Search results for 'Embryo Research ethics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Thomas F. Banchoff (2011). Embryo Politics: Ethics and Policy in Atlantic Democracies. Cornell University Press.score: 393.0
    The emergence of ethical controversy -- First embryo research regimes -- The ethics of embryonic stem cell research -- Stem cell and cloning politics.
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  2. Fuat S. Oduncu (2003). Stem Cell Research in Germany: Ethics of Healing Vs. Human Dignity. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (1):5-16.score: 351.0
    On 25 April 2002, the German Parliament has passed a strict new law referring to stem cell research. This law took effect on July 1, 2002. The so-called embryonic Stem Cell Act ( Stammzellgesetz — StZG ) permits the import of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from surplus IvF-embryos for research reasons. The production itself of ES cells from human blastocysts has been prohibited by the German Embryo Protection Act of 1990, with the exception of the use (...)
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  3. John F. Kilner (2009). An Inclusive Ethics for the Twenty-First Century: Implications for Stem Cell Research. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (4):683-722.score: 342.0
    An important contribution of Christian ethics in the pluralistic world of the twenty-first century is to emphasize inclusivity. Rather than promoting the interests of certain groups at the expense of the most vulnerable, society does well to prioritize ways forward that benefit all. For stem cell research, inclusivity entails benefiting or at least protecting the beneficiaries of treatment, the sources of materials, and the subjects of research. Adult stem cells are already benefiting many ill patients without causing (...)
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  4. Erica Haimes & Ken Taylor (2011). The Contributions of Empirical Evidence to Socio-Ethical Debates on Fresh Embryo Donation for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Bioethics 25 (6):334-341.score: 318.0
    This article is a response to McLeod and Baylis (2007) who speculate on the dangers of requesting fresh ‘spare’ embryos from IVF patients for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, particularly when those embryos are good enough to be transferred back to the woman. They argue that these embryos should be frozen instead. We explore what is meant by ‘spare’ embryos. We then provide empirical evidence, from a study of embryo donation and of embryo donors' views, to (...)
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  5. Marcel J. H. Kenter (2009). Regulating Human Participants Protection in Medical Research and the Accreditation of Medical Research Ethics Committees in the Netherlands. Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):33-43.score: 294.0
    The review system on research with human participants in the Netherlands is characterised as a decentralised controlled and integrated peer review system. It consists of an independent governmental body, the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (or Central Committee), which regulates the review of research proposals by accredited Medical Research Ethics Committees (MRECs). The legal basis was founded in 1999 with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. The review system is a decentralised (...)
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  6. Peter Singer, The Revolutionary Ethics of Embryo Research.score: 279.0
    What appeared to be the most momentous scientific advance of 2005 is currently under siege. In June, the prestigious journal Science published an article by the South Korean scientist Woo-Suk Hwang and an international team of co-authors describing how they had developed what were, in effect, “made to order†lines of human stem cells cloned from an adult. Although the scientific validity of their research is now the subject of several separate investigations, it is no less important to examine (...)
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  7. Robert P. George (2004). Human Cloning and Embryo Research: The 2003 John J. Conley Lecture on Medical Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (1):3-20.score: 270.0
    The author, a member of the U.S.President's Council on Bioethics, discussesethical issues raised by human cloning, whetherfor purposes of bringing babies to birth or forresearch purposes. He first argues that everycloned human embryo is a new, distinct, andenduring organism, belonging to the speciesHomo sapiens, and directing its owndevelopment toward maturity. He then distinguishesbetween two types of capacities belonging toindividual organisms belonging to this species,an immediately exerciseable capacity and abasic natural capacity that develops over time. He argues that it is (...)
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  8. Sarah Chan & John Harris (2009). Consequentialism Without Consequences: Ethics and Embryo Research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (01):61-.score: 270.0
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  9. Peter Singer & Helga Kuhse (1986). Debate: Embryo Research The Ethics of Embryo Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):133-138.score: 270.0
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  10. George J. Annas (1986). The Ethics of Embryo Research: Not as Easy as It Sounds. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):138-140.score: 270.0
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  11. Norman Ford (2002). Embryo Research, Cloning and Ethics. Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 8 (1):4.score: 270.0
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  12. Ronald M. Green (1995). The Human Embryo Research Panel: Lessons for Public Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (04):502-.score: 270.0
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  13. Commission European (1999). European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies; Human Tissue Banks; Human Embryo Research. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 5 (1):1.score: 270.0
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  14. Louis M. Guenin (2008). The Morality of Embryo Use. Cambridge University Press.score: 243.0
    Is it permissible to use a human embryo in stem cell research, or in general as a means for benefit of others? Acknowledging each embryo as an object of moral concern, Louis M.Guenin argues that it is morally permissible to decline intrauterine transfer of an embryo formed outside the body, and that from this permission and the duty of beneficence, there follows a consensus justification for using donated embryos in service of humanitarian ends. He then proceeds (...)
