72 found
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  1. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Core Knowledge.
    Human cognition is founded, in part, on four systems for representing objects, actions, number, and space. It may be based, as well, on a fifth system for representing social partners. Each system has deep roots in human phylogeny and ontogeny, and it guides and shapes the mental lives of adults. Converging research on human infants, non-human primates, children and adults in diverse cultures can aid both understanding of these systems and attempts to overcome their limits.
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  2.  10
    Elizabeth S. Spelke (1990). Principles of Object Perception. Cognitive Science 14 (1):29--56.
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  3.  12
    Prentice Starkey, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Rochel Gelman (1990). Numerical Abstraction by Human Infants. Cognition 36 (2):97-127.
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  4.  13
    Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2002). Human Spatial Representation: Insights From Animals. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (9):376-382.
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  5. Elizabeth S. Spelke & Susan J. Hespos, Conceptual Precursors to Language.
    Because human languages vary in sound and meaning, children must learn which distinctions their language uses. For speech perception, this learning is selective: initially infants are sensitive to most acoustic distinctions used in any language1–3, and this sensitivity reflects basic properties of the auditory system rather than mechanisms specific to language4–7; however, infants’ sensitivity to non-native sound distinctions declines over the course of the first year8. Here we ask whether a similar process governs learning of word meanings. We investigated the (...)
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  6.  14
    Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2008). Foundations of Cooperation in Young Children. Cognition 108 (1):222-231.
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  7. Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Symbolic Arithmetic Knowledge Without Instruction.
    Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill1,2. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations3,4, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired5. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required6–10. Here (...)
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  8.  2
    Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2010). Non-Symbolic Arithmetic Abilities and Achievement in the First Year of Formal Schooling in Mathematics. Cognition 115 (3):394.
  9. Konika Banerjee, Omar S. Haque & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2013). Melting Lizards and Crying Mailboxes: Children's Preferential Recall of Minimally Counterintuitive Concepts. Cognitive Science 37 (7):1251-1289.
    Previous research with adults suggests that a catalog of minimally counterintuitive concepts, which underlies supernatural or religious concepts, may constitute a cognitive optimum and is therefore cognitively encoded and culturally transmitted more successfully than either entirely intuitive concepts or maximally counterintuitive concepts. This study examines whether children's concept recall similarly is sensitive to the degree of conceptual counterintuitiveness (operationalized as a concept's number of ontological domain violations) for items presented in the context of a fictional narrative. Seven- to nine-year-old children (...)
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  10.  6
    Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1991). Ontological Categories Guide Young Children's Inductions of Word Meaning: Object Terms and Substance Terms. Cognition 38 (2):179-211.
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  11.  6
    Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2000). Updating Egocentric Representations in Human Navigation. Cognition 77 (3):215-250.
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  12. Philip J. Kellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1983). Perception of Partly Occluded Objects in Infancy* 1. Cognitive Psychology 15 (4):483–524.
    Four-month-old infants sometimes can perceive the unity of a partly hidden object. In each of a series of experiments, infants were habituated to one object whose top and bottom were visible but whose center was occluded by a nearer object. They were then tested with a fully visible continuous object and with two fully visible object pieces with a gap where the occluder had been. Pattems of dishabituation suggested that infants perceive the boundaries of a partly hidden object by analyzing (...)
     
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  13.  39
    Elizabeth S. Spelke (2003). What Makes Us Smart? Core Knowledge and Natural Language. In Dedre Getner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought. MIT Press 277--311.
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  14. Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Preschool Children's Mapping of Number Words to Nonsymbolic Numerosities.
    Five-year-old children categorized as skilled versus unskilled counters were given verbal estimation and number word comprehension tasks with numerosities 20 – 120. Skilled counters showed a linear relation between number words and nonsymbolic numerosities. Unskilled counters showed the same linear relation for smaller numbers to which they could count, but not for larger number words. Further tasks indicated that unskilled counters failed even to correctly order large number words differing by a 2 : 1 ratio, whereas they performed well on (...)
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  15.  6
    Daniel C. Hyde, Saeeda Khanum & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2014). Brief Non-Symbolic, Approximate Number Practice Enhances Subsequent Exact Symbolic Arithmetic in Children. Cognition 131 (1):92-107.
  16.  13
    Ann T. Phillips, Henry M. Wellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2002). Infants' Ability to Connect Gaze and Emotional Expression to Intentional Action. Cognition 85 (1):53-78.
