It was the lack of hope for political reform that turned a neo-Confucianist school led by chu hsi to develop comprehensive metaphysical principles and integrated social actions as the only true way to put the confucian value system into practice. An ill-Advised persecution led to the contrary result: a heightened prestige. Facing the mongol threat, The state in an effort to strengthen itself belatedly adopted this school as the state orthodoxy, More for prestige than for reality. When the mongols occupied (...) all china, It was to this neo-Confucianism that the chinese society turned for its cultural identity. This was the socio-Political process by which a re-Defined confucian value system came to pervade china, Even among the illiterate. (shrink)
The purposes of research were to describe the neonatal clinicians' personal views and attitudes on neonatal ethical decision-making, to identify factors that might affect these attitudes and to compare the attitudes between neonatal physicians and neonatal nurses in Taiwan. Research was a cross-sectional design and a questionnaire was used to reach different research purposes. A convenient sample was used to recruit 24 physicians and 80 neonatal nurses from four neonatal intensive care units in Taiwan. Most participants agreed with suggesting a (...) do not resuscitate (DNR) order to parents for dying neonates (86.5%). However, the majority agreed with talking to patients about DNR orders is difficult (76.9%). Most participants agree that review by the clinical ethics committee is needed before the recommendation of ‘DNR’ to parents (94.23%) and nurses were significantly more likely than physicians to agree to this (p=0.043). During the end-of-life care, most clinicians accepted to continue current treatment without adding others (70%) and withholding of emergency treatments (75%); however, active euthanasia, the administration of drug to end-of-life, was not considered acceptable by both physicians and nurses in this research (96%). Based on our research results, providing continuing educational training and a formal consulting service in moral courage for neonatal clinicians are needed. In Taiwan, neonatal physicians and nurses hold similar values and attitudes towards end-of-life decisions for neonates. In order to improve the clinicians' communication skills with parents about DNR options and to change clinicians' attitudes for providing enough pain-relief medicine to dying neonates, providing continuing educational training and a formal consulting service in moral courage are needed. (shrink)
Introduction While quizzing during informed consent for research to ensure understanding has become commonplace, it is unclear whether the quizzing itself is problematic for potential participants. In this study, we address this issue in a multinational HIV prevention research trial enrolling injection drug users in China and Thailand. Methods Enrolment procedures included an informed consent comprehension quiz. An informed consent survey followed. Results 525 participants completed the informed consent survey (Heng County, China=255, Xinjiang, China=229, Chiang Mai, Thailand=41). Mean age was (...) 33 and mean educational level was 8 yrs. While quizzing was felt to be a good way to determine if a person understands the nature of clinical trial participation (97%) and participants did not generally find the quiz to be problematic, minorities of respondents felt pressured (6%); anxious (5%); bored (5%); minded (5%); and did not find the questions easy (13%). In multivariate analysis, lower educational level was associated with not minding the quizzing (6–10 yrs vs 0–5 yrs: OR=0.27, p=0.03; more than 11 yrs vs 0–5 yrs: OR=0.18, p=0.03). There were also site differences (Heng County vs Xinjiang) in feeling anxious (OR=0.07; p=<0.01), not minding (OR=0.26; p=0.03), being bored (OR=0.25; p=0.01) and not finding the questions easy (OR=0.10; p=<0.01). Conclusions Quizzing during the informed consent process can be problematic for a minority of participants. These problems may be associated with the setting in which research takes place and educational level. Further research is needed to develop, test and implement alternative methods of ensuring comprehension of informed consent. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00270257. (shrink)
A model of concentric circular dislocation loops is used to examine the Hall-Petch relation. For a given critical stress concentration at the grain boundary, the Hall-Petch slope produced by this model is higher than that from either single or double-ended pile-ups of infinite straight dislocations. The minimum stress required to maintain a certain number of circular dislocations is compared with the stress necessary for the continuous distribution of these dislocations in a circular slip zone.
