Search results for 'Egoism History' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  12
    Robert Shaver (1998). Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History. Cambridge University Press..
    This book is the first full-length treatment of rational egoism, and it provides both a selective history of the subject as well as a philosophical analysis of the arguments that have been deployed in its defense.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  2. Robert Shaver (2011). Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History. Cambridge University Press.
    The position of rational egoism centres upon the thought that the rational thing to do must be to pursue one's own self-interest. Focusing on the work of Hobbes and Sidgwick, this book is an extensive history and evaluation of rational egoism. They are, after the ancients, the foremost exponents of rational egoism. He also considers other figures - Grotius, Samuel Clarke, John Clarke, Butler, Hume, Reid, Kant, Paley and Bentham - and a related position: the instrumental (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Robert Shaver (2009). Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History. Cambridge University Press.
    The position of rational egoism centres upon the thought that the rational thing to do must be to pursue one's own self-interest. Focusing on the work of Hobbes and Sidgwick, this book is an extensive history and evaluation of rational egoism. They are, after the ancients, the foremost exponents of rational egoism. He also considers other figures - Grotius, Samuel Clarke, John Clarke, Butler, Hume, Reid, Kant, Paley and Bentham - and a related position: the instrumental (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4. R. Crisp (2001). Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History. Philosophical Review 110 (1):111-113.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. Eric H. Beversluis (1975). The Not So Brief History of Ethical Egoism: A Criticism of Erling Skorpen's Thesis. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2):199.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6. Erling Skorpen (1969). Ethical Egoism's Brief and Mistaken History. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4):448.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. John P. Clark (1976). Max Stirner's Egoism. Freedom Press.
  8.  11
    Slobodan Sadzakov (2012). The Problem of Egoism in Rousseau’s Practical Philosophy. Filozofija I Društvo 23 (3):148-162.
  9.  30
    Patrick Frierson (2002). Learning to Love: From Egoism to Generosity in Descartes. Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (3):313-338.
    Patrick Frierson - Learning to Love: From Egoism to Generosity in Descartes - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:3 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.3 313-338 Learning to Love: From Egoism to Generosity in Descartes Patrick R. Frierson The whole of philosophy is like a tree. The roots are metaphysics, the trunk is physics, and the branches emerging from the trunk are all the other sciences, which may be reduced to three principal ones, namely (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  10. Birgit Biehler (2011). Der Eigennutz-Feind Oder "Wahrer Begründer" des Gemeinwohls? Bibliotheca Academica.
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11. John J. Tilley (2015). John Clarke of Hull's Argument for Psychological Egoism. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):69-89.
    John Clarke of Hull, one of the eighteenth century's staunchest proponents of psychological egoism, defended that theory in his Foundation of Morality in Theory and Practice. He did so mainly by opposing the objections to egoism in the first two editions of Francis Hutcheson's Inquiry into Virtue. But Clarke also produced a challenging, direct argument for egoism which, regrettably, has received virtually no scholarly attention. In this paper I give it some of the attention it merits. In (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Steven M. Cahn & Peter J. Markie (eds.) (2009). Ethics: History, Theory, and, Contemporary Issues. Oxford University Press.
    The most comprehensive collection of its kind, Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues, Third Edition, is organized into three parts, providing instructors with flexibility in designing and teaching a variety of courses in moral philosophy. The first part, Historical Sources, moves from classical thought (Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, and Epictetus) through medieval views (Augustine and Aquinas) to modern theories (Hobbes, Butler, Hume, Kant, Bentham, and Mill), culminating with leading nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers (Nietzsche, James, Dewey, Camus, and Sartre). The second (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  13.  73
    Norman J. Brown (1979). Psychological Egoism Revisited. Philosophy 54 (209):293 - 309.
