Search results for 'Embryo Research ethics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Thomas F. Banchoff (2011). Embryo Politics: Ethics and Policy in Atlantic Democracies. Cornell University Press.score: 131.0
    The emergence of ethical controversy -- First embryo research regimes -- The ethics of embryonic stem cell research -- Stem cell and cloning politics.
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  2. Fuat S. Oduncu (2003). Stem Cell Research in Germany: Ethics of Healing Vs. Human Dignity. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (1):5-16.score: 117.0
    On 25 April 2002, the German Parliament has passed a strict new law referring to stem cell research. This law took effect on July 1, 2002. The so-called embryonic Stem Cell Act ( Stammzellgesetz — StZG ) permits the import of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from surplus IvF-embryos for research reasons. The production itself of ES cells from human blastocysts has been prohibited by the German Embryo Protection Act of 1990, with the exception of the use (...)
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  3. John F. Kilner (2009). An Inclusive Ethics for the Twenty-First Century: Implications for Stem Cell Research. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (4):683-722.score: 114.0
    An important contribution of Christian ethics in the pluralistic world of the twenty-first century is to emphasize inclusivity. Rather than promoting the interests of certain groups at the expense of the most vulnerable, society does well to prioritize ways forward that benefit all. For stem cell research, inclusivity entails benefiting or at least protecting the beneficiaries of treatment, the sources of materials, and the subjects of research. Adult stem cells are already benefiting many ill patients without causing (...)
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  4. Erica Haimes & Ken Taylor (2011). The Contributions of Empirical Evidence to Socio-Ethical Debates on Fresh Embryo Donation for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Bioethics 25 (6):334-341.score: 106.0
    This article is a response to McLeod and Baylis (2007) who speculate on the dangers of requesting fresh ‘spare’ embryos from IVF patients for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, particularly when those embryos are good enough to be transferred back to the woman. They argue that these embryos should be frozen instead. We explore what is meant by ‘spare’ embryos. We then provide empirical evidence, from a study of embryo donation and of embryo donors' views, to (...)
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  5. Marcel J. H. Kenter (2009). Regulating Human Participants Protection in Medical Research and the Accreditation of Medical Research Ethics Committees in the Netherlands. Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):33-43.score: 98.0
    The review system on research with human participants in the Netherlands is characterised as a decentralised controlled and integrated peer review system. It consists of an independent governmental body, the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (or Central Committee), which regulates the review of research proposals by accredited Medical Research Ethics Committees (MRECs). The legal basis was founded in 1999 with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. The review system is a decentralised (...)
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  6. Peter Singer, The Revolutionary Ethics of Embryo Research.score: 93.0
    What appeared to be the most momentous scientific advance of 2005 is currently under siege. In June, the prestigious journal Science published an article by the South Korean scientist Woo-Suk Hwang and an international team of co-authors describing how they had developed what were, in effect, “made to order†lines of human stem cells cloned from an adult. Although the scientific validity of their research is now the subject of several separate investigations, it is no less important to examine (...)
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  7. Robert P. George (2004). Human Cloning and Embryo Research: The 2003 John J. Conley Lecture on Medical Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (1):3-20.score: 90.0
    The author, a member of the U.S.President's Council on Bioethics, discussesethical issues raised by human cloning, whetherfor purposes of bringing babies to birth or forresearch purposes. He first argues that everycloned human embryo is a new, distinct, andenduring organism, belonging to the speciesHomo sapiens, and directing its owndevelopment toward maturity. He then distinguishesbetween two types of capacities belonging toindividual organisms belonging to this species,an immediately exerciseable capacity and abasic natural capacity that develops over time. He argues that it is (...)
