Search results for 'Ecologists' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    Joel B. Hagen (1986). Ecologists and Taxonomists: Divergent Traditions in Twentieth-Century Plant Geography. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):197 - 214.
    The distinction between taxonomic plant geography and ecological plant geography was never absolute: it would be historically inaccurate to portray them as totally divergent. Taxonomists occasionally borrowed ecological concepts, and ecologists never completely repudiated taxonomy. Indeed, some botanists pursued the two types of geographic study. The American taxonomist Henry Allan Gleason (1882–1975), for one, made noteworthy contributions to both. Most of Gleason's research appeared in short articles, however. He never published a major synthetic work comparable in scope or influence (...)
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  2.  9
    Mary E. Clark (1992). Tasks for Future Ecologists. Environmental Values 1 (1):35 - 46.
    Apparent conflicts between human jobs and welfare and the interests of wildlife can frequently be resolved if man is perceived as part of Nature rather than in opposition to it. However, social and scientific paradigms emphasize individuality at the expense of connectedness, and competition at the expense of co-operation. Ecologists are well placed to address the important questions of how fast human societies can adapt to change; which cultures are most adaptable, and how satisfactory given adaptations are likely to (...)
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  3.  6
    Peter J. Taylor (1990). Mapping Ecologists' Ecologies of Knowledge. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:95 - 109.
    Ecologists grapple with complex, changing situations. Historians, sociologists and philosophers studying the construction of science likewise attempt to account for (or discount) a wide variety of influences making up the scientists' "ecologies of knowledge." This paper introduces a graphic methodology, mapping, designed to assist researchers at both levels-in science and in science studies-to work with the complexity of their material. By analyzing the implications and limitations of mapping, I aim to contribute to an ecological approach to the philosophy of (...)
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  4.  54
    Ben A. Minteer & James P. Collins (2008). From Environmental to Ecological Ethics: Toward a Practical Ethics for Ecologists and Conservationists. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):483-501.
    Ecological research and conservation practice frequently raise difficult and varied ethical questions for scientific investigators and managers, including duties to public welfare, nonhuman individuals (i.e., animals and plants), populations, and ecosystems. The field of environmental ethics has contributed much to the understanding of general duties and values to nature, but it has not developed the resources to address the diverse and often unique practical concerns of ecological researchers and managers in the field, lab, and conservation facility. The emerging field of (...)
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  5.  1
    Stephen Bocking (1995). Ecosystems, Ecologists, and the Atom: Environmental Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):1-47.
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  6.  2
    Rachelle Hollander (1976). Ecologists, Ethical Codes, and the Struggles of a New Profession. Hastings Center Report 6 (1):45-46.
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  7.  2
    Dorothy Nelkin (1976). Ecologists and the Public Interest. Hastings Center Report 6 (1):38-44.
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  8.  2
    George J. Seidel (1971). Heidegger: Philosopher for Ecologists? [REVIEW] Man and World 4 (1):93-99.
  9. Stephen Bocking (1992). Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal PopulationPeter Crowcroft. Isis 83 (2):355-356.
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  10. Eugene Cittadino (1998). Ecologists and Environmental Politics: A History of Contemporary EcologyStephen Bocking. Isis 89 (1):162-163.
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  11. Eugene Cittadino (1987). The Ecologists: From Merry Naturalists to Saviours of the NationThomas Soderqvist. Isis 78 (3):463-464.
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  12. Mary Clark (1992). Tasks for Future Ecologists. Environmental Values 1 (1):35-46.
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  13. with James P. Collins (2012). A Practical Ethics for Ecologists and Biodiversity Managers. In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Refounding Environmental Ethics: Pragmatism, Principle, and Practice. Temple University Press
     
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  14. Joel B. Hagen (1986). Ecologists and Taxonomists: Divergent Traditions in Twentieth-Century Plant Geography. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):197-214.
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  15. Donald L. Kramer (2001). Historical Context Contemporary Studies of Foraging by Evolutionary Ecologists Are Based on the Synthesis of Two Research Traditions, Both Emerging During the 1960s. The Ethological Approach to Behavior is Illustrated By. In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. 232.
