ trazendo uma potencialidade para se pensar as relações entre corpo, infância e educação. A partir da compreensão de uma infância como experiência, como acontecimento que rompe com a história, pretende pensar indicações para uma infância da educação e não já apenas uma educação da infância. Essa necessidade de se pensar uma infância da educação, e não já apenas uma educação da infância parece simples, mas requer um outro ‘olhar’, requer ‘jogar fora’, ou pelo menos questionar, problematizar parte de nossa história para que seja possível pensar em condições de outras ordens, outros valores, enfim, outra educação. Ou seja, uma educação, em que se ‘olha’ não apenas os processos de desenvolvimento das crianças, mas também os seus conhecimentos, as suas produções, as suas manifestações, as suas preferências, as suas interações e particularmente as suas experiências. (shrink)
En 2004, la ONU conmemoró el Año Internacional de la Familia. Es nuestro interés tratar aquí un aspecto de la educación con frecuencia inescuchado (la educación estética) en un ámbito educativo primordial como es la familia, y a menudo también pasado por alto o dado por supuesto, centrándonos especialmente en la experiencia del cine como colaboradora de la educación estética. Resaltamos la relevancia del estilo familiar de vida, los hábitos elementales de higiene, vestimenta y alimentación, el uso de juguetes, la (...) decoración y, especialmente, el trato en las relaciones humanas: gestos, usos del habla en las conversaciones, etc.Todo ello colabora a poner en juego el cultivo de los sentidos externos: tacto, olfato, gusto, oído y vista, así como los internos: imaginación, memoria, experiencia de la vida. Y constituye una excelente preparación para la educación afectiva, moral, intelectual y social de los niños y las niñas.Una concreción pedagógica de la educación estética en la familia la constituye el cine. Éste requiere especialmente el acompañamiento de padres y educadores durante los primeros años para extraer la virtualidad educativa que el cine encierra.La estructura del texto responderá, por tanto, a tres apartados: La educación estética en el desarrollo de la personalidad humana.La familia como ámbito educativo en la esfera de lo estético.Una concreción de la educación estética: el cine. (shrink)
Informed by s socio-historical theory, this paper will report on a study that sought to document the literacy and numeracy outcomes for children living in low socio-economic circumstances in a region south-east of Melbourne, Australia. The research focused on children in preschool and child care centres in the year prior to beginning school, and was designed to map literacy and numeracy experiences of children in the home and in the earlychildhood centre. In this paper an analysis of (...) the cultural tools that families were intentionally developing in the context of their homes and communities is featured. A socio-historical analysis of the data revealed children’s active engagement in the funds of knowledge (Moll and Greenberg 1990, Moll, 1990, and Moll, 2000) available within the community, the situated nature of learning (Lave and Wenger, 1991) within their communities, and the challenge for families transcending the constraints of ‘everyday learning’ to engage with ‘schooled learning’ (Hedegaard, 1998). The study also revealed the institutional barriers to learning the landscape of schooling (Greeno, 1991) and the deficit positioning evident for children and their families within the official script of middle class earlychildhood discourse (Fleer, 2003). (shrink)
Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School, which is based on farmer participatory environmental education, is compared to the No Early Spray intervention, which is a simple rule approach. A research methodology was developed and tested in the Philippines to document farmers' pre- and post-intervention knowledge of rice field insects, insect/plant interactions, and pesticides. (...) The results indicate that increased knowledge from education is linked to better pest management behavior. It is proposed that the methodology may also be useful for documenting other areas of knowledge, in the design of educational interventions for farmers and in assessing their impact. (shrink)
The nursery school may be considered an institution and a market where the habits produced by the family are moulded, developed and standardized; thus, it is confronted with an objective definition of earlychildhood embedded in pedagogical practices. The proper objective of a sociology of nursery-school practice is the analysis of the lag between the functions delegated to the school by the different social classes and the functions which it objectively tends to fulfill. Here we have the best (...) test of the lag between the pedagogic demands of the different classes and what the schools supply-which is very abstract, with results that are only visible at a later stage in the school career. It is not so much a question of learning to read or of preparing to do so (the acquisition of certain logical operations or a developed sensitivity, of acquiring a few I.Q. points). This learning takes place through many varied activities which apppear to be far from the learning function.All told, the conditions for understanding nursery-school exercises flow from the conditions for inventing these exercises. For instance, in games of manipulation, construction, classifying various objects, is not some knowledge of Piaget (at least in the sense of some psychologikal knowledge) needed to understand that practical manipulation is also logical manipulation, to see in cube games the learning of logic? Similarly, the language naïveté cultivated in language games is a clever naïveté, which supposes for example a cultured re-discovery of popular archaic language or of “child talk.” p ]Is it not likely to appear as pure childishness to those who, without the ncessary cultural knowledge, do not have the keys to decipher these ostensibly naïve exercises? Similarly, the conditions for understanding children's drawings as artistic learning (and the nursery school as an educational institution) are the very conditions for understanding modern art as art.It is not just a matter of perception and understanding; as the objective definition of earlychildhood proper to the different social classes becomes pervasive both in the relationship with school and in the socialization practices of the family, it patterns the children's habitus (as long-lasting internalized dispositions), which in turn influence the child's behavior and attitude towards school.The perception categories and the different forms of treatment of young children appropriate to each social class are not simply the result of the diffusion of definitions of earlychildhood produced by the autonomous evolution of scientific and artistic disciplines. They are the products of all the social and cultural conditions which define the class situation. We may also wonder whether at least some pedagogy and certain types of exercises do not presume that the child has socially marked attitudes, produced in some classes by family inculcation. For instance, a general attitude of “disinterested” interest is required by a pedagogy offering multiple activities and open to an attitude of active research and exploration. Does not this attitude suppose as an existential possibility the condition of social classes protected from economic pressure and from the urgency of immediate life, a general attitude towards life nearer to leisure than to the constraints of work?Thus, in confronting supply with demand—here even less than elsewhere-there is no question of comparing the expectations arising from users' opinions with the program offered in the official definition of the institution. The expectations are those which arise from objective determinations inherent in each social group, the forms of treatment and perception of earlychildhood. To analyze the program-and therefore to ascertain the social conditions governing the use of the nursery school—the dominant definition of earlychildhood on which the institution is founded must be brought to light. Moreover, the way in which this definition is written into the curriculum (and, subsequently, into pedagogical practice) must also be studied. This implies that the preliminary condition for a sociological analysis of the functions performed by the nursery school for the different social classes would be an analysis of a) the components of this dominant definition of earlychildhood and b) of the social conditions in those groups which make it possible to identify these components. (shrink)
An ever-increasing number of teachers and educationalists from all over the world now come to study the Reggio pre-school's unique methods, and this is largely due to Malaguzzi's devotion, work and commitment over 45 years, and the small ...