Search results for 'Ecology Simulation methods' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter J. Taylor (2005). Unruly Complexity: Ecology, Interpretation, Engagement. University of Chicago Press.score: 234.0
    Ambitiously identifying fresh issues in the study of complex systems, Peter J. Taylor, in a model of interdisciplinary exploration, makes these concerns accessible to scholars in the fields of ecology, environmental science, and science studies. Unruly Complexity explores concepts used to deal with complexity in three realms: ecology and socio-environmental change; the collective constitution of knowledge; and the interpretations of science as they influence subsequent research. For each realm Taylor shows that unruly complexity-situations that lack definite boundaries, (...)
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  2. Paul Humphreys (2009). The Philosophical Novelty of Computer Simulation Methods. Synthese 169 (3):615 - 626.score: 156.0
    Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set of scientific methods and that these methods introduce new issues in the philosophy of science. These issues are both epistemological and methodological in kind.
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  3. John Lussenhop (1974). Victor Hensen and the Development of Sampling Methods in Ecology. Journal of the History of Biology 7 (2):319 - 337.score: 144.0
    Why was Hensen unsuccesful in the quantification of ecological sampling? No aspect of plankton research itself seems to have hindered quantification; both collecting methods and taxonomy were sufficiently advanced. The reason is probably that at the time he began sampling, Hensen had to devise his own statistical methods for expressing the reproducibility and validity of samples. Hensen might have succeeded in this if he had overcome prevalent nineteenth-century attitudes toward randomness.The statistical literature of medicine and physics with which (...)
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  4. T. R. Addis & D. C. Gooding (2008). Simulation Methods for an Abductive System in Science. Foundations of Science 13 (1):37-52.score: 140.0
    We argue that abduction does not work in isolation from other inference mechanisms and illustrate this through an inference scheme designed to evaluate multiple hypotheses. We use game theory to relate the abductive system to actions that produce new information. To enable evaluation of the implications of this approach we have implemented the procedures used to calculate the impact of new information in a computer model. Experiments with this model display a number of features of collective belief-revision leading to consensus-formation, (...)
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  5. T. S. Palys (1978). Simulation Methods and Social Psychology. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 8 (3):341–368.score: 140.0
  6. Barbara L. Bentley (1990). Playing the Field Plant Physiological Ecology: Field Methods and Instrumentation R. W. Pearcy J. R. Ehleringer H. A. Mooney P. W. Rundel. [REVIEW] BioScience 40 (10):786-786.score: 140.0
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  7. Steven L. Peck (2008). The Hermeneutics of Ecological Simulation. Biology and Philosophy 23 (3):383-402.score: 135.0
    Computer simulation has become important in ecological modeling, but there have been few assessments on how complex simulation models differ from more traditional analytic models. In Part I of this paper, I review the challenges faced in complex ecological modeling and how models have been used to gain theoretical purchase for understanding natural systems. I compare the use of traditional analytic simulation models and point how that the two methods require different kinds of practical engagement. I (...)
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  8. Greg Mikkelson, Methods and Metaphors in Community Ecology: The Problem of Defining Stability.score: 126.0
    Scientists must sometimes choose between competing definitions of key terms. The degree to which different definitions facilitate important dis- coveries should ultimately guide decisions about which terms to accept. In the short run, rules of thumb can help. One such rule is to regard with suspicion any definition that turns a seemingly important empiri- cal matter into an a priori exercise. Several prominent definitions of eco- logical “stability” are suspect, according to this rule. After evaluating alternatives, I suggest that the (...)
