Obedience: a simple term. Stanley Milgram, the famous experimental social psychologist, shocked the world with theory about it. Another man, Pol Pot, the infamous leader of the Khmer Rouge, showed how far the desire for obedience could go in human societies. Milgram conducted his experiments in the controlled environment of the US psychology laboratory of the 1960s. Pol Pot experimented with Utopia in the totalitarian Kampuchea of the 1970s. In this article, we discuss the process through which the Khmer Rouge (...) regime created an army of unquestioningly obedient soldiers – including child soldiers. Based on these two cases, we advance a framework on how obedience can be grown or countered. (shrink)
Moral and financial scandals emerging in recent years around the world have created the momentum for reconsidering the role of virtuousness in organizational settings. This empirical study seeks to contribute toward maintaining this momentum. We answer to researchers’ suggestions that the exploratory study carried out by Cameron et al. (Am Behav Sci 47(6):766–790, 2004 ), which related organizational virtuousness (OV) and performance, must be pursued employing their measure of OV in other contexts and in relation to other outcomes (Wright (...) and Goodstein, J Manage 33(6):928–958, 2007 ). Two hundred and sixteen employees reported their perceptions of OV and their affective well-being (AWB) at work (one of the main indicators of employees’ happiness), their supervisors reporting their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). The main finding is that the perceptions of OV predict some OCB both directly and through the mediating role of AWB. The evidence suggests that OV is worthy of a higher status in the business and organizational psychology literatures. (shrink)
We propose a liminality-based analysis of the process of ethical leadership/followership in organizations. A liminal view presents ethical leadership as a process taking place in organizational contexts that are often characterized by high levels of ambiguity, which render the usual rules and preferences dubious or inadequate. In these relational spaces, involving leaders, followers, and their context, old frames may be questioned and new ones introduced in an emergent way, through subtle processes whose evolution and implications may not be easy to (...) grasp even by those participating in them. (shrink)
Introduction: All countries face theissue of choice in healthcare. Allocation ofhealthcare resources is clearly associated withthe concept of distributive justice and to theexistence of a right to healthcare.Nevertheless, there is still the question ofwhether this right should include all types ofhealthcare services or if it should be limitedto selected types. It follows that choices mustbe made, priorities must be set and thatefficiency of healthcare services should bemaximum.
In most western countries, there is a 'human organ shortage' with waiting lists for the performance of transplantation. In a recent report of the UNOS Ethics Committee it is stated that there are approximately 31,000 potential recipients on waiting lists, but only one fourth of potential donors give their specific consent. Xenotransplantation--defined as the transplantation of animal cells, tissues or organs into human beings--is associated with particular ethical dilemmas, namely the problems of efficiency and safety of this medical procedure. The (...) objective of this study is to analyse the ethical dilemmas in xenotransplantation with the background of a personal view of moral life. Also, xenotransplantation will be evaluated as far as the legal regulation of transplantation is concerned. In particular, we will consider patients rights in accordance with existing laws on organ and tissue transplantation, animal research and clinical trials. (shrink)
O presente trabalho versa sobre o tema, central no projeto filosófico de Kant, da refutação do idealismo, concentrando-se em dois momentos da Crítica da Razão Pura (CRP): a Dedução Transcendental e a Refutação do Idealismo. Adoto duas hipóteses interpretativas: a primeira, de que a seção da CRP intitulada "Refutação do Idealismo" não esgota o projeto kantiano de uma refutação do idealismo, mas lhe fornece o acabamento, apresentando-se como um desenvolvimento de argumentos aduzidos na Dedução Transcendental. A segunda, de que a (...) refutação kantiana do idealismo assume uma forma bipartida pelo fato de que são essencialmente duas as figuras do idealista que a argumentação implicitamente apresenta como adversário da teoria transcendental do conhecimento. Chamarei essas figuras de idealista cético e idealista da autoconsciência e procurarei demonstrar e discutir a presença, na CRP, de dois distintos movimentos argumentativos anti-idealistas que lhes correspondem nas seções da Refutação e da Dedução. Finalmente, esboçarei a pergunta sobre se e em que medida, entendida na perspectiva de sua forma bipartida, a refutação kantiana completa do idealismo na CRP apresenta uma prova suficiente contra o interlocutor que, apesar de admitir, por hipótese, tanto a possibilidade do conhecimento objetivo quanto seu primado epistêmico em relação à consciência do Eu (consciência dos estados internos ou autoconsciência), subordina o domínio da objetividade à