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  1. Elijah Millgram, By Elijah Millgram.
    Late British Empiricism was a research project built around a two-part psychological theory: that thoughts represent their objects by qualitatively resembling them (the "Theory of Ideas") and that thought proceeds by traversing associative links between ideas ("associationism"). The work of Hume, and then of Mill, were the project's highwater marks; twentieth-century philosophers no longer find the psychology convincing. The problem, as far as the philosophers were concerned, was not so much that the account seemed false upon introspection, nor that (...)
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  2. Paul Thagard & Elijah Millgram, A Coherence Theory of Decision.
    In their introduction to this volume, Ram and Leake usefully distinguish between task goals and learning goals. Task goals are desired results or states in an external world, while learning goals are desired mental states that a learner seeks to acquire as part of the accomplishment of task goals. We agree with the fundamental claim that learning is an active and strategic process that takes place in the context of tasks and goals (see also Holland, Holyoak, Nisbett, and Thagard, 1986). (...)
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  3. Elijah Millgram, Hume on Practical Reasoning Treatise 463 469).
    The claim that "'is' does not entail 'ought"' is so closely associated with Hume that it has been called 'Hume's Law'. 1 The interpretation of the passage in Hume's Treatise of Human Nature that is the locus classicus of the claim is controversial. But the passage is preceded by three main bodies of argument, and, on the working assumption that the passage in question is closely connected to the argumentation that leads up to it, I will here examine the third (...)
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  4. Elijah Millgram (2011). Ismael's Anscombian and Dennettian Selves. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (3):759-762.
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  5. Elijah Millgram (2011). Practical Reasoning for Serial Hyperspecializers. Philosophical Explorations 12 (3):261-278.
    Some species are weedy: they move from one ecological niche to another. Other species are specialized: they are exquisitely adapted to exploit a particular niche. Human beings are the design solution in which a species is simultaneously weedy and specialized - the trick being to manage the exquisite niche-specific adaptations in software rather than in the hardware. We are built to reprogram ourselves on the fly, to select new goals, new priorities and new guidelines appropriate to novel niches. Understanding ourselves (...)
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  6. Elijah Millgram (2011). Replies. [REVIEW] Analysis 71 (2):341 - 351.
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  7. Elijah Millgram (2011). Summary. Analysis 71 (2):311-313.
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  8. Elijah Millgram (2011). Self-Constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity The Constitution of Agency: Essays on Practical Reason and Moral Psychology. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (3):549 - 556.
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Volume 89, Issue 3, Page 549-556, September 2011.
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  9. Elijah Millgram (2010). Mill's Incubus. In Ben Eggleston, Dale E. Miller & D. Weinstein (eds.), John Stuart Mill and the Art of Life. Oxford University Press.
     
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  10. Elijah Millgram (2010). Oscar Wilde, the Picture of Dorian Gray: The 1890 and 1891 Texts. The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde , Vol. 3, Ed. Joseph Bristow (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), Pp. Lxxvii + 465. [REVIEW] Utilitas 22 (1):93-96.
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  11. Elijah Millgram (2009). John Stuart Mill, Determinism, and the Problem of Induction. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):183-199.
    Auguste Comte's doctrine of the three phases through which sciences pass (the theological, the metaphysical, and the positive) allows us to explain what John Stuart Mill was attempting in his magnum opus, the System of Logic: namely, to move the science of logic to its terminal and 'positive' stage. Both Mill's startling account of deduction and his unremarked solution to the Humean problem of induction eliminate the notions of necessity or force—in this case, the 'logical must'—characteristic of a science's metaphysical (...)
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  12. Elijah Millgram (2009). Hard Truths. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The truth in bivalence -- Deflating deflationism -- How to find your match -- Unity of the intellect -- How can we think about partial truth? -- Logics of vagueness -- The Quinean turn -- The Davidsonian swerve -- The Lewis twist : mind over matter -- The bare necessities -- Metaphysics as intellectual ergonomics.
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  13. Elijah Millgram (2009). Life and Action. Analysis 69 (3):557-564.
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  14. Elijah Millgram (2009). Liberty, the Higher Pleasures, and Mill's Missing Science of Ethnic Jokes. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (1):326-353.
    Aggregation-friendly moral theories such as classical utilitarianism are forced to invest a great deal of ingenuity in damping out and modulating the effects of welfare aggregation. In Mill's treatment, the problem famously appears as the puzzle of how the Principle of Liberty is meant to be compatible with the Principle of Utility, and there have been a great many attempted interpretations of his solution, all, in my view, unsatisfactory. I will first reconstruct Mill's generally unnoticed account of the psychological implementation (...)