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  15. John Harris, Lisa Bortolotti & Louise Irving (2005). An Ethical Framework for Stem Cell Research in the European Union. Health Care Analysis 13 (3):157-162.score: 228.0
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  16. Ronald M. Green (2010). Political Interventions in U.S. Human Embryo Research: An Ethical Assessment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):220-228.score: 222.0
    For more than 30 years, beginning with the Reagan administration's refusal to support and provide oversight for embryo research, and continuing to the present in congressionally imposed limits on funding for such research, progress in infertility medicine and the development of stem cell therapies has been seriously delayed by a series of political interventions. In almost all cases, these interventions result from a view of the moral status of human embryo premised largely on religious assumptions. Although (...)
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  17. Elizabeth Harman (2007). How is the Ethics of Stem Cell Research Different From the Ethics of Abortion? Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):207–225.score: 216.0
    It seems that if abortion is permissible, then stem cell research must be as well: it involves the death of a less significant thing (an embryo rather than a fetus) for a greater good (lives saved rather than nine months of physical imposition avoided). However, I argue in this essay that this natural thought is mistaken. In particular, on the assumption that embryos and fetuses have the full moral status of persons, abortion is permissible but one form of (...)
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  18. Fredrik Svenaeus (2007). A Heideggerian Defense of Therapeutic Cloning. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (1):31-62.score: 215.0
    Debates about the legitimacy of embryonic stem-cell research have largely focused on the type of ethical value that should be accorded to the human embryo in␣vitro. In this paper, I try to show that, to broaden the scope of these debates, one needs to articulate an ontology that does not limit itself to biological accounts, but that instead focuses on the embryo’s place in a totality of relevance surrounding and guiding a human practice. Instead of attempting to (...)
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  19. Zubin Master & G. K. D. Crozier (2012). The Ethics of Moral Compromise for Stem Cell Research Policy. Health Care Analysis 20 (1):50-65.score: 213.0
    In the US, stem cell research is at a moral impasse—many see this research as ethically mandated due to its potential for ameliorating major diseases, while others see this research as ethically impermissible because it typically involves the destruction of embryos and use of ova from women. Because their creation does not require embryos or ova, induced pluripotent stem cells offer the most promising path for addressing the main ethical objections to stem cell research; however, this (...)
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  20. Hans-Martin Sass (1987). Moral Dilemmas in Perinatal Medicine and the Quest for Large Scale Embryo Research: A Discussion of Recent Guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (3):279-290.score: 213.0
    This paper reports on recent regulations and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany bearing on perinatal medical ethics, embryo research and trophoblast biopsy. Some of the regulations are defensive responses to new moral opportunities. In contrast, this paper calls for a more aggressive moral cost-benefit assessment of high technology medicine, which would include large-scale research on embryos prior to the fiftieth day post-menstruation. Keywords: abortion, embryo research, moral triage, prenatal diagnosis, withholding treatment CiteULike (...)
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  21. Kathryn Ehrich, Clare Williams & Bobbie Farsides (2010). Consenting Futures: Professional Views on Social, Clinical and Ethical Aspects of Information Feedback to Embryo Donors in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Clinical Ethics 5 (2):77-85.score: 213.0
    This paper reports from an ongoing multidisciplinary, ethnographic study that is exploring the views, values and practices (the ethical frameworks) drawn on by professional staff in assisted conception units and stem cell laboratories in relation to embryo donation for research purposes, particularly human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, in the UK. We focus here on the connection between possible incidental findings and the circumstances in which embryos are donated for hESC research, and report some of the (...)
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  22. M. M. Lebech (1998). Comment on a Proposed Draft Protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine Relating to Research on the Human Embryo and Fetus. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (5):345-347.score: 198.0
    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocol destined to fill in a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in (...)
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  23. Giovanni Maio (2004). The Embryo in Relationships: A French Debate on Stem Cell Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (5):583 – 602.score: 195.0
    While many European countries are entering unknown legal terrain where the embryo in vitro is concerned, France can already look back on a long tradition of public discussion and legal codification of ways of dealing with in vitro embryos. In its comprehensive law of 1994, France had still rejected embryo research; however, due to the promising perspectives of stem cell research, the new law now pending implies a clear liberalization of the 1994 provisions. Both the French (...)