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  17.  45
    Elizabeth S. Spelke (2001). Language and Number: A Bilingual Training Study. Cognition 78 (1):45-88.
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  18. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Predictive Reaching for Occluded Objects by 6-Month-Old Infants.
    Infants were presented with an object that moved into reaching space on a path that was either continuously visible or interrupted by an occluder. Infants’ reaching was reduced sharply when an occluder was present, even though the occluder itself was out of reach and did not serve as a barrier to direct reaching for the object. We account for these findings and for the apparently contrasting findings of experiments using preferential looking methods to assess infants’ object representations, by proposing that (...)
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  19.  22
    Sang Ah Lee, Valeria A. Sovrano & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2012). Navigation as a Source of Geometric Knowledge: Young Children's Use of Length, Angle, Distance, and Direction in a Reorientation Task. Cognition 123 (1):144-161.
  20.  67
    Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1992). Perception, Ontology, and Word Meaning. Cognition 45 (1):101-107.
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  21. Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke, A Modular Geometric Mechanism for Reorientation in Children.
    Although disoriented young children reorient themselves in relation to the shape of the surrounding surface layout, cognitive accounts of this ability vary. The present paper tests three theories of reorientation: a snapshot theory based on visual image-matching computations, an adaptive combination theory proposing that diverse environmental cues to orientation are weighted according to their experienced reliability, and a modular theory centering on encapsulated computations of the shape of the extended surface layout. Seven experiments test these theories by manipulating four properties (...)
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  22.  10
    Stéphane Gouteux & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2001). Children's Use of Geometry and Landmarks to Reorient in an Open Space. Cognition 81 (2):119-148.
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  23. Elizabeth S. Spelke & Gretchen Van de Walle (1993). Perceiving and Reasoning About Objects: Insights From Infants. In Naomi Eilan, Rosaleen A. McCarthy & Bill Brewer (eds.), Spatial Representation: Problems in Philosophy and Psychology. Blackwell
     
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  24. Maria-Dolores de Hevia & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2009). Spontaneous Mapping of Number and Space in Adults and Young Children. Cognition 110 (2):198-207.
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  25.  39
    Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2006). Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings. Cognition 98 (3):57-66.
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  26. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Perceiving Bimodally Specified Events in Infancy.
    Four-month-old infants can perceive bimodally speciiied events. They respond to relationships between the optic and acoustic stimulation that carries information about an object. Infants can do this by detecting the temporal synchrony of an object’s sounds and its optically specified impacts. They are sensitive both to the common tempo and to the simultaneity of such sounds and visible impacts. These findings support the view that intermodal perception depends at least in part on the detection of invariant relationships in patterns of (...)
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  27.  17
    Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene (2008). Exact Equality and Successor Function: Two Key Concepts on the Path Towards Understanding Exact Numbers. Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):491 – 505.
    Humans possess two nonverbal systems capable of representing numbers, both limited in their representational power: the first one represents numbers in an approximate fashion, and the second one conveys information about small numbers only. Conception of exact large numbers has therefore been thought to arise from the manipulation of exact numerical symbols. Here, we focus on two fundamental properties of the exact numbers as prerequisites to the concept of EXACT NUMBERS : the fact that all numbers can be generated by (...)
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  28. Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Young Children Reorient by Computing Layout Geometry, Not by Matching Images of the Environment.
    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D (...)
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  29. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science?
    This article considers 3 claims that cognitive sex differ- ences account for the differential representation of men and women in high-level careers in mathematics and sci- ence: (a) males are more focused on objects from the beginning of life and therefore are predisposed to better learning about mechanical systems; (b) males have a pro- file of spatial and numerical abilities producing greater aptitude for mathematics; and (c) males are more variable in their cognitive abilities and therefore predominate at the upper (...)
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  30. Elizabeth S. Spelke (1985). Perception of Unity, Persistence, and Identity: Thoughts on Infants' Conceptions of Objects. In Jacques Mehler & R. Fox (eds.), Neonate Cognition: Beyond the Blooming Buzzing Confusion. Lawrence Erlbaum 89--113.
     
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  31.  10
    Gaye Soley & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2016). Shared Cultural Knowledge: Effects of Music on Young Children’s Social Preferences. Cognition 148:106-116.
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  32. Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Natural Number and Natural Geometry. In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press 287--317.
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  33.  24
    Justin N. Wood & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2005). Chronometric Studies of Numerical Cognition in Five-Month-Old Infants. Cognition 97 (1):23-39.