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  9. Jeff G. Miller (2000). Measurement Error in Subliminal Perception Experiments: Simulation Analyses of Two Regression Methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26:1461-1477.score: 120.0
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  10. Arkadiusz Kowalski & Tomasz Marut (2012). Hybrid Methods Aiding Organisational and Technological Production Preparation Using Simulation Models of Nonlinear Production Systems. In. In Emilio Corchado, Vaclav Snasel, Ajith Abraham, Michał Woźniak, Manuel Grana & Sung-Bae Cho (eds.), Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems. Springer. 259--266.score: 120.0
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  11. Dennis H. Knight (1975). Vegetation Ecology Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology Dieter Mueller-Dombois Heinz Ellenberg. BioScience 25 (9):585-585.score: 120.0
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  12. Gregory M. Mikkelson (1997). Methods and Metaphors in Community Ecology: The Problem of Defining Stability. Perspectives on Science 5:481-498.score: 120.0
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  13. William Dritschilo (2008). Bringing Statistical Methods to Community and Evolutionary Ecology: Daniel S. Simberloff. In Oren Harman & Michael Dietrich (eds.), Rebels, Mavericks, and Heretics in Biology. Yale University Press. 356.score: 120.0
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  14. K. Klauer & Anthony G. Greenwald (2000). Measurement Error in Subliminal Perception Experiments: Simulation Analyses of Two Regression Methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26:1506-1508.score: 120.0
     
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  15. William E. Reifsnyder (1981). Analytical Methods in Biophysical Ecology Biophysical Ecology David M. Gates. BioScience 31 (2):156-156.score: 120.0
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  16. Stables Ryan (2013). Stochastic Methods for the Simulation of Micro-Timing Variation in Rhythmic Performance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 120.0
  17. Charles S. White (1985). Citizen Decision Making, Reflective Thinking and Simulation Gaming: A Marriage of Purpose, Method and Strategy. Journal of Social Studies Research 2:1-50.score: 108.0
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  18. Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque (2011). Local Perception of Environmental Change in a Semi-Arid Area of Northeast Brazil: A New Approach for the Use of Participatory Methods at the Level of Family Units. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (5):511-531.score: 84.0
    The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid (...)
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  19. Shana Sieber, Patrícia Medeiros & Ulysses Albuquerque (2011). Local Perception of Environmental Change in a Semi-Arid Area of Northeast Brazil: A New Approach for the Use of Participatory Methods at the Level of Family Units. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (5):511-531.score: 84.0
    The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid (...)
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  20. Jonathan Beever (2013). Baudrillard's Simulated Ecology. Sign Systems Studies 41 (1):82-92.score: 84.0
    Jean Baudrillard, the scholar and critic of postmodernity, struggled with questions of postmodern ontology: representation of the real through the semioticprocess of signification is threatened with the rise of simulacra, the simulated real. With this rise, seductive semiotic relationships between signs replace any traditional ontological representamen. This struggle has implications for environmentalism since the problems of contemporary environmental philosophy are rooted in problems with ontology. Hence the question of postmodern ecology: can the natural survive postmodern simulation? Baudrillard’s communicative (...)
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  21. Isabelle Peschard, Is Simulation a Substitute for Experimentation?score: 66.0
    It is sometimes said that simulation can serve as epistemic substitute for experimentation. Such a claim might be suggested by the fast-spreading use of computer simulation to investigate phenomena not accessible to experimentation (in astrophysics, ecology, economics, climatology, etc.). But what does that mean? The paper starts with a clarification of the terms of the issue and then focuses on two powerful arguments for the view that simulation and experimentation are ‘epistemically on a par’. One is (...)
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  22. Marcus Arvan (forthcoming). A Unified Explanation of Quantum Phenomena? The Case for the Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis as an Interdisciplinary Research Program. Philosophical Forum.score: 66.0
    In my 2013 article, “A New Theory of Free Will”, I argued that several serious hypotheses in philosophy and modern physics jointly entail that our reality is structurally identical to a peer-to-peer (P2P) networked computer simulation. The present paper outlines how quantum phenomena emerge naturally from the computational structure of a P2P simulation. §1 explains the P2P Hypothesis. §2 then sketches how the structure of any P2P simulation realizes quantum superposition and wave-function collapse (§2.1.), quantum indeterminacy (§2.2.), (...)
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  23. Lloyd T. Ackert Jr (2007). The “Cycle of Life” in Ecology: Sergei Vinogradskii's Soil Microbiology, 1885–1940. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (1):109-145.score: 66.0
    Historians of science have attributed the emergence of ecology as a discipline in the late nineteenth century to the synthesis of Humboldtian botanical geography and Darwinian evolution. In this essay, I begin to explore another, largely neglected but very important dimension of this history. Using Sergei Vinogradskii’s career and scientific research trajectory as a point of entry, I illustrate the manner in which microbiologists, chemists, botanists, and plant physiologists inscribed the concept of a “cycle of life” into their investigations. (...)
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  24. Bram Tucker & Lisa Rende Taylor (2007). The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues. Human Nature 18 (3):181-189.score: 66.0
    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to (...)