Microstructural changes after several cycles of the thermomechanical treatment consisting of a small deformation by stress-induced martensitic transformation (fcc to hcp) and subsequent reversion to austenite by heating (referred to as 'training') have been studied by atomic force microscopy in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys. Well-trained samples contain a uniform distribution of thin martensite plates of the same variant, the widths of which decrease with increasing number of the training cycles, and their distribution becomes more uniform. Such microstructural development by (...) training originates mainly from extremely thin plates (about 1 nm thick) of hcp phase that are still retained together with stacking faults in the austenite even after heating far above the reverse transformation temperature. In the reverse transformation on heating, a martensite plate that looks as though it is apparently one plate is, in fact, split into very thin plates, which indicates that the plate actually consists of extremely thin martensite plates and these thin plates are reverse-transformed one after another by reverse movement of the Shockley partial dislocations at their tips. This mode of reverse transformation ensures a perfect shape memory effect. (shrink)
We have examined the commonly used Brenner potentials in the context of the thermodynamic properties of diamond. A simple optimized Brenner potential is proposed that provides very good predictions of the thermodynamic properties of diamond. It is shown that, compared to the experimental data, the lattice wave theory of molecular dynamics (LWT) with this optimized Brenner potential can accurately predict the temperature dependence of specific heat, lattice constant, Grüneisen parameters and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of diamond.
OBJECTIVE: To report and analyse the pattern of end-of-life decision making for terminal Chinese cancer patients. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: A cancer clinical trials unit in a large teaching hospital. PATIENTS: From April 1992 to August 1997, 177 consecutive deaths of cancer clinical trial patients were studied. MAIN MEASUREMENT: Basic demographic data, patient status at the time of signing a DNR consent, or at the moment of returning home to die are documented, and circumstances surrounding these events evaluated. RESULTS: (...) DNR orders were written for 64.4% of patients. Patients in pain (odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.89), especially if requiring opioid analgesia (odds ratio 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.77), were factors associated with a higher probability of such an order. Thirty-five patients were taken home to die, a more likely occurrence if the patient was over 75 years (odds ratio 0.12, 95% CI 0.04-0.34), had children (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.02-0.79), had Taiwanese as a first language (odds ratio 6.74, 95% CI 3.04-14.93), or was unable to intake orally (odds ratio 2.73, 95% CI 1.26-5.92). CPR was performed in 30 patients, none survived to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: DNR orders are instituted in a large proportion of dying Chinese cancer patients in a cancer centre, however, the order is seldom signed by the patient personally. This study also illustrates that as many as 20% of dying patients are taken home to die, in accordance with local custom. (shrink)
Putnam and Burge have been viewed as launching a joint attack on individualism, the view that the content of one's psychological state is determined by what is in the head . Putnam argues that meanings are not in the head while Burge argues that beliefs are not in the head either, and both have come up with convincing arguments against individualism. It is generally conceived that Putnam's view is a version of physical externalism, which argues that factors in the physical (...) environment play a role in determining the meanings of natural kind terms. Burge, on the other hand, is regarded as following up Putnam's argument to bring in factors in the social environment for the determination of belief. Burge's view has been commonly referred to as 'social externalism.' The general consensus in the field is that physical externalism and social externalism are compatible views. Furthermore, both Putnam and Burge seem to endorse each other’s position for the most part. In this paper, however, I shall argue against this general view to show that the two theories are deep down incompatible. (shrink)
In numerous papers Jaegwon Kim argues that nonreductive materialists (i.e., those philosophers who believe that there are no irreducible non-physical objects in the universe, and yet there are irreducible psychological properties which are indispensable in intentional psychological explanations) face two problems. One is that intentional mental properties are not causally relevant; the other is that explanations appealing to these properties are excluded by explanations appealing to physical, in particular, microphysical, properties.1 The first problem can be called the problem of epiphenomenalism. (...) The second problem is what Kim calls the problem of explanatory/causal exclusion. Epiphenomenalism is not just a problem for nonreductive materialists, but a problem for psychology (as a science of psychological explanation), and for anyone who believes that our thought is the cause of our action. Kim argues that the exclusion problem, on the other hand, is especially a problem for nonreductive materialists. Nonreductive materialists typically buy into the principle