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  24. G. Khushf (1997). Embryo Research: The Ethical Geography of the Debate. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (5):495-519.score: 190.7
    Three basic political positions on embryo research will be identified as libertarian, conservative, and social-democratic. The Human Embryo Research Panel will be regarded as an expression of the social-democratic position. A taxonomy of the ethical issues addressed by the Panel will then be developed at the juncture of political and ethical modes of reflection. Among the arguments considered will be those for the separability of the abortion and embryo research debates; arguments against the possibility (...)
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  25. Shelley Tremain (2006). Stemming the Tide of Normalisation: An Expanded Feminist Analysis of the Ethics and Social Impact of Embryonic Stem Cell Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):33-42.score: 189.0
    Feminists have indicated the inadequacies of bioethical debates about human embryonic stem cell research, which have for the most part revolved around concerns about the moral status of the human embryo. Feminists have argued, for instance, that inquiry concerning the ethics and politics of human embryonic stem cell research should consider the relations of social power in which the research is embedded. My argument is that this feminist work on stem cells is itself inadequate, however, (...)
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  26. Jackie Scully, Erica Haimes, Anika Mitzkat, Rouven Porz & Christoph Rehmann-Sutter (2012). Donating Embryos to Stem Cell Research. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):19-28.score: 189.0
    This paper is based on linked qualitative studies of the donation of human embryos to stem cell research carried out in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and China. All three studies used semi-structured interview protocols to allow an in-depth examination of donors’ and non-donors’ rationales for their donation decisions, with the aim of gaining information on contextual and other factors that play a role in donor decisions and identifying how these relate to factors that are more usually included in evaluations (...)
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  27. Laura Palazzani (2012). Embryo Research in Italy: The Bioethical and Biojuridical Debate. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (1):28-39.score: 186.0
    This article deals with the discussion on the status of the human embryo in Italy on a philosophical, socio-ethical and juridical level before, during and after the law (n. 40/2004). Different lines of thought are outlined and critically discussed. The focus is the debate over the so-called embryonic stem cells, pointing out the ethical premises and the juridical implications. The regulations in Italy are analysed in detail, referring to legislation and jurisprudence (showing analogies and differences). In particular the author (...)
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  28. Anna Alichniewicz & Monika Michalowska (forthcoming). “The Angel of the House” in the Realm of ART: Feminist Approach to Oocyte and Spare Embryo Donation for Research. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-7.score: 183.0
    The spectacular progress in assisted reproduction technology that has been witnessed for the past thirty years resulted in emerging new ethical dilemmas as well as the revision of some perennial ones. The paper aims at a feminist approach to oocyte and spare embryo donation for research. First, referring to different concepts of autonomy and informed consent, we discuss whether the decision to donate oocyte/embryo can truly be an autonomous choice of a female patient. Secondly, we argue the (...)
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  29. Françoise Baylis & Matthew Herder (2009). Policy Design for Human Embryo Research in Canada: A History (Part 1 of 2). [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (1):109-122.score: 177.7
    This article is the first in a two-part review of policy design for human embryo research in Canada. In this article we explain how this area of research is circumscribed by law promulgated by the federal Parliament (the Assisted Human Reproduction Act ) and by guidelines issued by the Tri-Agencies (the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans and Updated Guidelines for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research ). In so doing, we provide the (...)
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  30. Hossam E. Fadel (2012). Developments in Stem Cell Research and Therapeutic Cloning: Islamic Ethical Positions, a Review. Bioethics 26 (3):128-135.score: 177.0
    Stem cell research is very promising. The use of human embryos has been confronted with objections based on ethical and religious positions. The recent production of reprogrammed adult (induced pluripotent) cells does not – in the opinion of scientists – reduce the need to continue human embryonic stem cell research. So the debate continues.Islam always encouraged scientific research, particularly research directed toward finding cures for human disease. Based on the expectation of potential benefits, Islamic teachings permit (...)
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  31. David Shaw (2006). Genetic Morality. Peter Lang.score: 177.0
    This book will attempt to show that these and other problems are ultimately resolvable, given careful and unbiased application of established ethical principles ...
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  32. K. Devolder (2013). Embryo Deaths in Reproduction and Embryo Research: A Reply to Murphy's Double Effect Argument. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):533-536.score: 177.0
    The majority of embryos created in natural reproduction die spontaneously within a few weeks of conception. Some have argued that, therefore, if one believes the embryo is a person (in the normative sense) one should find ‘natural’ reproduction morally problematic. An extension of this argument holds that, if one accepts embryo deaths in natural reproduction, consistency requires that one also accepts embryo deaths that occur in (i) assisted reproduction via in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and (ii) embryo (...)