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  8. Sarah Chan & John Harris (2009). Consequentialism Without Consequences: Ethics and Embryo Research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (01):61-.score: 90.0
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  9. Peter Singer & Helga Kuhse (1986). Debate: Embryo Research The Ethics of Embryo Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):133-138.score: 90.0
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  10. George J. Annas (1986). The Ethics of Embryo Research: Not as Easy as It Sounds. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):138-140.score: 90.0
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  11. Norman Ford (2002). Embryo Research, Cloning and Ethics. Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 8 (1):4.score: 90.0
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  12. Ronald M. Green (1995). The Human Embryo Research Panel: Lessons for Public Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (04):502-.score: 90.0
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  13. Commission European (1999). European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies; Human Tissue Banks; Human Embryo Research. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 5 (1):1.score: 90.0
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  14. Sami Alsmadi (2008). Marketing Research Ethics: Researcher's Obligations Toward Human Subjects. Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):153-160.score: 87.0
    This paper addresses the growing concern over violation of research ethics in marketing, in particular rights of human subjects in fieldwork, notably the right to informed consent; right to privacy and confidentiality; and right not to be deceived or harmed as a result of participation in a research. The paper highlights the interaction of the three main parties involved in most marketing research: the sponsoring organization (client or user), researcher, and participant in the survey, focusing on (...)
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  15. Dan McArthur (2009). Good Ethics Can Sometimes Mean Better Science: Research Ethics and the Milgram Experiments. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):69-79.score: 87.0
    All agree that if the Milgram experiments were proposed today they would never receive approval from a research ethics board. However, the results of the Milgram experiments are widely cited across a broad range of academic literature from psychology to moral philosophy. While interpretations of the experiments vary, few commentators, especially philosophers, have expressed doubts about the basic soundness of the results. What I argue in this paper is that this general approach to the experiments might be in (...)
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  16. Gary Allen (2008). Getting Beyond Form Filling: The Role of Institutional Governance in Human Research Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):105-116.score: 87.0
    It has become almost a truism to describe the interaction between research ethics committees and researchers as being marred by distrust and conflict. The ethical conduct of researchers is increasingly a matter of institutional concern because of the degree to which non-compliance with national standards can expose the entire institution to risk. This has transformed research ethics into what some have described as a research ethics industry. In an operational sense, there is considerable focus (...)
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  17. K. G. Davey (2009). Reflections on My Experience in Human Research Ethics. Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):27-31.score: 87.0
    This paper was delivered at the 2009 annual conference of the National Council on Ethics in Human Research. It is a reflective piece based on many years of experience with human research ethics and the role of Research Ethics Boards in human participant research.
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  18. Kenneth D. Pimple (2002). Six Domains of Research Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2):191-205.score: 87.0
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple yet comprehensive organizing scheme for the responsible conduct of research (RCR). The heuristic offered here should prove helpful in research ethics education, where the many and heterogeneous elements of RCR can be bewildering, as well as research into research integrity and efforts to form RCR policy and regulations. The six domains are scientific integrity, collegiality, protection of human subjects, animal welfare, institutional integrity, and social responsibility.
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  19. Dominique Rivière (2011). Looking From the Outside/In: Re-Thinking Research Ethics Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (3):193-204.score: 87.0
    This paper shares my reflections on the research ethics review process, from the point of view of both a qualitative researcher and a member of an institutional research ethics review board. By considering research ethics review, first as practice, then as policy, as a relationship and, finally, as a performance, I attempt to outline a new vision of research ethics, one that engages seriously with the relationship between receiving ethics approval, and (...)
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  20. Bruce Macfarlane & Yoshiko Saitoh (2008). Research Ethics in Japanese Higher Education: Faculty Attitudes and Cultural Mediation. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (3):181-195.score: 87.0
    Principles of research ethics, derived largely from Western philosophical thought, are spreading across the world of higher education. Since 2006 the Japanese Ministry of Education has required universities in Japan to establish codes of ethical conduct and ensure that procedures are in place to punish research misconduct. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 13 academics in a research-intensive university in Japan, this paper considers how research ethics is interpreted in relation to their own practice. Interviewees (...)
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  21. Olubunmi A. Ogunrin, Temidayo O. Ogundiran & Clement Adebamowo (2013). Development and Pilot Testing of an Online Module for Ethics Education Based on the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):1-.score: 87.0
    Background: The formulation and implementation of national ethical regulations to protect research participants is fundamental to ethical conduct of research. Ethics education and capacity are inadequate in developing African countries. This study was designed to develop a module for online training in research ethics based on the Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics and assess its ease of use and reliability among biomedical researchers in Nigeria.MethodologyThis was a three-phased evaluation study. Phase one (...)