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  16. Fred Kruger (2015). Palaeobiology of the South African Savanna and Lessons for Modern Ecologists. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 70 (2):117-125.
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  17. P. C. Lee (1992). Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal Population. By Peter Crowcroft Pp. 177. (University of Chicago Press, 1991.). [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (2):283-284.
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  18. Jack Morrell (1992). Peter Crowcroft. Elton's Ecologists: A History of the Bureau of Animal Population. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Pp. Xx + 177, Illus. ISBN 0-226-12146-1, £27.95, $35.00 ; 0-226-12148-8, £12.75, $14.95. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 25 (4):488.
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  19. Malcolm Nicolson (1988). Thomas Söderqvist. The Ecologists, From Merry Naturalists to Saviours of the Nation: A Sociologically Informed Narrative Survey of the Ecologization of Sweden 1895–1975. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1986. Pp. Vii + 330. ISBN 91-22-00827-6. No Price Given. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 21 (2):257.
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  20. Charles Birch (2008). Science & Soul. Unsw Press.
     
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  21. Jay Odenbaugh (2005). Idealized, Inaccurate but Successful: A Pragmatic Approach to Evaluating Models in Theoretical Ecology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):231-255.
    Ecologists attempt to understand the diversity of life with mathematical models. Often, mathematical models contain simplifying idealizations designed to cope with the blooming, buzzing confusion of the natural world. This strategy frequently issues in models whose predictions are inaccurate. Critics of theoretical ecology argue that only predictively accurate models are successful and contribute to the applied work of conservation biologists. Hence, they think that much of the mathematical work of ecologists is poor science. Against this view, I argue (...)
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  22. Jay Odenbaugh, What Isn't Wrong with Ecosystem Ecology.
    Philosophers of the life sciences have devoted considerably more attention to evolutionary theory and genetics than to the various sub-disciplines of ecology, but recent work in the philosophy of ecology suggests reflects a growing interest in this area (Cooper 2003; Ginzburg and Colyvan 2004). However, philosophers of biology and ecology have focused almost entirely on conceptual and methodological issues in population and community ecology; conspicuously absent are foundational investigations in ecosystem ecology. This situation is regrettable. Ecosystem concepts play a central (...)
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  23. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). Message in the Bottle: The Constraints of Experimentation on Model Building. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):720-729.
    (Total word count 2,647) I. Introduction. Given the work of Robert MacArthur and his followers, some skeptical ecologists charge that theoretical modeling building has gone evidentially unconstrained. That is, models are often constructed which resist empirical testing. In this essay, I argue that “bottle experiments” do provide model building with important evidential constraints using an example of chaos producing models that have been tested against the dynamics of flour beetle populations. Critics reply however that this and other bottle experiments (...)
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  24. Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff (2013). De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize). Minerva 51 (3):295-315.
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing from these approaches is (...)
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  25. Kevin de Laplante & Jay Odenbaugh, What Isn't Wrong with Ecosystem Ecology.
    Philosophers of the life sciences have devoted considerably more attention to evolutionary theory and genetics than to the various sub-disciplines of ecology, but recent work in the philosophy of ecology suggests reflects a growing interest in this area (Cooper 2003; Ginzburg and Colyvan 2004). However, philosophers of biology and ecology have focused almost entirely on conceptual and methodological issues in population and community ecology; conspicuously absent are foundational investigations in ecosystem ecology. This situation is regrettable. Ecosystem concepts play a central (...)
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  26. Val Plumwood (1991). Nature, Self, and Gender: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy, and the Critique of Rationalism. Hypatia 6 (1):3 - 27.
    Rationalism is the key to the connected oppressions of women and nature in the West. Deep ecology has failed to provide an adequate historical perspective or an adequate challenge to human/nature dualism. A relational account of self enables us to reject an instrumental view of nature and develop an alternative based on respect without denying that nature is distinct from the self. This shift of focus links feminist, environmentalist, and certain forms of socialist critiques. The critique of anthropocentrism is not (...)