    Psychological egoism is, I suppose, regarded by most philosophers as one of the more simple-minded fallacies in the history of philosophy, and dangerous and seductive too, contriving as it does to combine cynicism about human ideals and a vague sense of scientific method, both of which make the ordinary reader feel sophisticated, with conceptual confusion, which he cannot resist. For all of these reasons it springs eternal, in one form or another, in the breasts of first-year students, and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14.  26
    Kai Nielsen (1973). A Short Way With Psychological Egoism. Journal of Social Philosophy 4 (2):15-16.
    Psychological egoists deny that men ever voluntarily act to promote the interests of others as an end in itself or ever act in such a way that they have the same regard for others as they have for themselves. [...] This theory has a long history and was supposedly decisively refuted by Butler. Yet it continues to haunt the scene. I want, in the tradition of Butler but not in his manner, to try to set out a short snappy (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  3
    Norman J. Brown (1979). Psychological Egoism Revisited: Norman J. Brown. Philosophy 54 (209):293-309.
    Psychological egoism is, I suppose, regarded by most philosophers as one of the more simple-minded fallacies in the history of philosophy, and dangerous and seductive too, contriving as it does to combine cynicism about human ideals and a vague sense of scientific method, both of which make the ordinary reader feel sophisticated, with conceptual confusion, which he cannot resist. For all of these reasons it springs eternal, in one form or another, in the breasts of first-year students, and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  10
    Leo Strauss (1979). Natural Right and History (Chicago, 1953). The Correspondence Between Ethical Egoists and Natural Rights Theorists is Considerable Today, as Suggested by a Comparison of My" Recent Work in Ethical Egoism," American Philosophical Quarterly 16 (2):1-15.
    In this classic work, Leo Strauss examines the problem of natural right and argues that there is a firm foundation in reality for the distinction between right and wrong in ethics and politics. On the centenary of Strauss's birth, and the fiftieth anniversary of the Walgreen Lectures which spawned the work, _Natural Right and History_ remains as controversial and essential as ever. "Strauss... makes a significant contribution towards an understanding of the intellectual crisis in which we find ourselves... [and] brings (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   34 citations  
  17. Bernard Gert (1967). Hobbes and Psychological Egoism. Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (4):503-520.
    Hobbes has served for both philosophers and political scientists as the paradigm case of someone who held an egoistic view of human nature. In this article I shall attempt to show that the almost unanimous view that Hobbes held psychological egoism is mistaken, and further that Hobbes's political theory does not demand an egoistic psychology, but on the contrary is incompatible with psychological egoism. I do not maintain that Hobbes was completely consistent; in fact, I shall show that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  18.  72
    Simon May (ed.) (2011). Nietzsche's on the Genealogy of Morality: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: List of contributors; Acknowledgements; Note on texts, translations, references; Introduction Simon May; 1. The future of evil Raymond Geuss; 2. On the nobility of Nietzsche's priests R. Lanier Anderson; 3. The genealogy of guilt Bernard Reginster; 4. Why Nietzsche is still in the morality game Simon May; 5. Who is the 'sovereign individual'? Nietzsche on freedom Brian Leiter; 6. Ressentiment and morality Peter Poellner; 7. The role of life in the Genealogy Nadeem Hussain; 8. The relevance (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  19. Russell Price (1988). Self-Love,'Egoism'and Ambizione in Machiavelli's Thought. History of Political Thought 9 (2):237-261.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  4
    Armin W. Schulz (forthcoming). Altruism, Egoism, or Neither: A Cognitive-Efficiency-Based Evolutionary Biological Perspective on Helping Behavior. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  39
    James Patrick Scanlan (1999). The Case Against Rational Egoism in Dostoevsky's Notes From Underground. Journal of the History of Ideas 60 (3):549-567.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  22.  26
    Thomas G. West (1980). Max Stirner's Egoism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 18 (1):101-103.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  6
    James Patrick Scanlan (1999). The Case Against Rational Egoism in Dostoevsky's Notes From Underground. Journal of the History of Ideas 60 (3):549-567.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24. Christopher Berry (1987). Need and Egoism in Marx's Early Writings. History of Political Thought 8 (3):461-73.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25. F. Brooks (1994). Egoist Theory and America's Individualistanarchists: A Dilemma of Praxis. History of Political Thought 15 (3):403-422.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. Brad Hooker (2013). Egoism, Partiality, and Impartiality. In Roger Crisp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics. Oxford University Press
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Ross Rudolph (1986). Conflict, Egoism and Power in Hobbes. History of Political Thought 7 (1):73-88.