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  22. Katinka de Wet (2010). The Importance of Ethical Appraisal in Social Science Research: Reviewing a Faculty of Humanities' Research Ethics Committee. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (4):301-314.score: 87.0
    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are rapidly becoming indispensable mechanisms in the overall workings of university institutions. In fact, the ethical dimension is an important aspect of research governance processes present in institutions of higher learning. However, it is often deemed that research in the social sciences do not require ethical appraisal or clearance, because of the alleged absence of harm in conducting such research. This is an erroneous and dangerous assumption (...)
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  23. Kryste Ferguson, Sandra Masur, Lynne Olson, Julio Ramirez, Elisa Robyn & Karen Schmaling (2007). Enhancing the Culture of Research Ethics on University Campuses. Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):189-198.score: 87.0
    Institutions create their own internal cultures, including the culture of ethics that pervades scientific research, academic policy, and administrative philosophy. This paper addresses some of the issues involved in institutional enhancement of its culture of research ethics, focused on individual empowerment and strategies that individuals can use to initiate institutional change.
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  24. Susan A. Tilley (2008). A Troubled Dance: Doing the Work of Research Ethics Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):91-104.score: 87.0
    The fast growing interest in the work of university ethics review boards is evident in the proliferation of research and literature in the area. This article focuses on a Research Ethics Board (REB) in the Canadian context. In-depth, open-ended interviews with REB members and findings from a qualitative study designed to examine the ethics review of school-based research are used to illustrate points raised in the paper. The author’s experiences as academic researcher, advisor to (...)
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  25. Arri Eisen & Kathy P. Parker (2004). A Model for Teaching Research Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):693-704.score: 87.0
    A model is described for implementing a program in research ethics education in the face of federal and institutional mandates and current resource, disciplinary, and infrastructure limitations. Also discussed are the historical background, content and evaluation process of the workshop at the heart of the program, which reaches a diverse group of over 250 students per year—from first-year graduate students in basic research labs to clinical fellows. The workshop addresses central issues in both everyday laboratory ethics (...)
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  26. Michelle Cunningham (2010). Research Ethics in a Business School Context: The Establishment of a Review Committee and the Primary Issues of Concern. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (1):43-66.score: 87.0
    This paper describes the establishment of and the issues experienced by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) of a Business School within a University in Ireland. It identifies the issue of voluntarily given informed consent as a key challenge for RECs operating in a Business School context. The paper argues that whilst the typology of ethical issues in business research are similar to the wider social sciences, the fact that much research is carried out in the workplace (...)
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  27. Jongyoung Kim & Kibeom Park (2013). Ethical Modernization: Research Misconduct and Research Ethics Reforms in Korea Following the Hwang Affair. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):355-380.score: 87.0
    The Hwang affair, a dramatic and far reaching instance of scientific fraud, shocked the world. This collective national failure prompted various organizations in Korea, including universities, regulatory agencies, and research associations, to engage in self-criticism and research ethics reforms. This paper aims, first, to document and review research misconduct perpetrated by Hwang and members of his research team, with particular attention to the agencies that failed to regulate and then supervise Hwang’s research. The paper (...)
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  28. Tomi Tshikala, Bavon Mupenda, Pierre Dimany, Aime Malonga, Vicki Ilunga & Stuart Rennie (2012). Engaging with Research Ethics in Central Francophone Africa: Reflections on a Workshop About Ancillary Care. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7 (1):1-7.score: 87.0
    Research ethics is predominantly taught and practiced in Anglophone countries, particularly those in North America and Western Europe. Initiatives to build research ethics capacity in developing countries must attempt to avoid imposing foreign frameworks and engage with ethical issues in research that are locally relevant. This article describes the process and outcomes of a capacity-building workshop that took place in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo in the summer of 2011. Although the workshop focused on a (...)