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  27. Stephen J. Crowley & Colin Allen (2008). Animal Behavior. In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press 327--348.
    Few areas of scientific investigation have spawned more alternative approaches than animal behavior: comparative psychology, ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behavioral endocrinology, behavioral neuroscience, neuroethology, behavioral genetics, cognitive ethology, developmental psychobiology---the list goes on. Add in the behavioral sciences focused on the human animal, and you can continue the list with ethnography, biological anthropology, political science, sociology, psychology (cognitive, social, developmental, evolutionary, etc.), and even that dismal science, economics. Clearly, no reasonable-length chapter can do justice to such a varied collection. We (...)
     
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  28. Mark Colyvan & Lev R. Ginzburg, Analogical Thinking in Ecology.
    We consider several ways in which a good understanding of modern techniques and principles in physics can elucidate ecology. We focus on analogical reasoning between these two branches of science. This style of reasoning requires an understanding of both sciences and an appreciation of the similarities and points of contact between the two. In the current ecological literature on the relationship between ecology and physics, there has been some misunderstanding about the nature of modern physics and its methods. Physics is (...)
     
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  29. Ecological Laws, Ecological Laws.
    The question of whether there are laws in ecology is important for a number of reasons. If, as some have suggested, there are no ecological laws, this would seem to distinguish ecology from other branches of science, such as physics. It could also make a difference to the methodology of ecology. If there are no laws to be discovered, ecologists would seem to be in the business of merely supplying a suite of useful models. These models would need to (...)
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  30. Massimo Pigliucci (2002). Are Ecology and Evolutionary Biology “Soft” Sciences? Annales Zoologici Finnici 39:87-98.
    Research in ecology and evolutionary biology (evo-eco) often tries to emulate the “hard” sciences such as physics and chemistry, but to many of its practitioners feels more like the “soft” sciences of psychology and sociology. I argue that this schizophrenic attitude is the result of lack of appreciation of the full consequences of the peculiarity of the evo-eco sciences as lying in between a-historical disciplines such as physics and completely historical ones as like paleontology. Furthermore, evo-eco researchers have gotten stuck (...)
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  31. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). Message in the Bottle: The Constraints of Experimentation on Model Building. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):720-729.
    Some ecologists have argued that theoretical model building in population and community ecology has gone evidentially unconstrained. In the essay, I argue that "bottle experiments" offer ecological model building evidential constraints and illustrate this by considering work on chaotic models tested by the dynamics of flour beetles. Critics reply that these experiments are importantly unlike nonmanipulated natural systems and thus do not constitute genuine tests of the models. I conclude by considering two responses to this worry and a suggestion (...)
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  32.  6
    G. K. D. Crozier & Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde (2015). Towards Improving the Ethics of Ecological Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):577-594.
    We argue that the ecological research community should develop a plan for improving the ethical consistency and moral robustness of the field. We propose a particular ethics strategy—specifically, an ongoing process of collective ethical reflection that the community of ecological researchers, with the cooperation of applied ethicists and philosophers of biology, can use to address the needs we identify. We suggest a particular set of conceptual and analytic tools that, we argue, collectively have the resources to provide an empirically grounded (...)
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  33. David Takacs (1996). The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    "At places distant from where you are, but also uncomfortably close," writes David Takacs, "a holocaust is under way. People are slashing, hacking, bulldozing, burning, poisoning, and otherwise destroying huge swaths of life on Earth at a furious pace." And a cadre of ecologists and conservation biologists has responded, vigorously promoting a new definition of nature: biodiversity --advocating it in Congress and on the Tonight Show; whispering it into the ears of foreign leaders redefining the boundaries of science and (...)
     
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  34.  94
    Justin Donhauser (2014). On How Theoretical Analyses in Ecology Can Enable Environmental Problem-Solving. Ethics and the Environment 19 (2):91-116.
    Environmental advisory institutions around the world assume that ecological theory can directly inform decision-making in environmental policy and natural resource management . Accordingly, theoretical ecological models are supposed to serve as reliable guides for adjudicating between policy and management alternatives. Leading ecologists even promise that TEMs can “provide a strong guide for environmental management and resource conservation” . At the same time, criticisms of theory-based policy and management have persisted since the 1970s—after the overall failure of the International ..