instância transcendental de uma consciência de objetos. This paper concerns about Kant's refutation of idealism and focuses on two chief sections of the Critique of Pure Reason: the Transcendental Deduction and the Refutation of Idealism. I shall argue firstly that the first Critique's section named "Refutation of Idealism", instead of exhausting Kant's project of refuting idealism, constitutes its accomplishment, offering a final deployment for some arguments adduced in the Transcendental Deduction. Secondly, I sustain that the refutation-project has two argumentative stages, since the idealist which is implicitly elected as the opponent of Kant's transcendental epistemology has essentially two faces. I shall term the one "skeptical idealist", and the other "self-consciousness idealist", and I'll endeavor to demonstrate accordingly two anti-idealistic lines of argument, both in the Refutation and in the Deduction. Finally, I shall attempt to assign some meaning to the question if kantian complete refutation of idealism amounts to a sufficient proof against a hypothetical opponent who, even though conceding both the possibility of objective cognition and its epistemic primacy towards self-consciousness, subordinates objectivity to the transcendental instance of a consciousness of objects. (shrink)
The lack of economic sustainability of most healthcare systems and a higher demand for quality and safety has contributed to the development of regulation as a decisive factor for modernisation, innovation and competitiveness in the health sector. The aim of this paper is to determine the importance of the principle of public accountability in healthcare regulation, stressing the fact that sunshine regulation—as a direct and transparent control over health activities—is vital for an effective regulatory activity, for an appropriate supervision of (...) the different agents, to avoid quality shading problems and for healthy competition in this sector. Methodologically, the authors depart from Kieran Walshe’s regulatory theory that foresees healthcare regulation as an instrument of performance improvement and they articulate this theory with the different regulatory strategies. The authors conclude that sunshine regulation takes on a special relevance as, by promoting publicity of the performance indicators, it contributes directly and indirectly to an overall improvement of the healthcare services, namely in countries were citizens are more critical with regard to the overall performance of the system. Indeed, sunshine regulation contributes to the achievement of high levels of transparency, which are fundamental to overcoming some of the market failures that are inevitable in the transformation of a vertical and integrated public system into a decentralised network where entrepreneurialism appears to be the predominant culture. (shrink)
Changes in modern societies originate the perception that ethical behaviour is essential in organization’s practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Recently the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO on Social Responsibility and Health has addressed this concept of social responsibility in the context of health care delivery suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance. The objective of this paper (...) is to address the issue of corporate social responsibility in health care, namely in the hospital setting, emphasising the special governance arrangements of such complex organisations and to evaluate if new models of hospital management (entrepreneurism) will need robust mechanisms of corporate governance to fulfil its social responsiveness. The scope of this responsible behaviour requires hospitals to fulfil its social and market objectives, in accordance to the law and general ethical standards. Social responsibility includes aspects like abstention of harm to the environment or the protection of the interests of all the stakeholders enrolled in the deliverance of health care. In conclusion, adequate corporate governance and corporate strategy are the gold standard of social responsibility. In a competitive market hospital governance will be optimised if the organization culture is reframed to meet stakeholders’ demands for unequivocal assurances on ethical behaviour. Health care organizations should abide to this new governance approach that is to create organisation value through performance, conformance and responsibility. (shrink)
In most western countries, there is a 'human organ shortage' with waiting lists for the performance of transplantation. In a recent report of the UNOS Ethics Committee it is stated that there are approximately 31,000 potential recipients on waiting lists, but only one fourth of potential donors give their specific consent. Xenotransplantation-defined as the transplantation of animal cells, tissues or organs into human beings-is associated with particular ethical dilemmas, namely the problems of efficiency and safety of this medical procedure. The (...) objective of this study is to analyse the ethical dilemmas in xenotransplantation with the background of a personal view of moral life. Also, xenotransplantation will be evaluated as far as the legal regulation of transplantation is concerned. In particular, we will consider patients rights in accordance with existing laws on organ and tissue transplantation, animal research and clinical trials. (shrink)