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  29. Teresa Moore & Kristy Richardson (2013). The Low Risk Research Ethics Application Process at CQUniversity Australia. Journal of Academic Ethics 11 (3):211-230.score: 87.0
    The CQUniversity Australia Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is a human ethics research committee registered under the auspices of the National Health and Medical Research Council. In 2009 an external review of CQUniversity Australia’s HREC policies and procedures recommended that a low risk research process be available to the institution’s researchers. Subsequently, in 2010 the Human Research Ethics Committee Low Risk Application Procedure came into operation. This paper examines the applications made under (...)
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  30. Marek Czarkowski & Krzysztof Różanowski (2009). Polish Research Ethics Committees in the European Union System of Assessing Medical Experiments. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (2):201-212.score: 87.0
    The Polish equivalents of Research Ethics Committees are Bioethics Committees (BCs). A questionnaire study has been undertaken to determine their situation. The BC is usually comprised of 13 members. Nine of these are doctors and four are non-doctors. In 2006 BCs assessed an average of 27.3 ± 31.7 (range: 0–131) projects of clinical trials and 71.1 ± 139.8 (range: 0–638) projects of other types of medical research. During one BC meeting an average of 10.3 ± 14.7 (range: (...)
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  31. Merryn Ekberg (2012). Reassessing the Role of the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee. Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (4):335-352.score: 87.0
    The role of the Research Ethics Committee (REC) in the design, conduct and dissemination of scientific research is still evolving and many important questions remain unanswered. Hence, the aim of this paper is to address some of the uncertainty that exists around the role and responsibilities of RECs and to discuss some of the controversy that exists over the criteria that RECs should follow when evaluating a research proposal. The discussion is organised around five of the (...)
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  32. J. Paul Grayson & Richard Myles (2005). How Research Ethics Boards Are Undermining Survey Research on Canadian University Students. Journal of Academic Ethics 2 (4):293-314.score: 87.0
    In Canada, all research conducted by individuals associated with universities must be subjected to review by research ethics boards (REB). Unfortunately, decisions reached by REBs may seriously compromise the integrity of university-based research. In this paper attention will focus on how requirements of REBs and a legal department in four Canadian universities affected response rates to a survey of domestic and international students. It will be shown that in universities in which students were sent a legalistic (...)
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  33. Brian Schrag (2005). Teaching Research Ethics: Can Web-Based Instruction Satisfy Appropriate Pedagogical Objectives? [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (3):347-366.score: 87.0
    Ethical tasks faced by researchers in science and engineering as they engage in research include recognition of moral problems in their practice, finding solutions to those moral problems, judging moral actions and engaging in preventive ethics. Given these issues, appropriate pedagogical objectives for research ethics education include (1) teaching researchers to recognize moral issues in their research, (2) teaching researchers to solve practical moral problems in their research from the perspective of the moral agent, (...)
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  34. Nancy A. Walton, Alexander G. Karabanow & Jehangir Saleh (2008). Students as Members of University-Based Academic Research Ethics Boards: A Natural Evolution. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):117-127.score: 87.0
    University based academic Research Ethics Boards (REB) face the particularly difficult challenge of trying to achieve representation from a variety of disciplines, methodologies and research interests. Additionally, many are currently facing another decision – whether to have students as REB members or not. At Ryerson University, we are uniquely situated. Without a medical school in which an awareness of the research ethics review process might be grounded, our mainly social science and humanities REB must also (...)
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  35. Alan J. Kearns (2014). Catholic Social Teaching as a Framework for Research Ethics. Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (2):145-159.score: 87.0
    The importance of having ethical oversight in research that is carried out on humans is well established. Research ethics, which is mainly influenced by a biomedical ethical framework, aims to ensure that the well-being and the rights of research participants are upheld and that any potential risks and harms are reduced. However, research is also considered to be a social activity with social effects. Therefore the principles of Catholic Social Teaching as a framework for (...) ethics may be significant. This paper outlines those principles and demonstrates how these principles may be used for: (1) reflecting ethically on research (i.e. before the project begins), (2) judging a research ethics proposal (i.e. the ethical review) and (3) providing guidelines for action in research (i.e. the implementation of the research project). (shrink)
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  36. Goran Mijaljica (2013). Medical Ethics, Bioethics and Research Ethics Education Perspectives in South East Europe in Graduate Medical Education. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):1-11.score: 87.0
    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, (...)