  28. John Deigh (1996). Reason and Ethics in Hobbes's Leviathan. Journal of the History of Philosophy 34 (1):33-60.
    Reason and Ethics in Hobbes's Leviathan JOHN DEIGH HOBBES'S ETHICS teaches the ways of self-preservation. Its lessons are arranged in a system of rules that Hobbes understood to be the laws of nature. These two themes, self-preservation and natural law, have inspired opposing inter- pretations of Hobbes's text. The historically dominant and still prevailing interpretation, which develops the former theme, is that Hobbes's ethics is a form of egoism. A later and less popular interpretation, which develops the latter theme, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29.  15
    Francis Fukuyama (1992/2006). The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press ;.
    Ever since its first publication in 1992, The End of History and the Last Man has provoked controversy and debate. Francis Fukuyama's prescient analysis of religious fundamentalism, politics, scientific progress, ethical codes, and war is as essential for a world fighting fundamentalist terrorists as it was for the end of the Cold War. Now updated with a new afterword, The End of History and the Last Man is a modern classic.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   111 citations  
  30. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2015). The Benefit to Philosophy of the Study of its History. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):161-184.
    This paper advances the view that the history of philosophy is both a kind of history and a kind of philosophy. Through a discussion of some examples from epistemology, metaphysics, and the historiography of philosophy, it explores the benefit to philosophy of a deep and broad engagement with its history. It comes to the conclusion that doing history of philosophy is a way to think outside the box of the current philosophical orthodoxies. Somewhat paradoxically, far from (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31. Ericka Tucker (2013). The Subject of History: Historical Subjectivity and Historical Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 7 (2):205-229.
    In this paper, I show how the phenomenological and hermeneutic traditions and method converge on their treatment of the historical subject. Thinkers from both traditions claim that subjectivity is shaped by a historical worldview. Each tradition provides an account of how these worldviews are shaped, and thus how essentially historical subjective experience is molded. I argue that both traditions, although offering helpful ways of understanding the way history shapes subjectivity, go too far in their epistemic claims for the superiority (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  16
    Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History. Journal of the History of Biology.
    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three distinct type concepts, each of them associated with a different set of practices. Important as Farber’s analysis has been for the historiography of natural history, his account conceals an important dimension (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33.  69
    Robert A. Wilson (2015). The Role of Oral History in Surviving a Eugenic Past. In Steven High (ed.), Beyond Testimony and Trauma: Oral History in the Aftermath of Mass Violence. 119-138.
    Despite the fact that the history of eugenics in Canada is necessarily part of the larger history of eugenics, there is a special role for oral history to play in the telling of this story, a role that promises to shift us from the muddled middle of the story. Not only has the testimony of eugenics survivors already played perhaps the most important role in revealing much about the practice of eugenics in Canada, but the willingness and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Paul Redding (2013). The Necessity of History for Philosophy – Even Analytic Philosophy. Journal of the Philosophy of History 7 (3):299-325.
    Analytic philosophers are often said to be indifferent or even hostile to the history of philosophy – that is, not to the idea of history of philosophy as such, but regarded as a species of the genus philosophy rather than the genus history. Here it is argued that such an attitude is actually inconsistent with approaches within the philosophies of mind that are typical within analytic philosophy. It is suggested that the common “argument rather than pedigree” claim (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35.  11
    Marianne Sommer (2008). History in the Gene: Negotiations Between Molecular and Organismal Anthropology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):473 - 528.