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  25. Elizabeth Finnis (2007). The Political Ecology of Dietary Transitions: Changing Production and Consumption Patterns in the Kolli Hills, India. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 24 (3):343-353.score: 66.0
    Using a case study from the Kolli Hills, India, I suggest that political ecology provides a useful theoretical basis for considering localized dietary transitions in rural, agricultural communities in developing countries. By examining the reasons for the near-disappearance of local minor millets as staple foods in three small-farmer communities, I argue that an explicit, actor-oriented analysis allows for an integration of food issues with considerations of environmental circumstances, local aspirations, and labor concerns. That is, an agricultural shift that abandons (...)
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  26. Giovanni Pezzulo, Francesco Rigoli & Fabian Chersi (2013). The Mixed Instrumental Controller: Using Value of Information to Combine Habitual Choice and Mental Simulation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 66.0
    Instrumental behavior depends on both goal-directed and habitual mechanisms of choice. Normative views cast these mechanisms in terms of model-free and model-based methods of reinforcement learning, respectively. An influential proposal hypothesizes that model-free and model-based mechanisms coexist and compete in the brain according to their relative uncertainty. In this paper we propose a novel view in which a single Mixed Instrumental Controller produces both goal-directed and habitual behavior by flexibly balancing and combining model-based and model-free computations. The Mixed Instrumental (...)
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  27. William A. Reiners (2010). Philosophical Foundations for the Practices of Ecology. Cambridge University Press.score: 66.0
    Ecologists use a remarkable range of methods and techniques to understand complex, inherently variable, and functionally diverse entities and processes across a staggering range of spatial, temporal and interactive scales. These multiple perspectives make ecology very different to the exemplar of science often presented by philosophers. In Philosophical Foundations for the Practices of Ecology, designed for graduate students and researchers, ecology is put into a new philosophical framework that engages with this inherent pluralism while still placing (...)
     
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  28. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1993). Method in Ecology: Strategies for Conservation. Cambridge University Press.score: 62.0
    In this volume, the authors discuss what practical contributions ecology can and can't make in applied science and environmental problem solving. In the first section, they discuss conceptual problems that have often prevented the formulation and evaluation of powerful, precise, general theories, explain why island biogeography is still beset with controversy and examine the ways that science is value laden. In the second section, they describe how ecology can give us specific answers to practical environmental questions posed in (...)
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  29. Franck Varenne (2003). La simulation informatique face à la « méthode des modèles ». Le cas de la croissance des plantes. Natures Sciences Sociétés 11 (1):16-28.score: 62.0
    The paper deals with an intellectual and historical approach to the changing meanings of the term “model” in life sciences. The author 1st tries to understand how modeling has gradually spread over life sciences then he particularly focus on the birth of mathematical modeling in this field. This quite new practice offers new insights on the old debate concerning the mathematization of life sciences. Nowadays, through computers, mathematics not only analyze or quantify but model things: what does it mean? The (...)
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  30. Roger Stanev (2012). Modelling and Simulating Early Stopping of RCTs: A Case Study of Early Stop Due to Harm. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 24 (4):513-526.score: 60.0
    Despite efforts from regulatory agencies (e.g. NIH, FDA), recent systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) show that top medical journals continue to publish trials without requiring authors to report details for readers to evaluate early stopping decisions carefully. This article presents a systematic way of modelling and simulating interim monitoring decisions of RCTs. By taking an approach that is both general and rigorous, the proposed framework models and evaluates early stopping decisions of RCTs based on a clear and consistent (...)
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  31. Cosimo Urgesi Alessio Avenanti, Matteo Candidi (2013). Vicarious Motor Activation During Action Perception: Beyond Correlational Evidence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 60.0
    Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others’ actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people’s behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or (...)
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  32. Aymeric Guillot Tadhg E. MacIntyre, Aidan P. Moran, Christian Collet (2013). An Emerging Paradigm: A Strength-Based Approach to Exploring Mental Imagery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 57.0
    Mental imagery, or the ability to simulate in the mind information that is not currently perceived by the senses, has attracted considerable research interest in psychology since the early 1970s. Within the past two decades, research in this field – as in cognitive psychology more generally - has been dominated by neuroscientific methods that typically involve comparisons between the imagery performance of participants from clinical populations with those who exhibit apparently normal cognitive functioning. Although this approach has been valuable (...)
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  33. Mark Colyvan, William Grey, Paul E. Griffiths, Jay Odenbaugh & Stefan Linquist, Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions.score: 54.0
    A good philosophical understanding of ecology is important for a number of reasons. First, ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology, with distinctive philosophical issues. Second, ecology is only one small step away from urgent political, ethical, and management decisions about how best to live in an apparently fragile and increasingly-degraded environment. Third, philosophy of ecology, properly conceived, can contribute directly to both our understanding of ecology and help with its advancement. Philosophy of (...)