of the causal closure of the physical domain, according to which "any physical event that has a cause at time t has a physical cause at t..... [I]f we trace the causal ancestry of a physical event, we need never go outside the physical domain." [Kim 1989b, p. 280] One cannot reject this principle unless one is willing to go back to Cartesian dualism. But the problem is, if all causation is done at the physical level, then there is no causal work left for mental kinds. If mental kinds do not play any causal role, then intentional psychological explanations that appeal to mental properties are not warranted. Therefore, Kim concludes, nonreductive materialism is an untenable position. Some nonreductionists (Davidson, Dretske, LePore & Loewer, Jackson & Pettit, for example) have tried to argue for the causal relevancy of mental properties from an.. (shrink)
This paper adopted a constructive thinking model which is highly abstract and summary to investigate the life phenomena. It is more inclined to avoid detailednonessentials to grasp macroscopic outline trend, which is like: clearly see the direction of mountain range only by climbing to a height and looking forward; the more you enter into the braches and knots of trees, the more difficult to distinguish the general picture of the forest. Adopting this macroscopical mode of thought, it will be easier (...) to break away from the limitation of life body to grasp the inherent essence and common property of life. Any life is like a “running machine” and the running and living life state is the essential property of life. This life state isn’t windy; instead, it is a state of life material system and a state which could makematerial synthesis and energy transfer to keep automatic circulation and linkage running. When this state is established, life is formed. When this state is destroyed, life will be perished, when this state is restored, life could relive. It is the task of chemist and biologist to clarify precise material structure. From the property and characteristics of the life state, we could unearth the common connection and profound value meaning of movement development of objective world. It is Philosopher’s task to make it as the doctrine to guide the development of life world. On the basis of this life state, this paper put forth a theoretical model of life origin, so as to find answer of life origin theoretically. It opened passage between physical world and life world and made the life generated inmaterial system under specific condition to become an inevitable law. It will indicate orientation and a way out for the practical activity of exploring life origin. Meantime, this essay also found the vitality, which created life and push life to continuously run and develop, in addition, it created a significant theory of vitality extension. By means of life body, it downwardly connected with natural science law and upwardly connected with truth and doctrine of human society through life activity. It organically connected with material world, life world, human society and human spirit, offering an explanation to the world. It makes beautiful and simple world weltbild, which is like a developing and rising monument: A stele of weltbild. (shrink)
Whenever we analyze the issue of spiritual activities, we can never lay aside of the macro-background of “spirit service to life”. Spirit is” software” of life. It is essentially to carry out determination of self life and a nervous system which make the information processing and feedback between self life and outside world. It has reasonable structure system and systematical work mechanism. The basic structure system of the spirit of human beings is like this: self is the core and leading (...) of spirit running, which has properties in three aspects which are will, needs and motility. These properties formed a unity. Will mainly shows theessential property of self, which is in the domination and core position. Needs mainly shows the main part of life requesting and demanding for objective outside, which is in the conditional and secondary position. If we put the Needs in the key position, it will blaspheme the meaning of life and lose the value of life. Motility is a centralized reflection of life activity, which could be a means for the implementation of self Will and acquisition of self needs. In the tangible world, it is displayed as colorful life activity. In the intangible spiritual world, it is displayed as the information processing ability and information feedback ability of self life. Motility has four different levels: emotion, subconsciousness, consciousness, cognition. Correspondingly, the development of spirit could also be divided as four levels. In each level, self, activity, requested development degree, property characteristics and main content have certain of differences. In structure system of spirit, there is a correlation among each part and each element, which will interact with own characteristics to form an organic whole. In fact, it is an essential sublimation of tangible body and an intangible life existed with information form. The following figure shows the relationship of each element:[*Electronic Editor's Note: Figure in PDF of article*]This structure system of spirit, which isn’t a simple frame but an abstract mechanism of spirit running, is life active system of informatization. This system and mechanism make the changeable spiritual activity clear and orderly, and make the abundant and various life activities systematic and vivid. This system’s self isdeveloping, whose development still comply with the law of life development, symbolizing