    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  36.  31
    Gary Hatfield (2005). The History of Philosophy as Philosophy. In Tom Sorell & G. A. J. Rogers (eds.), Analytic Philosophy and History of Philosophy. Oxford University Press 82-128.
    The chapter begins with an initial survey of ups and downs of contextualist history of philosophy during the twentieth century in Britain and America, which finds that historically serious history of philosophy has been on the rise. It then considers ways in which the study of past philosophy has been used and is used in philosophy, and makes a case for the philosophical value and necessity of a contextually oriented approach. It examines some uses of past texts and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  37.  5
    James Alexander (forthcoming). The Philosophy of Political History in Oakeshott and Collingwood. New Content is Available for Journal of the Philosophy of History.
    _ Source: _Page Count 25 Every political philosopher has a philosophy of political history, if sometimes not a very good one. Oakeshott and Collingwood are two twentieth century political philosophers who were particularly concerned with the significance of history for political philosophy; and who both, in the 1940s, sketched what I call philosophies of political history: that is, systematic schemes which could make sense of the entire history of political philosophy. In this article I observe that (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38.  5
    Michael Beaney (forthcoming). Historiography, Philosophy of History and the Historical Turn in Analytic Philosophy. New Content is Available for Journal of the Philosophy of History.
    _ Source: _Page Count 24 This article has three main interconnected aims. First, I illustrate the historiographical conceptions of three early analytic philosophers: Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein. Second, I consider some of the historiographical debates that have been generated by the recent historical turn in analytic philosophy, looking at the work of Scott Soames and Hans-Johann Glock, in particular. Third, I discuss Arthur Danto’s _Analytic Philosophy of History_, published 50 years ago, and argue for a reinvigorated analytic philosophy of (...). (shrink)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Ian Hunter (2007). The History of Philosophy and the Persona of the Philosopher. Modern Intellectual History 4 (3):571-600.
    Although history is the pre-eminent part of the gallant sciences, philosophers advise against it from fear that it might completely destroy the kingdom of darkness—that is, scholastic philosophy—which previously has been wrongly held to be a necessary instrument of theology.
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  40. Aaron D. Cobb (2011). History and Scientific Practice in the Construction of an Adequate Philosophy of Science: Revisiting a Whewell/Mill Debate. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):85-93.
    William Whewell raised a series of objections concerning John Stuart Mill’s philosophy of science which suggested that Mill’s views were not properly informed by the history of science or by adequate reflection on scientific practices. The aim of this paper is to revisit and evaluate this incisive Whewellian criticism of Mill’s views by assessing Mill’s account of Michael Faraday’s discovery of electrical induction. The historical evidence demonstrates that Mill’s reconstruction is an inadequate reconstruction of this historical episode and the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  41.  4
    Michael Beaney (2016). Historiography, Philosophy of History and the Historical Turn in Analytic Philosophy. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):211-234.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 211 - 234 This article has three main interconnected aims. First, I illustrate the historiographical conceptions of three early analytic philosophers: Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein. Second, I consider some of the historiographical debates that have been generated by the recent historical turn in analytic philosophy, looking at the work of Scott Soames and Hans-Johann Glock, in particular. Third, I discuss Arthur Danto’s _Analytic Philosophy of History_, published 50 years ago, and argue for a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Pauline Kleingeld (1999). Kant, History, and the Idea of Moral Development. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (1):59-80.
    I examine the consistency of Kant's notion of moral progress as found in his philosophy of history. To many commentators, Kant's very idea of moral development has seemed inconsistent with basic tenets of his critical philosophy. This idea has seemed incompatible with his claims that the moral law is unconditionally and universally valid, that moral agency is noumenal and atemporal, and that all humans are equally free. Against these charges, I argue not only that Kant's notion of moral development (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  43. Serge Grigoriev (2012). Dewey: A Pragmatist View of History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (2):173-194.