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  34. Mark Colyvan & Lev R. Ginzburg, Analogical Thinking in Ecology.score: 54.0
    We consider several ways in which a good understanding of modern techniques and principles in physics can elucidate ecology. We focus on analogical reasoning between these two branches of science. This style of reasoning requires an understanding of both sciences and an appreciation of the similarities and points of contact between the two. In the current ecological literature on the relationship between ecology and physics, there has been some misunderstanding about the nature of modern physics and its (...). Physics is seen as being much cleaner and tidier than ecology. When ecology is compared to this idealised, fictional version of physics, ecology looks very different, and the prospect of ecology and physics learning from one another is questionable. We argue that physics, once properly appreciated, is more like ecology than ecologists have thus far appreciated. Physicists and ecologists can and do learn from each other, and in this paper we outline how analogical reasoning can facilitate such exchanges. (shrink)
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  35. Jay Odenbaugh, The “Structure” of Population Ecology: Philosophical Reflections on Unstructured and Structured Models.score: 54.0
    In 1974, John Maynard Smith wrote in his little book Models in Ecology, A theory of ecology must make statements about ecosystems as a whole, as well as about particular species at particular times, and it must make statements that are true for many species and not just for one… For the discovery of general ideas in ecology, therefore, different kinds of mathematical description, which may be called models, are called for. Whereas a good simulation should (...)
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  36. E. Goldfarb, J. A. Fromson, T. Gorrindo & R. J. Birnbaum (2012). Enhancing Informed Consent Best Practices: Gaining Patient, Family and Provider Perspectives Using Reverse Simulation. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):546-551.score: 54.0
    Background Obtaining informed consent in the clinical setting is an important yet challenging aspect of providing safe and collaborative care to patients. While the medical profession has defined best practices for obtaining informed consent, it is unclear whether these standards meet the expressed needs of patients, their families as well as healthcare providers. The authors sought to address this gap by comparing the responses of these three groups with a standardised informed consent paradigm. Methods Piloting a web-based ‘reverse’ (...) paradigm, participants viewed a video showing a standardised doctor engaging in an informed consent discussion. The scenario depicted a simulated patient with psychotic symptoms who is prescribed an atypical antipsychotic medication. 107 participants accessed the simulation online and completed a web-based debriefing survey. Results Survey responses from patients, family members and healthcare providers indicated disparities in information retention, perception of the doctor's performance and priorities for required elements of the consent process. Conclusions To enhance existing informed consent best practices, steps should be taken to improve patient retention of critical information. Adverse events should be described in the short-term and long-term along with preventative measures, and alternative psychosocial and pharmacological treatment options should be reviewed. Information about treatment should include when the medication takes therapeutic effect and how to safely maintain the treatment. The reverse simulation design is a model that can discern gaps in clinical practice, which can be used to improve patient care. (shrink)
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  37. James Franklin, Mark Burgman, Scott Sisson & J. K. Martin (2008). Evaluating Extreme Risks in Invasion Ecology: Learning From Banking Compliance. Diversity and Distributions 14:581-591.score: 54.0
    methods that have shown promise for improving extreme risk analysis, particularly for assessing the risks of invasive pests and pathogens associated with international trade. We describe the legally inspired regulatory regime for banks, where these methods have been brought to bear on extreme ‘operational risks’. We argue that an ‘advocacy model’ similar to that used in the Basel II compliance regime for bank operational risks and to a lesser extent in biosecurity import risk analyses is ideal for permitting (...)
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  38. J. M. Howarth (1995). The Crisis of Ecology: A Phenomenological Perspective. Environmental Values 4 (1):17 - 30.score: 54.0
    If we are to act properly with regard to the natural world, to protect, preserve, conserve, manage or leave it alone, we need both appropriate knowledge of that world, and a sound foundation for values to guide our actions. The thesis of this paper is that scientific ecology, though some of its interpreters claim it as a 'post-modern' eco-friendly science, in fact, while perhaps not as guilty as other of its post-modern interpreters might claim of the worst excesses of (...)