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  37. Arja Halkoaho, Mari Matveinen, Ville Leinonen, Kirsi Luoto & Tapani Keränen (2013). Education of Research Ethics for Clinical Investigators with Moodle Tool. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):53.score: 87.0
    In clinical research scientific, legal as well as ethical aspects are important. It is well known that clinical investigators at university hospitals have to undertake their PhD-studies alongside their daily work and reconciling work and study can be challenging. The aim of this project was to create a web based course in clinical research bioethics (5 credits) and to examine whether the method is suitable for teaching bioethics. The course comprised of six modules: an initial examination (to assess (...)
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  38. Adnan A. Hyder, Waleed Zafar, Joseph Ali, Robert Ssekubugu, Paul Ndebele & Nancy Kass (2013). Evaluating Institutional Capacity for Research Ethics in Africa: A Case Study From Botswana. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):31.score: 87.0
    The increase in the volume of research conducted in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), has brought a renewed international focus on processes for ethical conduct of research. Several programs have been initiated to strengthen the capacity for research ethics in LMIC. However, most such programs focus on individual training or development of ethics review committees. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to institutional capacity assessment in research ethics and (...)
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  39. Francis Rolleston, Jack Corman, Serge Gauthier, Paddi O'Hara & Rod Schmaltz (2009). Ethics Issues with Private Research Ethics Boards: A Breakout Session at the 2009 NCEHR National Conference. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):69-73.score: 87.0
    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) provide oversight for Canadians that research projects will comply with standards of ethics if the studies are carried out as described in the documents that have been approved. While REBs have traditionally been affiliated with institutions such as universities and hospitals, a number of factors - including the increased volume of research being conducted outside academic centres - have resulted in the establishment of some private or independent REBs. This, in turn, (...)
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  40. Margaret Meek Lange, Wendy Rogers & Susan Dodds (2013). Vulnerability in Research Ethics: A Way Forward. Bioethics 27 (6):333-340.score: 84.0
    Several foundational documents of bioethics mention the special obligation researchers have to vulnerable research participants. However, the treatment of vulnerability offered by these documents often relies on enumeration of vulnerable groups rather than an analysis of the features that make such groups vulnerable. Recent attempts in the scholarly literature to lend philosophical weight to the concept of vulnerability are offered by Luna and Hurst. Luna suggests that vulnerability is irreducibly contextual and that Institutional Review Boards (Research Ethics (...)
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  41. Ana Smith Iltis (ed.) (2006). Research Ethics. Routledge.score: 84.0
    Medicine in the twenty-first century is increasingly reliant on research to guarantee the safety and efficacy of medical interventions. As a result, the need to understand the ethical issues that research generates is becoming essential. This volume introduces the principal areas of concern in research on human subjects, offering a framework for understanding research ethics, and the relationship between ethics and compliance. Research Ethics brings together leading scholars in bioethics and the topics (...)
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  42. Benjamin Sachs (2011). Going From Principles to Rules in Research Ethics. Bioethics 25 (1):9-20.score: 84.0
    In research ethics there is a canon regarding what ethical rules ought to be followed by investigators vis-à-vis their treatment of subjects and a canon regarding what fundamental ethical principles apply to the endeavor. What I aim to demonstrate here is that several of the rules find no support in the principles. This leaves anyone who would insist that we not abandon those rules in the difficult position of needing to establish that we are nevertheless justified in believing (...)
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  43. Maui L. Hudson & Khyla Russell (2009). The Treaty of Waitangi and Research Ethics in Aotearoa. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (1):61-68.score: 84.0
    Researchers, when engaging with Māori communities, are in a process of relationship building and this process can be guided by the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, partnership, participation and protection. The main concerns for many indigenous peoples in research revolve around respect for their indigenous rights, control over research processes and reciprocity within research relationships to ensure that equitable benefits are realised within indigenous groups. Māori have identified similar issues and these concerns can be aligned with (...)
