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  1. Elizabeth F. Loftus, The Price of Bad Memories.
    After hundreds of articles on recovered memory therapy, one might have thought there was not much left to say. But a November 1997 front-page article in the New York Times headlined '"Memory' Therapy Leads to a Lawsuit and Big Settlement" suggested that the repressed memory controversy had broken new records (Belluck 1997).
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  2. Elizabeth F. Loftus, The Reality of Repressed Memories.
    Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that were allegedly repressed for many years. With recent changes in legislation, people with recently unearthed memories are suing alleged perpetrators for (...)
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  3. Elizabeth F. Loftus, Who Abused Jane Doe?
    Case histories make contributions to science and practice, but they can also be highly misleading. We illustrate with our reexamination of the case of Jane Doe; she was videotaped twice, once when she was six years old and then eleven years later when she was seventeen. During the first interview she reported sexual abuse by her mother. During the second interview she apparently forgot and then remembered the sexual abuse. Jane's case has been hailed by some as the new proof (...)
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  4. Charles G. Manning & Elizabeth F. Loftus, Imagination Inflation: Imagining a Childhood Event Inflates Confidence That It Occurred.
    Counterfactual imaginings are known to have far reaching implications. In the present experiment, we ask if imagining events from one's past can affect memory for childhood events. We draw on the social psychology literature showing that imagining a future event increases the subjective likelihood that the event will occur. The concepts of cognitive availability and the source monitoring framework provide reasons to expect that imagination may inflate confidence that a childhood event occurred. However, people routinely produce myriad counterfactual imaginings (i.e., (...)
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  5. Harlene Hayne, Maryanne Garry & Elizabeth F. Loftus (2006). On the Continuing Lack of Scientific Evidence for Repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):521-522.
    The forgetting and remembering phenomena that Erdelyi outlines here have little to do with the concept of repression. None of the research that he describes shows that it is possible for people to repress (and then recover) memories for entire, significant, and potentially emotion-laden events. In the absence of scientific evidence, we continue to challenge the validity of the concept of repression.
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  6. Elizabeth F. Loftus & Daniel Bernstein (2004). Strong Memories Are Made of This. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (5):199-201.
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  7. Elizabeth F. Loftus (2003). False Memory. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.
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  8. Kathryn A. Braun, Rhiannon Ellis & Elizabeth F. Loftus (2002). Make My Memory: How Advertising Can Change Our Memories of the Past. Psychology and Marketing 19 (1):1-23.
    Marketers use autobiographical advertising as a means to create nostalgia for their products. This research explores whether such referencing can cause people to believe that they had experiences as children that are mentioned in the ads. In Experiment 1, participants viewed an ad for Disney that suggested that they shook hands with Mickey Mouse as a child. Relative to controls, the ad increased their confidence that they personally had shaken hands with Mickey as a child at a Disney resort. The (...)
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  9. Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni, Elizabeth F. Loftus & Irving Kirsch (2001). Changing Beliefs About Implausible Autobiographical Events: A Little Plausibility Goes a Long Way. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 7 (1):51.
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  10. Elizabeth F. Loftus (1999). Lost in the Mall: Misrepresentations and Misunderstandings. Ethics and Behavior 9 (1):51 – 60.
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  11. Robert F. Belli & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1996). The Pliability of Autobiographical Memory: Misinformation and the False Memory Problem. In David C. Rubin (ed.), Remembering Our Past: Studies in Autobiographical Memory. Cambridge University Press. 157--179.
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  12. Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1996). When Dreams Become Reality. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):442-462.
    In three experiments, we found that after a subtle suggestion, subjects falsely recognized words from their own dreams and thought they had been presented during the waking state. The procedure used in these studies involved three phases. Subjects studied a list of words on Day 1. On Day 2, they received a false suggestion that some words from their previously reported dreams had been presented on the list. On Day 3, they tried to recall only what had occurred on the (...)
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  13. Stephen J. Ceci, Mary Lyndia Crotteau Huffman, Elliott Smith & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1994). Repeatedly Thinking About a Non-Event: Source Misattributions Among Preschoolers. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (3-4):388-407.
    In this paper we review the factors alleged to be responsible for the creation of inaccurate reports among preschool-aged children, focusing on so-called "source misattribution errors." We present the first round of results from an ongoing program of research that suggests that source misattributions could be a powerful mechanism underlying children′s false beliefs about having experienced fictitious events. Preliminary findings from this program of research indicate that all children of all ages are equally susceptible to making source misattributions. Data from (...)
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  14. Maryanne Garry, Elizabeth F. Loftus & Scott W. Brown (1994). Memory: A River Runs Through It. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (3-4):438-451.
    Two decades of research using repeated false statements and underhanded information have shown that people can easily be made to believe that they have seen or experienced something they never did. In this paper, we discuss the possibility that the mental health professional and client may unknowingly collaborate to create a client′s false memory of childhood sexual abuse. Both therapist and client bring beliefs into therapy, and the confirmation bias shows that people discover what they already believe to be true. (...)
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  15. Elizabeth F. Loftus & M. R. Klinger (1992). Is the Unconscious Smart or Dumb? American Psychologist 47:761-65.
  16. Sven-Åke Christianson & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1991). Remembering Emotional Events: The Fate of Detailed Information. Cognition and Emotion 5 (2):81-108.
  17. Sven-Åke Christianson & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1990). Some Characteristics of People's Traumatic Memories. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):195-198.
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  18. Elizabeth F. Loftus, Geoffrey R. Loftus & Earl B. Hunt (1984). Broadbent's Maltese Cross Memory Model: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Missing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):73.
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  19. Elizabeth F. Loftus & Jonathan W. Schooler (1984). Recoding Processes in Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):246.
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  20. Elizabeth F. Loftus (1981). Natural and Unnatural Cognition. Cognition 10 (1-3):193-196.
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  21. Elizabeth F. Loftus, Edith Greene & Kirk H. Smith (1980). How Deep is the Meaning of Life? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 15 (4):282-284.
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  22. Geoffrey R. Loftus & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1980). Visual Perception: The Shifting Domain of Discourse. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):391.
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  23. Norman Groner, John P. Keating & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1978). Development of Coded Emergency Alarms Through Word-Association Tasks. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 11 (2):139-140.
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  24. Judith M. Siegel & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1978). Impact of Anxiety and Life Stress Upon Eyewitness Testimony. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12 (6):479-480.
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  25. David G. Miller & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1976). Influencing Memory for People and Their Actions. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 7 (1):9-11.
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  26. Elizabeth F. Loftus & Guido Zanni (1975). Eyewitness Testimony: The Influence of the Wording of a Question. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (1):86-88.
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  27. Jonathan L. Freedman & Elizabeth F. Loftus (1974). Retrieval of Words From Well-Learned Sets: The Effect of Category Size. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1085.
  28. Elizabeth F. Loftus & Martin Bolton (1974). Retrieval of Superordinates and Subordinates. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):121.
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  29. Elizabeth F. Loftus & William Cole (1974). Retrieving Attribute and Name Information From Semantic Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1116.
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  30. Elizabeth F. Loftus (1973). Category Dominance, Instance Dominance, and Categorization Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):70.
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  31. Elizabeth F. Loftus (1972). Nouns, Adjectives, and Semantic Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):213.
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  32. Elizabeth F. Loftus & Ronald W. Scheff (1971). Categorization Norms for Fifty Representative Instances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):355.
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