the development and extension of vitality. This development could be considered as continuance of life progress. In the low-grade life, it is mainly displayed as biological stress stage of promoting the favorable and avoiding the unfavorable as well as blind and instinctive affective response stage; in the highgrade animals, it is gradually displayed certain of psychological activity ability and study cognition ability. In human beings, it is gradually displayed awake of consciousness and mature of reason, making human beings to control themselves and change all things to become the soul of the world. Through this structure system and running mechanism, we could get a systematical explanation for theessence of emotion, mystery of psychological activity, process of consciousness awake, occurrence mechanism of dream. Meantime, we put forth that human beings must experience the second awakerational awake to become the true society human when human beings become the humans with souls after consciousness awake. (shrink)
The orientation of shear bands is investigated analytically and numerically for a rigid plastic frictional material in simple shear. The model is based on co-axial flow rule, incompressible deformations and a friction factor which depends on the strain history. Since we are focussing on geological timescales, the influence of elasticity is neglected. Firstly, a linear stability analysis is performed confirming Rice's 1976 assertion [The localization of plastic deformation, in Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, W.T. (...) Koiter, ed., North Holland, Amsterdam, 1976, p.207] that, in the hardening regime, bifurcation is possible at every stage. Orientation of shear bands against the less compressive principal axis lies anywhere between the Roscoe and Coulomb angles, namely between π/4+?/2 and π/4?+??/2, where ? and ? are the mobilised angles of friction and dilatancy, respectively (in our study, we assume ??=?0). The linear stability analysis leaves open the question of which orientation will actually emerge in a boundary value problem that consider all nonlinearities. This question is addressed in a finite element study of simple shear with periodic boundary conditions in the shear direction. Our simulations show temporary inclined shear bands in the hardening regime followed by a persistent horizontal shear band. A sensitivity study with respect to geometric and constitutive parameters indicates that the height of the sample controls the orientation of the inclined shear bands. Finally, we extend our analytical and numerical studies to Cosserat plasticity. It turns out that inclined shear bands are suppressed for large values of the internal length R (narrow bands). The case of a standard continuum is gradually recovered for small R (wide bands). (shrink)
The spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors, , , and hyperfine structure constants, , ) for Yb3+ at the 12-fold coordinated Sr2+ site of tetragonal SrTiO3 crystal at T ≈ 2 and 50 K were calculated using the completed diagonalization (of the energy matrix) method (CDM). Differing from the conventional CDM, the Hamiltonian concerning the energy matrix in this CDM contains the Zeeman and hyperfine interaction terms and so the spin-Hamiltonian parameters can be calculated directly from CDM. The crystal parameters used in (...) the energy matrix are calculated from the superposition model, in which the tetragonal distortions and hence the order parameters φ at both temperatures are applied. From the calculations, the spin-Hamiltonian parameters at both temperatures are explained reasonably and the signs of hyperfine structure constants for the 171Yb3+ and 173Yb3+ isotopes in SrTiO3 are suggested. The results are discussed. (shrink)
A complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method based on the cluster approach (where the covalence effect due to the admixture between the orbitals of the central d?n ion and that of ligands is considered) was applied to calculate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors, g | and g ?, and hyperfine structure constants, A | and A ?) for two Cu2+ centers in ZnGa2O4 spinel at the temperature T?≈?110?K. In both Cu2+ centers, Cu2+ ions occupy the trigonally-distorted octahedral sites 16d and (...) the octahedrons undergo the static Jahn?Teller distortions from trigonal to tetragonally-elongated and tetragonally-compressed, respectively. The calculated spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the elongated Cu2+ center show good agreement with the experimental values and those of the compressed Cu2+ center are close to the observed values. The better agreement of spin-Hamiltonian parameter between calculation and experiment for the compressed Cu2+ center can be acquired by considering a small admixture of state to the ground state due to the vibrational motion of ligands. The defect structures of both Cu2+ centers (characterized by the ligand displacements a 1 and a 2, respectively) in ZnGa2O4 spinel were also determined from the calculation. (shrink)
The authors in this collection pursue a number of questions concerning self-consciousness, self and consciousness. Although the essays range rather broadly, there is a good deal of unity. In her introduction Liu organises the chapters under three headings: the Humean denial of self-awareness, the issue of self-knowledge, and the nature of persons or selves. This is helpful although it is worth bearing in mind that some chapters fall under more than one heading (for example, Shoemaker) and some don't fall neatly (...) under any (for example, O'Brien). (shrink)