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  39. Frank Barron (1972). Towards an Ecology of Consciousness. Inquiry 15 (1-4):95 – 113.score: 54.0
    Forms characteristic of the earth itself are inherent in the design of man. Man's being emerged out of a cosmic matrix whose morphic aspects man himself expresses. These forms and their functional interrelationships are the very conditions of consciousness. This paper proposes that the relationship between human consciousness and its complete environment should be the subject matter of an emerging discipline, the ecology of consciousness. Constructs useful in the ecology of plants and animals should be coordinated to psychological (...)
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  40. Bruce Edmonds, When and Why Does Haggling Occur? Some Suggestions From a Qualitative but Computational Simulation of Negotiation.score: 54.0
    We present a computational simulation which captures aspects of negotiation as the interaction of agents searching for an agreement over their own mental model. Specifically this simulation relates the beliefs of each agent about the action of cause and effect to the resulting negotiation dialogue. The model highlights the difference between negotiating to find any solution and negotiating to obtain the best solution from the point of view of each agent. The later case corresponds most closely to what (...)
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  41. Flor Ángela Tobón & López Giraldo (2013). Psychosocial accompaniment from human ecology toyoung marginalized people to prevent drug dependence. Humanidades Médicas 13 (2):348-371.score: 54.0
    Introducción: Se presenta un análisis cualitativo del acompañamiento psicosocial a jóvenes en condiciones de vulnerabilidad desde la ecología humana durante 12 meses entre 2010 a 2011; utilizando técnicas pedagógicas evaluativas participativas. Éstas, son una alternativa para crear espacios reflexivos con el propósito de potenciar la resiliencia en las relaciones comunicativas y formar en el respeto. Objetivo: Generar bienestar, prevenir la farmacodependencia y contribuir a la promoción de la salud. Material y Métodos: Se revisaron los antecedentes temáticos, fueron seleccionados 100 estudiantes (...)
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  42. Shaun Gallagher Patricia Bockelman, Lauren Reinerman-Jones (2013). Methodological Lessons in Neurophenomenology: Review of a Baseline Study and Recommendations for Research Approaches. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 54.0
    Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science) while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for “lessons learned”, that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using (...)
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  43. Mary K. Shenk & Siobhán M. Mattison (2011). The Rebirth of Kinship. Human Nature 22 (1-2):1-15.score: 54.0
    Kinship was one of the key areas of research interest among anthropologists in the nineteenth century, one of the most hotly debated areas of theory in the early and mid-twentieth century, and yet an area of waning interest by the end of the twentieth century. Since then, the study of kinship has experienced a revitalization, with concomitant disputes over how best to proceed. This special issue brings together recent studies of kinship by scientific anthropologists employing evolutionary theory and quantitative (...). We argue that the melding of the evolutionary theoretical perspective with quantitative and ethnographic methodologies has strengthened and reinvigorated the study of kinship by synthesizing and extending existing research via rigorous analyses of evidence. (shrink)
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  44. Josef Perner, A. Gschaider, A. Kuhberger & S. Schrofner (1999). Predicting Others Through Simulation or by Theory? A Method to Decide. Mind and Language 14 (1):57-79.score: 50.0
  45. Thomas Chandler & Anand R. Marri (2012). Civic Engagement About Climate Change: A Case Study of Three Educators and Their Practice. Journal of Social Studies Research 36 (1):47-74.score: 48.0
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  46. Bilge Mutlu Lindsey J. Byom (2013). Theory of Mind: Mechanisms, Methods, and New Directions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 48.0
    Theory of Mind (ToM) has received significant research attention. Traditional ToM research has provided important understanding of how humans reason about mental states by utilizing shared world knowledge, social cues, and the interpretation of actions, however many current behavioral paradigms are limited to static, “third-person” protocols. Emerging experimental approaches such as cognitive simulation and simulated social interaction offer opportunities to investigate ToM in interactive, “first-person” and “second-person” scenarios while affording greater experimental control. The advantages and limitations of traditional and (...)
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  47. Kelly M. Goedert, Raymond C. Boston & A. M. Barrett (2013). Advancing the Science of Spatial Neglect Rehabilitation: An Improved Statistical Approach with Mixed Linear Modeling. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 48.0
  48. Eric B. Winsberg (2010). Science in the Age of Computer Simulation. The University of Chicago Press.score: 48.0
    Introduction -- Sanctioning models : theories and their scope -- Methodology for a virtual world -- A tale of two methods -- When theories shake hands -- Models of climate : values and uncertainties -- Reliability without truth -- Conclusion.
     
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  49. Ron J. Etter (1991). PopDyn: An Ecological Simulation Program. BioScience 41 (11):784-790.score: 46.7
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