    Despite the centrality of the idea of history to Dewey's overall philosophical outlook, his brief treatment of philosophical issues in history has never attracted much attention, partly because of the dearth of the available material. Nonetheless, as argued in this essay, what we do have provides for the outlines of a comprehensive pragmatist view of history distinguished by an emphasis on methodological pluralism and a principled opposition to thinking of historical knowledge in correspondence terms. The key conceptions (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  12
    Jan Plamper (2010). The History of Emotions: An Interview with William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein, and Peter Stearns. History and Theory 49 (2):237-265.
    The history of emotions is a burgeoning field—so much so, that some are invoking an “emotional turn.” As a way of charting this development, I have interviewed three of the leading practitioners of the history of emotions: William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein, and Peter Stearns. The interviews retrace each historian’s intellectual-biographical path to the history of emotions, recapitulate key concepts, and critically discuss the limitations of the available analytical tools. In doing so, they touch on Reddy’s concepts of (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  45.  18
    J. B. Schneewind (1998). The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This remarkable book is the most comprehensive study ever written of the history of moral philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its aim is to set Kant's still influential ethics in its historical context by showing in detail what the central questions in moral philosophy were for him and how he arrived at his own distinctive ethical views. The book is organised into four main sections, each exploring moral philosophy by discussing the work of many influential philosophers of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   63 citations  
  46.  3
    James Alexander (2016). The Philosophy of Political History in Oakeshott and Collingwood. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):279-303.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 279 - 303 Every political philosopher has a philosophy of political history, if sometimes not a very good one. Oakeshott and Collingwood are two twentieth century political philosophers who were particularly concerned with the significance of history for political philosophy; and who both, in the 1940s, sketched what I call philosophies of political history: that is, systematic schemes which could make sense of the entire history of political philosophy. In (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  19
    Richard W. Burkhardt (1999). Ethology, Natural History, the Life Sciences, and the Problem of Place. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):489 - 508.
    Investigators of animal behavior since the eighteenth century have sought to make their work integral to the enterprises of natural history and/or the life sciences. In their efforts to do so, they have frequently based their claims of authority on the advantages offered by the special places where they have conducted their research. The zoo, the laboratory, and the field have been major settings for animal behavior studies. The issue of the relative advantages of these different sites has been (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  48.  89
    Anya Plutynski (2011). Four Problems of Abduction: A Brief History. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 1 (2):227-248.
    Debates concerning the character, scope, and warrant of abductive inference have been active since Peirce first proposed that there was a third form of inference, distinct from induction and deduction. Abductive reasoning has been dubbed weak, incoherent, and even nonexistent. Part, at least, of the problem of articulating a clear sense of abductive inference is due to difficulty in interpreting Peirce. Part of the fault must lie with his critics, however. While this article will argue that Peirce indeed left a (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  49.  22
    R. G. Collingwood (1993). The Idea of History. Oxford University Press.
    The Idea of History is the best-known book of the great Oxford philosopher, historian, and archaeologist R.G. Collingwood. It was originally published posthumously in 1946, having been mainly reconstructed from Collingwood's manuscripts, many of which are now lost. For this revised edition, Collingwood's most important lectures on the philosophy of history are published here for the first time. These texts have been prepared by Jan van der Dussen from manuscripts that have only recently become available. The lectures contain (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   73 citations  
  50.  68
    Immanuel Kant (2007). Anthropology, History, and Education. Cambridge University Press.
    Anthropology, History, and Education contains all of Kant's major writings on human nature. Some of these works, which were published over a thirty-nine year period between 1764 and 1803, have never before been translated into English. Kant's question 'What is the human being?' is approached indirectly in his famous works on metaphysics, epistemology, moral and legal philosophy, aesthetics and the philosophy of religion, but it is approached directly in his extensive but less well-known writings on physical and cultural anthropology, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   28 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000