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  35.  39
    Carolyn Merchant (2005). Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World. Routledge.
    In the first edition of Radical Ecology --the now classic examination major philosophical, ethical, scientific, and economic roots of environmental problems--Carolyn Merchant responded to the profound awareness of environmental crisis which prevailed in the closing decade of the twentieth century. In this provocative and readable study, Merchant examined the ways that radical ecologists can transform science and society in order to sustain life on this planet. Now in this second edition, Merchant continues to emphasize how laws, regulations and scientific (...)
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  36. Mark Sagoff (2005). Do Non-Native Species Threaten the Natural Environment? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (3):215-236.
    Conservation biologists and other environmentalists confront five obstacles in building support for regulatory policies that seek to exclude or remove introduced plants and other non-native species that threaten to harm natural areas or the natural environment. First, the concept of “harm to the natural environment” is nebulous and undefined. Second, ecologists cannot predict how introduced species will behave in natural ecosystems. If biologists cannot define “harm” or predict the behavior of introduced species, they must target all non-native species as (...)
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  37. Levi R. Bryant (2011). The Democracy of Objects. Open Humanities Press.
    Since Kant, philosophy has been obsessed with epistemological questions pertaining to the relationship between mind and world and human access to objects. In The Democracy of Objects Bryant proposes that we break with this tradition and once again initiate the project of ontology as first philosophy. Drawing on the object-oriented ontology of Graham Harman, as well as the thought Roy Bhaskar, Gilles Deleuze, Niklas Luhman, Aristotle, Jacques Lacan, Bruno Latour and the developmental systems theorists, Bryant develops a realist ontology that (...)
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  38.  51
    Thomas R. Alley (1982). Competition Theory, Evolution, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):165-179.
    This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of (...)
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  39.  88
    Bryan G. Norton (2008). Beyond Positivist Ecology: Toward an Integrated Ecological Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):581-592.
    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an “ecological ethic” indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of “reflexive” ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives (...)
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  40.  11
    Samir Okasha & Cédric Paternotte (2014). Adaptation, Fitness and the Selection-Optimality Links. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):225-232.
    We critically examine a number of aspects of Grafen’s ‘formal Darwinism’ project. We argue that Grafen’s ‘selection-optimality’ links do not quite succeed in vindicating the working assumption made by behavioural ecologists and others—that selection will lead organisms to exhibit adaptive behaviour—since these links hold true even in the presence of strong genetic and developmental constraints. However we suggest that the selection-optimality links can profitably be viewed as constituting an axiomatic theory of fitness. Finally, we compare Grafen’s project with Fisher’s (...)
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  41.  93
    Ariel Kay Salleh (1984). Deeper Than Deep Ecology: The Eco-Feminist Connection. Environmental Ethics 6 (4):339-345.
    I offer a feminist critique of deep ecology as presented in the seminal papers of Naess and Devall. I outline the fundamental premises involved and analyze their internal coherence. Not only are there problems on logical grounds, but the tacit methodological approach of the two papers are inconsistent with the deep ecologists’ own substantive comments. I discuss these shortcomings in terms of a broader feminist critique of patriarchal culture and point out some practical and theoretical contributions which eco-feminism can (...)
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  42.  87
    Richard Levins (1993). The Ecological Transformation of Cuba. Agriculture and Human Values 10 (3):52-60.
    Faced with an extremely difficult economic situation following the loss of its major trade relations, a tightened U. S. blockade, and a world recession, Cuba has taken major steps towards building an ecological society. The major change in the orientation of development strategy that is now taking place requires a complex analysis that includes such long term general factors as the socialist commitment to developing science, the absence of a sector that profits from high tech agriculture or environmental degradation, and (...)
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  43.  50
    James Justus (2008). Ecological and Lyapunov Stability. Philosophy of Science 75 (4):421-436.