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  15. Elijah Millgram (2009). The Persistence of Moral Skepticism and the Limits of Moral Education. In Harvey Siegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Oxford University Press. 245.
  16. Elijah Millgram (2008). D'où Venons-Nous, Que Sommes Nous, Où Allons-Nous? In Daniel Callcut (ed.), Reading Bernard Williams. Routledge.
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  17. Elijah Millgram, Practical Reason and the Structure of Actions. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A wave of recent philosophical work on practical rationality is organized by the following implicit argument: Practical reasoning is figuring out what to do; to do is to act; so the forms of practical inference can be derived from the structure or features of action. Now it is not as though earlier work, in analytic philosophy, had failed to register the connection between action and practical rationality; in fact, practical reasoning was usually picked out as, roughly, reasoning directed toward action. (...)
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  18. Elijah Millgram (2007). Applied Ethics, Moral Skepticism, and Reasons with Expiration Dates. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (5):pp. 263-280.
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  19. Elijah Millgram (2007). Who Was Nietzsche's Genealogist? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):92–110.
    Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals is deservedly part of the ethical canon, but it is also be enormously and insistently absent-minded. I’m going to first present, as a textual puzzle, a handful of forgetful moments in the first two essays of the Genealogy. To address the puzzle, I will take up a familiar idea, that the Genealogy is both a subversive account of ethics and of what it is to be an intellectual. I will describe a strategy for reading the text (...)
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  20. Elijah Millgram (2006). Review of Reasonably Vicious, by Candace Vogler. [REVIEW] European Journal of Philosophy 14 (3):430–434.
  21. Elijah Millgram (2005). Ethics Done Right: Practical Reasoning as a Foundation for Moral Theory. Cambridge University Press.
    Ethics Done Right examines how practical reasoning can be put into the service of ethical and moral theory. Elijah Millgram shows that the key to thinking about ethics is to understand generally how to make decisions. The papers in this volume support a methodological approach and trace the connections between two kinds of theory in utilitarianism, in Kantian ethics, in virtue ethics, in Hume's moral philosophy, and in moral particularism. Unlike other studies of ethics, Ethics Done Right does not advocate (...)
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  22. Elijah Millgram (2004). Kantian Crystallization. Ethics 114 (3):511-513.
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  23. Elijah Millgram (2004). On Being Bored Out of Your Mind. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 104 (2):163–184.
    The contemporary philosophical debate over practical reasoning-over how one ought to figure out what to do-has been almost entirely focused on whether there is more to it than means-ends reasoning. But a prior and very difficult question has to do with why instrumental deliberation is so important an aspect of our cognitive life (regardless of whether there is anything else). I consider an answer broached by Harry Frankfurt, that having ends is the alternative to being literally bored out of one's (...)
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  24. Elijah Millgram (2004). The Ontological Meta-Argument. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):331-334.
    Would the Ontological Argument Greater Than Which None Can Be Conceived proue the existence of God? Might an ontological argument prove the actuality of the world (as Robert Nozick once suggested)? Should you believe that you’re actual, even if you’re not? And what happens if we attempt to answer these questions, having adopted Nozick’s mature view of the function of argument?
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  25. Wlodek Rabinowicz, Toni Rønnow‐Rasmussen, Douglas Lavin, Rachana Kamtekar, Joshua Gert, Elijah Millgram, David Copp & Stephen M. Gardiner (2004). 10. Peter Singer, One World: The Ethics of Globalization Peter Singer, One World: The Ethics of Globalization (Pp. 634-638). [REVIEW] Ethics 114 (3).
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  26. Elijah Millgram (2003). Does the Categorical Imperative Give Rise to a Contradiction in the Will? Philosophical Review 112 (4):525-560.
  27. Elijah Millgram (2002). Candace Vogler, John Stuart Mill's Deliberative Landscape:John Stuart Mill's Deliberative Landscape. Ethics 112 (4):880-883.
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  28. Elijah Millgram (2002). Commensurability in Perspective. Topoi 21 (1-2):217-226.
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  29. Elijah Millgram (2002). How to Make Something of Yourself. In David Schmidtz (ed.), Robert Nozick. Cambridge University Press. 175--198.
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  30. Elijah Millgram (2001). Love and its Place in Nature. Jonathan Lear. Mind 110 (440):1087-1092.
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  31. Elijah Millgram (2001). Practical Reasoning: The Current State of Play. In , Varieties of Practical Reasoning. Mit Press. 1--26.
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  32. Elijah Millgram (ed.) (2001). Varieties of Practical Reasoning. MIT Press.