Questions of social justice and health-care costs are some of the concerns of society. The cost caused by cardiovascular diseases can have an enormous impact, and it is important to know what patients think about illness costs when they are hospitalized. Two interviews were realized in a longitudinal study, in a sample of 106 patients submitted to expensive techniques in Cardiology (Portugal), to understand the patients’ perception about the health costs and behavior changes based on awareness. We can conclude that (...) cardiovascular diseases are a global phenomenon that generally affects all social groups. From those interviewed, 83% of the patients agree about getting information concerning the treatments and intervention costs during hospitalization because the information about costs can bring the necessary tools for improvement in patients and health resources; 70.8% of the patients say that this information could bring awareness to the patient’s life, enhancing responsibility and personal autonomy. (shrink)
The increasing costs of healthcare delivery led to different political and administrative approaches trying to preserve the core values of the welfare state. This approach has well documented weaknesses namely with regard to healthcare rationing. The objective of this paper is to evaluate if independent healthcare regulation is an important tool with regard to the construction of fair processes for setting limits to healthcare. Methodologically the authors depart from Norman Daniels’ and James Sabin’s theory of accountability for reasonableness and try (...) to determine if new regulatory models—namely independent agencies—perform better with regard to the public disclosure of the reasons and rationales of healthcare rationing. In publicly financed healthcare systems independent regulation is an important tool to assure fair and reasonable procedures of prioritising services. In accordance with the principle of public accountability, independent regulatory agencies are particularly well suited to assure publicity of the decision-making processes, relevance of the rationale involved and particularly mechanisms for challenge and dispute resolution regarding limit setting decisions. It follows that independent healthcare regulation could be regarded not only as an instrument for performance improvement but also as a tool of social justice. The authors conclude by stating that accountability for reasonableness should be regarded as a landmark of any healthcare reform. And therefore regulators have the social task of assuring that the rationales for limit-setting decisions are clearly accessible to the public. (shrink)
Explicit forms of rationing have already been implemented in some countries, and many of these prioritization systems resort to Norman Daniels’ “accountability for reasonableness” methodology. However, a question still remains: is “accountability for reasonableness” not only legitimate but also fair? The objective of this paper is to try to adjust “accountability for reasonableness” to the World Health Organization’s holistic view of health and propose an evolutionary perspective in relation to the “normal” functioning standard proposed by Norman Daniels. To accomplish this (...) purpose the authors depart from the “normal” functioning standard to a model that promotes effective opportunity for everyone in health care access, because even within the “normal” functioning criteria some treatments and medical interventions should have priority upon others. Equal opportunity function is a mathematical function that helps to hierarchize moral relevant necessities in health care according to this point of view. It is concluded, first, that accountability for reasonableness is an extremely valuable tool to address the issue of setting limits in health care; second, that what is called in this paper “equal opportunity function” might reflect how accountability for reasonableness results in fair limit-setting decisions; and third, that this methodology must be further specified to best achieve fair limit-setting decisions. Indeed, when resources are especially scarce the methodology suggested in this paper might allow not only prioritizing in an “all or nothing” basis but can contribute to a hierarchy system of priorities in health care. (shrink)
In all countries where health care access is considered a social right, regulation is both a tool of performance improvement as well as an instrument of social justice. Both social (equity in access) and economical (promoting competition) regulation are at stake due to the nature of the good itself. Different modalities of regulation do exist and usually new regulatory cycles include the creation of stronger regulatory agencies. Indeed, health care regulation is rising steadily in most developed countries as a consequence (...) of the introduction of the New Public Management perspective to provide essential public goods.Health care is delivered by different organisations with very different cultural backgrounds—public and private (profit and non-profit)—that should be accountable for their decisions. Control by regulatory agencies is instrumental to accomplish this goal. However, there is some dispute with regards the degree of regulatory autonomy. The objective of this paper is to determine if independent regulatory agencies (IRAs) are effective in carrying out health care regulation. The authors apply Walshe’s analytical framework to the Regulatory Authority of Health (Portugal) to answer the question if independent regulation works.In conclusion, the two year experience of the Regulatory Authority of Health is important not only because the primary goals of independent regulation were achieved but also because this authority is now a full partner in the health care sector. However, independent agencies need to develop strong mechanisms of accountability because good regulatory governance is the paradigm of this institutional innovation. (shrink)