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  33. Pauline Gately (2012). The Commons Science and Technology Committee Inquiry Into Hybrid Embryo Research 2007: Credible, Reliable and Objective? Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (1):84-109.score: 177.0
    In 2006 the Government issued a White Paper in which it proposed a ban on human-animal embryo research pending greater clarity on its potential. The Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology initiated an Inquiry and concluded that such research was necessary and should be permitted immediately. The Government agreed and this is reflected in revised legislation. The Government has issued guidelines on the gathering and use of scientific advice and evidence, designed to ensure that these are (...)
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  34. Kevin McGovern (2011). Australia's Cloning and Embryo Research Laws. Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 16 (4):1.score: 177.0
    McGovern, Kevin This article explores the report of the 2010 independent review committee into Australia's cloning and embryo research laws. Its author, the Director of the Centre, was one of the five members of this committee.
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  35. William Binchy (2012). Courts, Legislators and Human Embryo Research: Lessons From Ireland. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (1):7-27.score: 177.0
    When it comes to the matter of human embryo research law plays a crucial role in its development by helping to set the boundaries of what may be done, the sanctions for acting outside those boundaries and the rights and responsibilities of key parties. Nevertheless, the philosophical challenges raised by human embryo research, even with the best will of all concerned, may prove too great for satisfactory resolution through the legal process. Taking as its focus the (...)
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  36. John A. Robertson (1999). Ethics and Policy in Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (2):109-136.score: 174.0
    : Embryonic stem cells, which have the potential to save many lives, must be recovered from aborted fetuses or live embryos. Although tissue from aborted fetuses can be used without moral complicity in the underlying abortion, obtaining stem cells from embryos necessarily kills them, thus raising difficult questions about the use of embryonic human material to save others. This article draws on previous controversies over embryo research and distinctions between intrinsic and symbolic moral status to analyze these issues. (...)
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  37. Sami Alsmadi (2008). Marketing Research Ethics: Researcher's Obligations Toward Human Subjects. Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):153-160.score: 174.0
    This paper addresses the growing concern over violation of research ethics in marketing, in particular rights of human subjects in fieldwork, notably the right to informed consent; right to privacy and confidentiality; and right not to be deceived or harmed as a result of participation in a research. The paper highlights the interaction of the three main parties involved in most marketing research: the sponsoring organization (client or user), researcher, and participant in the survey, focusing on (...)
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  38. Dan McArthur (2009). Good Ethics Can Sometimes Mean Better Science: Research Ethics and the Milgram Experiments. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):69-79.score: 174.0
    All agree that if the Milgram experiments were proposed today they would never receive approval from a research ethics board. However, the results of the Milgram experiments are widely cited across a broad range of academic literature from psychology to moral philosophy. While interpretations of the experiments vary, few commentators, especially philosophers, have expressed doubts about the basic soundness of the results. What I argue in this paper is that this general approach to the experiments might be in (...)
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  39. Gary Allen (2008). Getting Beyond Form Filling: The Role of Institutional Governance in Human Research Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):105-116.score: 174.0
    It has become almost a truism to describe the interaction between research ethics committees and researchers as being marred by distrust and conflict. The ethical conduct of researchers is increasingly a matter of institutional concern because of the degree to which non-compliance with national standards can expose the entire institution to risk. This has transformed research ethics into what some have described as a research ethics industry. In an operational sense, there is considerable focus (...)
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  40. K. G. Davey (2009). Reflections on My Experience in Human Research Ethics. Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):27-31.score: 174.0
    This paper was delivered at the 2009 annual conference of the National Council on Ethics in Human Research. It is a reflective piece based on many years of experience with human research ethics and the role of Research Ethics Boards in human participant research.
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  41. Kenneth D. Pimple (2002). Six Domains of Research Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2):191-205.score: 174.0
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple yet comprehensive organizing scheme for the responsible conduct of research (RCR). The heuristic offered here should prove helpful in research ethics education, where the many and heterogeneous elements of RCR can be bewildering, as well as research into research integrity and efforts to form RCR policy and regulations. The six domains are scientific integrity, collegiality, protection of human subjects, animal welfare, institutional integrity, and social responsibility.