    This book covers a broad spectrum of positions on practical reasoning—from the nihilist view that there are no legitimate forms of practical inference, and ...
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  33. Hugh LaFollette, Elijah Millgram, David McCabe, Richard J. Arneson & Noël Carroll (2000). 10. Charles W. Mills, Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race Charles W. Mills, Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race (Pp. 432-434). [REVIEW] Ethics 110 (2).
     
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  34. Elijah Millgram (2000). Coherence. Journal of Philosophy 97 (2):82 - 93.
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  35. Elijah Millgram (2000). Coherence: The Price of the Ticket. Journal of Philosophy 97 (2):82-93.
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  36. Elijah Millgram (2000). Mill's Proof of the Principle of Utility. Ethics 110 (2):282-310.
    Utilitarianism is a “consequentialist” doctrine: that actions are right or wrong in proportion as they produce good or bad consequences. Mill’s version is also a “hedonistic” doctrine. Consequences are good insofar as they have more happiness or less unhappiness; bad, as they have more unhap- piness or less happiness; and by happiness and unhappiness, Mill means pleasure and pain. In English, the words “happiness” and “unhappiness” do not have the same connotations as “pleasure” and “pain.” “Happiness” implies feeling good about (...)
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  37. Elijah Millgram (2000). Thinking in Pictures. Hume Studies 26 (1):372-374.
    Late British Empiricism was a research project built around a two-part psychological theory: that thoughts represent their objects by qualitatively resembling them (the "Theory of Ideas") and that thought proceeds by traversing associative links between ideas ("associationism"). The work of Hume, and then of Mill, were the project's high-water marks; twentieth-century philosophers no longer find the psychology convincing. The problem, as far as the philosophers were concerned, was not so much that the account seemed false upon introspection, nor that the (...)
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  38. Elijah Millgram (2000). What's the Use of Utility? Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (2):113–136.
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  39. Elijah Millgram (2000). Thinking in Pictures (Review). Hume Studies 26 (1):198-200.
  40. Elijah Millgram (1999). Moral Values and Secondary Qualities. American Philosophical Quarterly 36 (3):253 - 255.
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  41. Elijah Millgram (1997). Practical Induction. Harvard University Press.
    Itself a pleasure to read, this book is full of inventive arguments and conveys Millgram's bold thesis with elegance and force.
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  42. Elijah Millgram (1996). Williams' Argument Against External Reasons. Noûs 30 (2):197-220.
    What I have tried to do is elicit and disarm the motivations most likely to give rise to the [counterexamples to the principle crucial to Williams' argument]. Only one of these motivations is still viable: the instrumentalist theory of practical reasoning. But because internalism and instrumentalism are, as it has turned out, so very tightly linked, in disarming the motivations for the objection, I have also inventoried, and given reason to reject, what I have found to be the most common (...)
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  43. Elijah Millgram & Paul Thagard (1996). Deliberative Coherence. Synthese 108 (1):63 - 88.
    Choosing the right plan is often choosing the more coherent plan: but what is coherence? We argue that coherence-directed practical inference ought to be represented computationally. To that end, we advance a theory of deliberative coherence, and describe its implementation in a program modelled on Thagard's ECHO. We explain how the theory can be tested and extended, and consider its bearing on instrumentalist accounts of practical rationality.
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  44. Elijah Millgram (1995). Was Hume a Humean? Hume Studies 21 (1):75-94.
    I am going to argue that linking Hume’s name with instrumentalism is as inappropriate as linking Aristotle’s: that, as a matter of textual point, the Hume of the Treatise is not an instrumentalist at all, and that the view of practical reasoning that he does have is incompatible with, and far more minimal than, instrumentalism. Then I will consider Hume’s reasons for his view, and argue that they make sense when they are seen against the background of his semantic theory. (...)
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  45. Elijah Millgram (1994). An Apprentice Argument. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (4):913-916.
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  46. Elijah Millgram (1994). Review: An Apprentice Argument. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (4):913 - 916.
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  47. Elijah Millgram (1993). Pleasure in Practical Reasoning. The Monist 76 (3):394-415.
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  48. Elijah Millgram (1991). Harman's Hardness Arguments. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 72 (3):181-202.
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  49. Elijah Millgram (1987). Aristotle on Making Other Selves. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (2):361 - 376.
    There is still a relative paucity of discussion of the views on friendship that Aristotle presents in the Nicomachean Ethics ,1 although some recent work may indicate a new trend. One suspects that this paucity reflects a belief that those views are not very interesting; if true, this witnesses to an unfortunate underestimation of Aristotle's account. This account is in fact quite surprising, for -- I shall argue -- Aristotle believes that one makes one's friends in the most literal sense (...)
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