    Ecologists have proposed several incompatible definitions of ecological stability. Emulating physicists, mathematical ecologists commonly define it as Lyapunov stability. This formalizes the problematic concept by integrating it into a well‐developed mathematical theory. The formalization also seems to capture the intuition that ecological stability depends on how ecological systems respond to perturbation. Despite these advantages, this definition is flawed. Although Lyapunov stability adequately characterizes perturbation responses of many systems studied in physics, it does not for ecological systems. This failure (...)
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  44.  44
    Mark H. Bernstein (1998). On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  45.  53
    Michael E. Zimmerman (1987). Feminism, Depp Ecology, and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 9 (1):21-44.
    Deep ecologists have criticized reform environmentalists for not being sufficiently radical in their attempts to curb human exploitation of the nonhuman world. Ecofeminists, however, maintain that deep ecologists, too, are not sufficiently radical, for they have neglected the cmcial role played by patriarchalism in shaping the cultural categories responsible for Western humanity’s domination of Nature. According to eco-feminists, only by replacing those categories-including atomism, hierarchalism, dualism, and androcentrism - can humanity learn to dweIl in harmony with nonhuman beings. (...)
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  46.  78
    Colin Allen & Marc D. Hauser (1991). Concept Attribution in Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Methodological Problems in Ascribing Complex Mental Processes. Philosophy of Science 58 (2):221-240.
    The demise of behaviorism has made ethologists more willing to ascribe mental states to animals. However, a methodology that can avoid the charge of excessive anthropomorphism is needed. We describe a series of experiments that could help determine whether the behavior of nonhuman animals towards dead conspecifics is concept mediated. These experiments form the basis of a general point. The behavior of some animals is clearly guided by complex mental processes. The techniques developed by comparative psychologists and behavioral ecologists (...)
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  47.  27
    Ned Hettinger & Bill Throop (1999). Refocusing Ecocentrism. Environmental Ethics 21 (1):3-21.
    Traditional ecocentric ethics relies on an ecology that emphasizes the stability and integrity of ecosystems. Numerous ecologists now focus on natural systems that are less clearly characterized by these properties. We use the elimination and restoration of wolves in Yellowstone to illustrate troubles for traditional ecocentric ethics caused by ecological models emphasizing instability in natural systems. We identify several other problems for a stability-integrity based ecocentrism as well. We show how an ecocentric ethic can avoid these difficulties by emphasizing (...)
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  48.  91
    David Abram (1988). Merleau-Ponty and the Voice of the Earth. Environmental Ethics 10 (2):101-120.
    Ecologists and environmental theorists have paid little attention to our direct, sensory experience of the enveloping world. In this paper I discuss the importance of such experience for ecological philosophy. Merleau-Ponty’s careful phenomenology of perceptual experience shows perception to be an inherently creative, participatory activity-a sort of conversation, carried on underneath our spoken discourse, between the living body and its world. His later work discloses the character of language itself as a medium born of the body’s participation with a (...)
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  49. Annie L. Booth & Harvey L. Jacobs (1990). Ties That Bind: Native American Beliefs as a Foundation for Environmental Consciousness. Environmental Ethics 12 (1):27-43.
    In this article we examine the specific contributions Native American thought can make to the ongoing search for a Western ecological consciousness. We begin with a review of the influence of Native American beliefs on the different branches of the modem environmental movement and some initial comparisons of Western and Native American ways of seeing. We then review Native American thought on the natural world, highlighting beliefs in the need for reciprocity and balance, the world as a living being, and (...)
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  50.  17
    Nei Nunes-Neto, Alvaro Moreno & Charbel N. El-Hani (2014). Function in Ecology: An Organizational Approach. Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):123-141.
    Functional language is ubiquitous in ecology, mainly in the researches about biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, it has not been adequately investigated by ecologists or philosophers of ecology. In the contemporary philosophy of ecology we can recognize a kind of implicit consensus about this issue: while the etiological approaches cannot offer a good concept of function in ecology, Cummins’ systemic approach can. Here we propose to go beyond this implicit consensus, because we think these approaches are not adequate for (...)
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