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  42. Dominique Rivière (2011). Looking From the Outside/In: Re-Thinking Research Ethics Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (3):193-204.score: 174.0
    This paper shares my reflections on the research ethics review process, from the point of view of both a qualitative researcher and a member of an institutional research ethics review board. By considering research ethics review, first as practice, then as policy, as a relationship and, finally, as a performance, I attempt to outline a new vision of research ethics, one that engages seriously with the relationship between receiving ethics approval, and (...)
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  43. Olubunmi A. Ogunrin, Temidayo O. Ogundiran & Clement Adebamowo (2013). Development and Pilot Testing of an Online Module for Ethics Education Based on the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):1-.score: 174.0
    Background: The formulation and implementation of national ethical regulations to protect research participants is fundamental to ethical conduct of research. Ethics education and capacity are inadequate in developing African countries. This study was designed to develop a module for online training in research ethics based on the Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics and assess its ease of use and reliability among biomedical researchers in Nigeria.MethodologyThis was a three-phased evaluation study. Phase one (...)
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  44. Bruce Macfarlane & Yoshiko Saitoh (2008). Research Ethics in Japanese Higher Education: Faculty Attitudes and Cultural Mediation. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (3):181-195.score: 174.0
    Principles of research ethics, derived largely from Western philosophical thought, are spreading across the world of higher education. Since 2006 the Japanese Ministry of Education has required universities in Japan to establish codes of ethical conduct and ensure that procedures are in place to punish research misconduct. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 13 academics in a research-intensive university in Japan, this paper considers how research ethics is interpreted in relation to their own practice. Interviewees (...)
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  45. Katinka de Wet (2010). The Importance of Ethical Appraisal in Social Science Research: Reviewing a Faculty of Humanities' Research Ethics Committee. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (4):301-314.score: 174.0
    Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are rapidly becoming indispensable mechanisms in the overall workings of university institutions. In fact, the ethical dimension is an important aspect of research governance processes present in institutions of higher learning. However, it is often deemed that research in the social sciences do not require ethical appraisal or clearance, because of the alleged absence of harm in conducting such research. This is an erroneous and dangerous assumption (...)
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  46. Kryste Ferguson, Sandra Masur, Lynne Olson, Julio Ramirez, Elisa Robyn & Karen Schmaling (2007). Enhancing the Culture of Research Ethics on University Campuses. Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):189-198.score: 174.0
    Institutions create their own internal cultures, including the culture of ethics that pervades scientific research, academic policy, and administrative philosophy. This paper addresses some of the issues involved in institutional enhancement of its culture of research ethics, focused on individual empowerment and strategies that individuals can use to initiate institutional change.
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  47. Susan A. Tilley (2008). A Troubled Dance: Doing the Work of Research Ethics Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):91-104.score: 174.0
    The fast growing interest in the work of university ethics review boards is evident in the proliferation of research and literature in the area. This article focuses on a Research Ethics Board (REB) in the Canadian context. In-depth, open-ended interviews with REB members and findings from a qualitative study designed to examine the ethics review of school-based research are used to illustrate points raised in the paper. The author’s experiences as academic researcher, advisor to (...)
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  48. Arri Eisen & Kathy P. Parker (2004). A Model for Teaching Research Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):693-704.score: 174.0
    A model is described for implementing a program in research ethics education in the face of federal and institutional mandates and current resource, disciplinary, and infrastructure limitations. Also discussed are the historical background, content and evaluation process of the workshop at the heart of the program, which reaches a diverse group of over 250 students per year—from first-year graduate students in basic research labs to clinical fellows. The workshop addresses central issues in both everyday laboratory ethics (...)
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  49. Michelle Cunningham (2010). Research Ethics in a Business School Context: The Establishment of a Review Committee and the Primary Issues of Concern. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (1):43-66.score: 174.0
    This paper describes the establishment of and the issues experienced by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) of a Business School within a University in Ireland. It identifies the issue of voluntarily given informed consent as a key challenge for RECs operating in a Business School context. The paper argues that whilst the typology of ethical issues in business research are similar to the wider social sciences, the fact that much research is carried out in the workplace (...)
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  50. Jongyoung Kim & Kibeom Park (2013). Ethical Modernization: Research Misconduct and Research Ethics Reforms in Korea Following the Hwang Affair. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):355-380.score: 174.0
    The Hwang affair, a dramatic and far reaching instance of scientific fraud, shocked the world. This collective national failure prompted various organizations in Korea, including universities, regulatory agencies, and research associations, to engage in self-criticism and research ethics reforms. This paper aims, first, to document and review research misconduct perpetrated by Hwang and members of his research team, with particular attention to the agencies that failed to regulate and then supervise Hwang’s research. The paper (...)
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