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  44. A. L. I. Joseph, Adnan A. Hyder & Nancy E. Kass (2012). Research Ethics Capacity Development in Africa: Exploring a Model for Individual Success. Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):55-62.score: 84.0
    The Johns Hopkins-Fogarty African Bioethics Training Program (FABTP) has offered a fully-funded, one-year, non-degree training opportunity in research ethics to health professionals, ethics committee members, scholars, journalists and scientists from countries across sub-Saharan Africa. In the first 9 years of operation, 28 trainees from 13 African countries have trained with FABTP. Any capacity building investment requires periodic critical evaluation of the impact that training dollars produce. In this paper we describe and evaluate FABTP and the efforts of (...)
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  45. Henry Silverman, Babiker Ahmed, Samar Ajeilet, Sumaia Al-fadil, Suhail Al-amad, Hadir El-dessouky, Ibrahim El-gendy, Mohamed El-guindi, Mustafa El-nimeiri, Rana Muzaffar & Azza Saleh (2010). Curriculum Guide for Research Ethics Workshops for Countries in the Middle East. Developing World Bioethics 10 (2):70-77.score: 84.0
    To help ensure the ethical conduct of research, many have recommended educational efforts in research ethics to investigators and members of research ethics committees (RECs). One type of education activity involves multi-day workshops in research ethics. To be effective, such workshops should contain the appropriate content and teaching techniques geared towards the learning styles of the targeted audiences. To ensure consistency in content and quality, we describe the development of a curriculum guide, core (...)
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  46. Cheryl Cox Macpherson (1999). Research Ethics Committees: A Regional Approach. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (2):161-179.score: 84.0
    Guidelines for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees exist at national and international levels. These guidelines are based on ethical principles and establish an internationally acceptable standard for the review and conduct of medical research. Having attained a multinational consensus about what these fundamental guidelines should be, IRBs are left to interpret the guidelines and devise their own means of implementing them. Individual and community values bear on the interpretation of the guidelines so different IRBs (...)
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  47. Daniela Marchetti, Angelico Spagnolo, Marina Cicerone, Fidelia Cascini, Giuseppe La Monaca & Antonio G. Spagnolo (2013). Research Ethics Committee Auditing: The Experience of a University Hospital. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 25 (3):257-268.score: 84.0
    The authors report the first Italian experience of a research ethics committee (REC) audit focused on the evaluation of the REC’s compliance with standard operating procedures, requirements in insurance coverage, informed consent, protection of privacy and confidentiality, predictable risks/harms, selection of subjects, withdrawal criteria and other issues, such as advertisement details and justification of placebo. The internal audit was conducted over a two-year period (March 2009–February 2011) divided into quarters to better value the influence of the new insurance (...)
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  48. Kiarash Aramesh (2014). A Brief History of Biomedical Research Ethics in Iran: Conflict of Paradigms. Developing World Bioethics 14 (2).score: 84.0
    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete reliance on (...)
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  49. Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Aisha Adaranijo, Florita Durueke, Ademola Ajuwon, Adebayo Adejumo, Oliver Ezechi, Kola Oyedeji & Olayide Akanni (2012). Impact of Three Years Training on Operations Capacities of Research Ethics Committees in Nigeria. Developing World Bioethics 12 (3):1-14.score: 84.0
    This paper describes a three-year project designed to build the capacity of members of research ethics committes to perform their roles and responsibilities efficiently and effectively. The project participants were made up of a cross-section of the membership of 13 Research Ethics Committees (RECs) functioning in Nigeria. They received training to develop their capacity to evaluate research protocols, monitor trial implementation, provide constructive input to trial staff, and assess the trial's success in promoting community engagement (...)
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  50. E. Cave & C. Nichols (2007). Clinical Audit and Reform of the UK Research Ethics Review System. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):181-203.score: 84.0
    There is an international consensus that medical research involving humans should only be undertaken in accordance with ethical principles. Paradoxically though, there is no consensus over the kinds of activities that constitute research and should be subject to review. In the UK and elsewhere, research requiring review is distinguished from clinical audit. Unfortunately the two activities are not always easy to differentiate from one another. Moreover, as the volume of audit increases and becomes more formal in response (...)
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