70 found
Sort by:
  1. Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Symbolic Arithmetic Knowledge Without Instruction.
    Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill1,2. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations3,4, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired5. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required6–10. Here (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Daniel C. Hyde & Elizabeth S. Spelke, All Numbers Are Not Equal: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Small and Large Number Representations.
    & Behavioral and brain imaging research indicates that human infants, humans adults, and many nonhuman animals represent large nonsymbolic numbers approximately, discriminating between sets with a ratio limit on accuracy. Some behavioral evidence, especially with human infants, suggests that these representations differ from representations of small numbers of objects. To investigate neural signatures of this distinction, event-related potentials were recorded as adult humans passively viewed the sequential presentation of dot arrays in an adaptation paradigm. In two studies, subjects viewed successive (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Daniel C. Hyde & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Paper.
    Behavioral research suggests that two cognitive systems are at the foundations of numerical thinking: one for representing 1–3 objects in parallel and one for representing and comparing large, approximate numerical magnitudes. We tested for dissociable neural signatures of these systems in preverbal infants by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as 6–7.5-month-old infants (n = 32) viewed dot arrays containing either small (1–3) or large (8–32) sets of objects in a number alternation paradigm. If small and large numbers are represented by the (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Rachel Keen & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Paper.
    Previous research has shown that young children have difficulty searching for a hidden object whose location depends on the position of a partly visible physical barrier. Across four experiments, we tested whether children’s search errors are affected by two variables that influence adults’ object-directed attention: object boundaries and proximity relations. Toddlers searched for a car that rolled down a ramp behind an occluding panel and stopped on contact with a barrier. The car’s location on each trial depended on the placement (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Rachel Keen & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Young Children's Representations of Spatial and Functional Relations Between Objects.
    Three experiments investigated changes from 15 to 30 months of age in children’s (N = 114) mastery of relations between an object and an aperture, supporting surface, or form. When choosing between objects to insert into an aperture, older children selected objects of an appropriate size and shape, but younger children showed little selectivity. Further experiments probed the sources of younger children’s difficulty by comparing children’s performance placing a target object in a hole, on a 2-dimensional form, or atop another (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. In-Kyeong Kim & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Paper.
    Experiments using a preferential looking method, a perceptual judgment method, and a predictive judgment method investigated the development, from 7 months to 6 years of age, of sensitivity to the effects of gravity and inertia on inanimate object motion. The experiments focused on a situation in which a ball rolled off a flat surface and either continued in linear motion (contrary to gravity), turned abruptly and moved downward (contrary to inertia), or underwent natural, parabolic motion. When children viewed the three (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Sang Ah Lee, Anna Shusterman & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Evidence for Two Systems.
    ��Disoriented 4-year-old children use a distinctive container to locate a hidden object, but do they reorient by this information? We addressed this question by testing children’s search for objects in a circular room containing one distinctive and two identical containers. Children’s search patterns provided evidence that the distinctive container served as a direct cue to a hidden object’s location, but not as a directional signal guiding reorientation. The findings suggest that disoriented children’s search behavior depends on two distinct processes: a (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke, A Modular Geometric Mechanism for Reorientation in Children.
    Although disoriented young children reorient themselves in relation to the shape of the surrounding surface layout, cognitive accounts of this ability vary. The present paper tests three theories of reorientation: a snapshot theory based on visual image-matching computations, an adaptive combination theory proposing that diverse environmental cues to orientation are weighted according to their experienced reliability, and a modular theory centering on encapsulated computations of the shape of the extended surface layout. Seven experiments test these theories by manipulating four properties (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Young Children Reorient by Computing Layout Geometry, Not by Matching Images of the Environment.
    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Preschool Children's Mapping of Number Words to Nonsymbolic Numerosities.
    Five-year-old children categorized as skilled versus unskilled counters were given verbal estimation and number word comprehension tasks with numerosities 20 – 120. Skilled counters showed a linear relation between number words and nonsymbolic numerosities. Unskilled counters showed the same linear relation for smaller numbers to which they could count, but not for larger number words. Further tasks indicated that unskilled counters failed even to correctly order large number words differing by a 2 : 1 ratio, whereas they performed well on (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Judgments of the Lucky Across Development and Culture.