O presente trabalho é uma análise da dedução fornecida por Kant, na Crítica da Faculdade do Juízo Estética, dos juízos de gosto puros. Apresentamos, em primeiro lugar, a relação entre a "Estética" kantiana e o projeto de uma crítica do poder de julgar. Acompanhamos, em seguida, o percurso expositivo da Análitica do Belo em sua tarega de estabelecer as reivindicações fundamentais de nosso juízo de gosto. Discutimos finalmente as exigências e liberdades que o caráter estético desse juízo impõe a quem (...) pretenda provar sua necessidade e sua validade universal e mostramos como A Análitica do Belo, particularmente em seu quarto momento, antecipa e explicita o sentido dessas exigências. (shrink)
Through a convenience sample of 260 employees, the study shows how employees' perceptions about corporate citizenship (CC) predict their affective commitment. The study was carried out in Portugal, a high in-group and low societal collectivistic culture. Maignan et al.' s (1999 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 27(4), 455-469) construct, including economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities was used. The main findings are: (a) contrary to what has been presumed in the literature, the discretionary dimension includes two factors: CC (...) toward employees and toward community; (b) perceptions of CC explain 35% of unique variance of affective commitment; (c) the best predictors are perceptions of economic and legal CC and, mainly, perceptions of discretionary CC toward employees; (d) the perceptions of discretionary CC toward employees are significantly better predictors of affective commitment than are perceptions of economic, ethical, and discretionary CC toward the community; (e) perceived inconsistency of the several CC dimensions is detrimental to employees' affective commitment. The study questions the four-dimensional model of the CC construct as operationalized by Maignan et al., suggests that culture should be included as a moderating variable in future research, and stresses that affective commitment may decrease when employees perceive that their organizations act upon the several areas of CC inconsistently. (shrink)
The article suggests that the four-factor model of corporate citizenship (CC: economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities) does not fairly represent all pertinent dimensions of employees’ CC perceptions. Based on an empirical study with a sample of 316 employees, we show that, at least in some contexts, individuals distinguish seven CC dimensions: (1) economic responsibilities toward customers; (2) economic responsibilities toward owners; (3) legal responsibilities; (4) ethical responsibilities; (5) discretionary responsibilities toward employees; (6) discretionary responsibilities toward the community; and (7) (...) discretionary responsibilities toward the natural environment. We do not suggest that this seven-factor model represents all of the (more) relevant CC dimensions in the employees’ minds. We aim to share evidence showing that the four-factor model proposed by Maignan et al. (Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 27(4):455–469, 1999 ) may be refined, at least when the employees are the stakeholders in question. (shrink)
A tese fundamental da Estética kantiana contida na Crítica do Juízo é a de que os juízos de gosto, eminentemente subjetivos, proferidos com base num sentimento de prazer desinteressado da existência do objeto julgado e não fundados em conceitos do entendimento ou ideias da razão prática, apresentam validade universal. “Universalidade estética” é o conceito-chave com base no qual a terceira Crítica, que já havia afrontado as estéticas racionalistas com a tese da não-conceptualidade do juízo de gosto, rechaça, no outro fl (...) anco, o ceticismo estético dos defensores de um gosto privado e incomunicável. Em sua versão expositiva e analítica, o tema da universalidade do gosto é discutido no segundo momento da Analítica do Belo, que se conclui com a tese de que “belo é o que apraz universalmente sem conceito”. A essa conclusão Kant chega, tendo estabelecido no §8, entre outras coisas, a distinção entre a universalidade própria dos juízos refl exionantes estéticos e uma certa universalidade que se deve reconhecer em juízos determinantes de conhecimento teórico ou prático. À primeira, Kant atribui três títulos: o acima referido de “universalidade estética” (ästhetische Allgemeinheit), o de “validade comum” (Gemingültigkeit) e o de “validade universal subjetiva” (subjektive Allgemeingültigkeit). Quanto à segunda, a Analítica parece pretender batizar com os nomes supostamente equivalentes de “universalidade lógica” (logische Allgemeinheit) e “validade universal objetiva” (objektive Allgemeingültigkeit). O que defendo, no presente trabalho, é que a inteligência da noção de universalidade estética fi ca comprometida por três níveis de ambiguidade presentes no estabelecimento desses conceitos. Primeiramente, discutirei as difi culdades concernentes à apresentação kantiana dos conceitos de “universalidade” (Allgemeinheit) e de “validade universal”. (shrink)