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  34.  96
    Elizabeth S. Spelke (1985). Object Permanence in Five-Month-Old Infants. Cognition 20 (3):191-208.
    A new method was devised to test object permanence in young infants. Fivemonth-old infants were habituated to a screen that moved back and forth through a 180-degree arc, in the manner of a drawbridge. After infants reached habituation, a box was centered behind the screen. Infants were shown two test events: a possible event and an impossible event. In the possible event, the screen stopped when it reached the occluded box; in the impossible event, the screen moved through the space (...)
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  35. Daniel C. Hyde & Elizabeth S. Spelke, All Numbers Are Not Equal: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Small and Large Number Representations.
    & Behavioral and brain imaging research indicates that human infants, humans adults, and many nonhuman animals represent large nonsymbolic numbers approximately, discriminating between sets with a ratio limit on accuracy. Some behavioral evidence, especially with human infants, suggests that these representations differ from representations of small numbers of objects. To investigate neural signatures of this distinction, event-related potentials were recorded as adult humans passively viewed the sequential presentation of dot arrays in an adaptation paradigm. In two studies, subjects viewed successive (...)
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  36. Elizabeth S. Spelke (2005). Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science? A Critical Review. American Psychologist 60 (9):950-958.
  37.  2
    Amy E. Skerry & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2014). Preverbal Infants Identify Emotional Reactions That Are Incongruent with Goal Outcomes. Cognition 130 (2):204-216.
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  38.  2
    Anna Shusterman, Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Cognitive Effects of Language on Human Navigation. Cognition 120 (2):186-201.
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  39. SusanJ Hespos & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2004). Conceptual Pecursors to Language. Nature 430:453-456.
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  40. Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Judgments of the Lucky Across Development and Culture.
    For millennia, human beings have believed that it is morally wrong to judge others by the fortuitous or unfortunate events that befall them or by the actions of another person. Rather, an individual’s own intended, deliberate actions should be the basis of his or her evaluation, reward, and punishment. In a series of studies, the authors investigated whether such rules guide the judgments of children. The first 3 studies demonstrated that children view lucky others as more likely than unlucky others (...)
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  41. In Kyeong Kim & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Infants' Sensitivity to Effects of Gravity on Visible Object Motion.
    A preference method probed infants` perception of object motion on an inclined plane. Infants viewed videotaped events in which a ball rolled downward (or upward) while speeding up (or slowing down). Then infants were tested with events in which the ball moved in the opposite direction with appropriate or inappropriate acceleration. Infants aged 7 months, but not 5 months, looked longer at the test event with inappropriate acceleration, suggesting emerging sensitivity to gravity. A further study tested whether infants appreciate that (...)
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  42.  1
    Katherine D. Kinzler & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Do Infants Show Social Preferences for People Differing in Race? Cognition 119 (1):1-9.
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  43.  6
    Elizabeth S. Spelke, Gary Katz, Susan E. Purcell, Sheryl M. Ehrlich & Karen Breinlinger (1994). Early Knowledge of Object Motion: Continuity and Inertia. Cognition 51 (2):131-176.
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  44.  13
    Claes von Hofsten & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1985). Object Perception and Object-Directed Reaching in Infancy. Journal of Experimental Psychology 114 (2).
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  45.  9
    Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Quinian Bootstrapping or Fodorian Combination? Core and Constructed Knowledge of Number. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):149-150.
    According to Carey (2009), humans construct new concepts by abstracting structural relations among sets of partly unspecified symbols, and then analogically mapping those symbol structures onto the target domain. Using the development of integer concepts as an example, I give reasons to doubt this account and to consider other ways in which language and symbol learning foster conceptual development.
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  46.  10
    Elizabeth S. Spelke (2010). Core Multiplication in Childhood. Cognition 116 (2):204-216.
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  47.  3
    Laurie R. Santos, Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2002). Domain-Specific Knowledge in Human Children and Non-Human Primates: Artifacts and Foods. In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. MIT Press 205--216.
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  48.  4
    Susan Hespos, Gustaf Gredebäck, Claes Von Hofsten & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2009). Occlusion Is Hard: Comparing Predictive Reaching for Visible and Hidden Objects in Infants and Adults. Cognitive Science 33 (8):1483-1502.
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  49. Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1992). Nancy N. Soja. Cognition 45:101-107.
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  50.  16
    Camilla K. Gilmore & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2008). Children's Understanding of the Relationship Between Addition and Subtraction. Cognition 107 (3):932-945.
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