    For millennia, human beings have believed that it is morally wrong to judge others by the fortuitous or unfortunate events that befall them or by the actions of another person. Rather, an individual’s own intended, deliberate actions should be the basis of his or her evaluation, reward, and punishment. In a series of studies, the authors investigated whether such rules guide the judgments of children. The first 3 studies demonstrated that children view lucky others as more likely than unlucky others (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Elizabeth S. Spelke, aCCENT TrumpS raCE iN GuiDiNG ChilDrEN'S SOCial prEfErENCES.
    A series of experiments investigated the effect of speakers’ language, accent, and race on children’s social preferences. When presented with photographs and voice recordings of novel children, 5-year-old children chose to be friends with native speakers of their native language rather than foreign-language or foreign-accented speakers. These preferences were not exclusively due to the intelligibility of the speech, as children found the accented speech to be comprehensible, and did not make social distinctions between foreign-accented and foreign-language speakers. Finally, children chose (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Core Knowledge.
    Human cognition is founded, in part, on four systems for representing objects, actions, number, and space. It may be based, as well, on a fifth system for representing social partners. Each system has deep roots in human phylogeny and ontogeny, and it guides and shapes the mental lives of adults. Converging research on human infants, non-human primates, children and adults in diverse cultures can aid both understanding of these systems and attempts to overcome their limits.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Infants' Rapid Learning About Self-Propelled Objects.
    Six experiments investigated 7-month-old infants’ capacity to learn about the self-propelled motion of an object. After observing 1 wind-up toy animal move on its own and a second wind-up toy animal move passively by an experimenter’s hand, infants looked reliably longer at the former object during a subsequent stationary test, providing evidence that infants learned and remembered the mapping of objects and their motions. In further experiments, infants learned the mapping for different animals and retained it over a 15-min delay, (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Linda Hermer-Vazquez.
    Under many circumstances, children and adult rats reorient themselves through a process which operates only on information about the shape of the environment (e.g., Cheng, 1986; Hermer & Spelke, 1996). In contrast, human adults relocate themselves more flexibly, by conjoining geometric and nongeometric information to specify their position (Hermer & Spelke, 1994). The present experiments used a dual-task method to investigate the processes that underlie the flexible conjunction of information. In Experiment 1, subjects reoriented themselves flexibly when they performed no (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Paper.
    To whom do children look when deciding on their own preferences? To address this question, 3-year-old children were asked to choose between objects or activities that were endorsed by unfamiliar people who differed in gender, race (White, Black), or age (child, adult). In Experiment 1, children demonstrated robust preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own gender, but less consistent preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own race. In Experiment 2, children (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Predictive Reaching for Occluded Objects by 6-Month-Old Infants.
    Infants were presented with an object that moved into reaching space on a path that was either continuously visible or interrupted by an occluder. Infants’ reaching was reduced sharply when an occluder was present, even though the occluder itself was out of reach and did not serve as a barrier to direct reaching for the object. We account for these findings and for the apparently contrasting findings of experiments using preferential looking methods to assess infants’ object representations, by proposing that (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science?
    This article considers 3 claims that cognitive sex differ- ences account for the differential representation of men and women in high-level careers in mathematics and sci- ence: (a) males are more focused on objects from the beginning of life and therefore are predisposed to better learning about mechanical systems; (b) males have a pro- file of spatial and numerical abilities producing greater aptitude for mathematics; and (c) males are more variable in their cognitive abilities and therefore predominate at the upper (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Elizabeth S. Spelke, The Native Language of Social Cognition.
    What leads humans to divide the social world into groups, preferring their own group and disfavoring others? Experiments with infants and young children suggest these tendencies are based on predispo- sitions that emerge early in life and depend, in part, on natural language. Young infants prefer to look at a person who previously spoke their native language. Older infants preferentially accept toys from native-language speakers, and preschool children preferentially select native-language speakers as friends. Variations in accent are sufficient to evoke (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Elizabeth S. Spelke & Emmanuel Dupoux, Native Over Foreign Speakers.