Carlos Eduardo Alchourrón y Eugenio Bulygin efectuaron contribuciones de fundamental importancia para el desarrollo de la teoría de los sistemas jurídicos. Sus ideas evidencian una evolución de la presentación de una visión estática a una visión dinámica de tales sistemas. El objetivo central del presente trabajo consiste en mostrar que existe, no obstante, una cierta tensión en las tesis sostenidas por los autores entre dos concepciones diferentes de los sistemas jurídicos: por una parte, aquella que trata de reconstruir el (...) conjunto de las normas que resultan relevantes para la solución de un caso; por la otra, aquella que trata de ofrecer una caracterización satisfactoria del derecho como institución. Las diferentes finalidades que cada una de esas reconstrucciones persiguen obligan a refinar algunas ideas vinculadas con la dinámica del derecho para evitar derivaciones incompatibles con las intuiciones jurídicas ordinarias. Carlos Eduardo Alchourrón and Eugenio Bulygin have made contributions of fundamental importance for the development of the theory of legal systems. Their ideas reflex an evolution from a static to a dynamic vision of such systems. The main purpose of the present paper is to show that, notwithstanding, there exists a certain tension in the thesis defended by Alchourrón and Bulygin between two different conceptions of a legal system. On the one hand, a conception related to the reconstruction of the set of relevant norms to solve a certain case; on the other, a conception related to a satisfactory characterization of law as an institution. The different concerns of each of those reconstructions force to refine certain ideas associated with the dynamics of law to avoid derivations which appear incompatible with ordinary legal intuitions. (shrink)
Palabras en memoria de Eduardo Bello pronunciadas en la sesión inaugural del V Congreso Internacional de la Sociedad Académica de Filosofía, celebrado del 2 al 4 de febrero de 2011 en La Laguna (Tenerife).
El presente esfuerzo se encuentra animado por la factura de un análisis comparativo entre Ernst Cassirer y Eduardo Nicol en torno al fenómeno de la expresión. Ambos autores tienen en común la preocupación precisamente por el tema de la expresión. Sin embargo, desde el punto de vista de Cassirer, ésta posee dos notas sobresalientes, a saber, por un lado, la expresión queda constreñida al ámbito del lenguaje, y por otro, ésta posee diferentes estratos, por así decirlo, geológicos de evolución. (...) Por su parte en Eduardo Nicol, la expresión no es reductible al lenguaje, ni va a tener estratos geológicos, sino más bien va a poseer un matiz estrictamente ontológico, es decir, la expresión va a ser la manera como el hombre va intentar en todo momento paliar su insuficiencia ontológica. Nicol va esbozar una nueva imagen del conocimiento a partir precisamente de una metafísica de la expresión. (shrink)
This text has as a purpose the realization of a comparative analysis between two points view about the history of science. Ilya Prigogine (Nobel Prize 1977) and Eduardo Nicol (Mexican-Spanish philosopher) discuss about time and history of science, allowing us to find a coincidence between physics an..
En este trabajo me propongo desarrollar un estudio crítico de la concepción mecanicista de la explicación científica. En primer lugar, argumento que la caracterización mecanicista de los modelos fenoménicos (no explicativos) es inadecuada, pues no ofrece un análisis aceptable de los conceptos de modelo científico y similitud, que son fundamentales para la propuesta. En segundo lugar, sostengo que la caracterización de los modelos mecanicistas (explicativos) es igualmente inadecuada, pues los análisis disponibles de la relación explicativa de relevancia constitutiva implican una (...) tesis metafísica que es rechazada por los mismos mecanicistas. Concluyo que el mecanicismo no ofrece todavía una elucidación aceptable de la explicación científica. In this paper, I offer a critical assessment of the mechanicist approach to scientific explanation. Firstly, I argue that the mechanicist characterization of (non explanatory) phenomenological models is inadequate, since it does not develop an explication of the concepts of scientific model and similarity, which are indispensable to the approach. Secondly, I claim that the mechanicist conception of (explanatory) mechanicist models is inadequate as well, since all the available analices of the explanatory relation of constitutive relevance imply a metaphysical thesis that is rejected by the mechanicists themselves. I conclude that mechanicism needs to be emended if it aims to be considered as a genuinely illuminating approach to scientific explanation. (shrink)