    Infants learn from adults readily and cooperate with them spontaneously, but how do they select culturally appropriate teachers and collaborators? Building on evidence that children demonstrate social preferences for speakers of their native language, Experiment 1 presented 10- month-old infants with videotaped events in which a native and a foreign speaker introduced two different toys. When given a chance to choose between real exemplars of the objects, infants preferentially chose the toy modeled by the native speaker. In Experiment 2, 2.5-year-old (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Elizabeth S. Spelke & Marc D. Hauser, Visual Representation in the Wild: How Rhesus Monkeys.
    & Visual object representation was studied in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. To facilitate comparison with humans, and to provide a new tool for neurophysiologists, we used a looking time procedure originally developed for studies of human infants. Monkeys’ looking times were measured to displays with one or two distinct objects, separated or together, stationary or moving. Results indicate that rhesus monkeys..
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Elizabeth S. Spelke & Susan J. Hespos, Conceptual Precursors to Language.
    Because human languages vary in sound and meaning, children must learn which distinctions their language uses. For speech perception, this learning is selective: initially infants are sensitive to most acoustic distinctions used in any language1–3, and this sensitivity reflects basic properties of the auditory system rather than mechanisms specific to language4–7; however, infants’ sensitivity to non-native sound distinctions declines over the course of the first year8. Here we ask whether a similar process governs learning of word meanings. We investigated the (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. In Kyeong Kim & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Infants' Sensitivity to Effects of Gravity on Visible Object Motion.
    A preference method probed infants` perception of object motion on an inclined plane. Infants viewed videotaped events in which a ball rolled downward (or upward) while speeding up (or slowing down). Then infants were tested with events in which the ball moved in the opposite direction with appropriate or inappropriate acceleration. Infants aged 7 months, but not 5 months, looked longer at the test event with inappropriate acceleration, suggesting emerging sensitivity to gravity. A further study tested whether infants appreciate that (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Perceiving Bimodally Specified Events in Infancy.
    Four-month-old infants can perceive bimodally speciiied events. They respond to relationships between the optic and acoustic stimulation that carries information about an object. Infants can do this by detecting the temporal synchrony of an object’s sounds and its optically specified impacts. They are sensitive both to the common tempo and to the simultaneity of such sounds and visible impacts. These findings support the view that intermodal perception depends at least in part on the detection of invariant relationships in patterns of (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Elizabeth S. Spelke & William James Hall, Number-Space Mapping in Human Infants.
    Mature representations of number are built on a core system of numerical representation that connects to spatial representations in the form of a ‘mental number line’. The core number system is functional in early infancy, but little is known about the origins of the mapping of numbers onto space. Here we show that preverbal infants transfer the discrimination of an ordered series of numerosities to the discrimination of an ordered series of line lengths. Moreover, infants construct relationships between individual numbers (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Hilary Barth, Lacey Beckmann & Elizabeth S. Spelke (forthcoming). In Prep.) Nonsymbolic Approximate Arithmetic in Children: Abstract Addition Prior to Instruction.(Manuscript Under Review. Cognition.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Daniel C. Hyde, Saeeda Khanum & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2014). Brief Non-Symbolic, Approximate Number Practice Enhances Subsequent Exact Symbolic Arithmetic in Children. Cognition 131 (1):92-107.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Amy E. Skerry & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2014). Preverbal Infants Identify Emotional Reactions That Are Incongruent with Goal Outcomes. Cognition 130 (2):204-216.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Konika Banerjee, Omar S. Haque & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2013). Melting Lizards and Crying Mailboxes: Children's Preferential Recall of Minimally Counterintuitive Concepts. Cognitive Science 37 (7):1251-1289.
    Previous research with adults suggests that a catalog of minimally counterintuitive concepts, which underlies supernatural or religious concepts, may constitute a cognitive optimum and is therefore cognitively encoded and culturally transmitted more successfully than either entirely intuitive concepts or maximally counterintuitive concepts. This study examines whether children's concept recall similarly is sensitive to the degree of conceptual counterintuitiveness (operationalized as a concept's number of ontological domain violations) for items presented in the context of a fictional narrative. Seven- to nine-year-old children (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Sang Ah Lee, Valeria A. Sovrano & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2012). Navigation as a Source of Geometric Knowledge: Young Children's Use of Length, Angle, Distance, and Direction in a Reorientation Task. Cognition 123 (1):144-161.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Katherine D. Kinzler & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Do Infants Show Social Preferences for People Differing in Race? Cognition 119 (1):1-9.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Anna Shusterman, Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Cognitive Effects of Language on Human Navigation. Cognition 120 (2):186-201.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Natural Number and Natural Geometry. In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press. 287--317.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Quinian Bootstrapping or Fodorian Combination? Core and Constructed Knowledge of Number. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):149-150.
    According to Carey (2009), humans construct new concepts by abstracting structural relations among sets of partly unspecified symbols, and then analogically mapping those symbol structures onto the target domain. Using the development of integer concepts as an example, I give reasons to doubt this account and to consider other ways in which language and symbol learning foster conceptual development.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2010). Non-Symbolic Arithmetic Abilities and Achievement in the First Year of Formal Schooling in Mathematics. Cognition 115 (3):394.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Elizabeth S. Spelke (2010). Core Multiplication in Childhood. Cognition 116 (2):204-216.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Maria-Dolores de Hevia & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2009). Spontaneous Mapping of Number and Space in Adults and Young Children. Cognition 110 (2):198-207.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Susan Hespos, Gustaf Gredebäck, Claes Von Hofsten & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2009). Occlusion Is Hard: Comparing Predictive Reaching for Visible and Hidden Objects in Infants and Adults. Cognitive Science 33 (8):1483-1502.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Kristin Shutts, Kirsten F. Condry, Laurie R. Santos & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2009). Core Knowledge and its Limits: The Domain of Food. Cognition 112 (1):120-140.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Camilla K. Gilmore & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2008). Children's Understanding of the Relationship Between Addition and Subtraction. Cognition 107 (3):932-945.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene (2008). Exact Equality and Successor Function: Two Key Concepts on the Path Towards Understanding Exact Numbers. Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):491 – 505.
    Humans possess two nonverbal systems capable of representing numbers, both limited in their representational power: the first one represents numbers in an approximate fashion, and the second one conveys information about small numbers only. Conception of exact large numbers has therefore been thought to arise from the manipulation of exact numerical symbols. Here, we focus on two fundamental properties of the exact numbers as prerequisites to the concept of EXACT NUMBERS : the fact that all numbers can be generated by (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2008). Foundations of Cooperation in Young Children. Cognition 108 (1):222-231.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2006). Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings. Cognition 98 (3):57-66.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Elizabeth S. Spelke (2005). Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science? A Critical Review. American Psychologist 60 (9):950-958.
  45. Justin N. Wood & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2005). Chronometric Studies of Numerical Cognition in Five-Month-Old Infants. Cognition 97 (1):23-39.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Justin N. Wood, Elizabeth S. Spelke, David Barner, Jesse Snedeker, Min Wang, Charles A. Perfetti, Ying Liu, Filip van Opstal, Bert Reynvoet & Tom Verguts (2005). B1–B11. Cognition 97:339-341.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. SusanJ Hespos & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2004). Conceptual Pecursors to Language. Nature 430:453-456.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Elizabeth S. Spelke (2003). What Makes Us Smart? Core Knowledge and Natural Language. In Dedre Getner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought. Mit Press. 277--311.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Trey Hedden, Jun Zhang, Annt Phillips, Henry M. Wellman, Elizabeth S. Spelke, Tessa Warren & Edward Gibson (2002). B1–B10. Cognition 85:292-294.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Ann T. Phillips, Henry M. Wellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2002). Infants' Ability to Connect Gaze and Emotional Expression to Intentional Action. Cognition 85 (1):53-78.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 70